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Table 3 Ecosystem benefits reported for agroforestry systems from tropical, temperate and arid zones

From: TEK and biodiversity management in agroforestry systems of different socio-ecological contexts of the Tehuacán Valley

Reference Environment Region SAF Ecosystem benefits
DeClerck et al. (2010) [33] Tropical Mesoamerica General review Biological corridors enhance secondary succession, favour pollination, biological control of pests, maintenance of microclimates, favour restoration.
Tscharntke et al. (2011) [5] Tropical Tropical areas of the World Cocoa and coffee plantations Provide biomass for construction, fuel and food (fruit). Favour soil fertility stimulating decomposition of leaf litter, the nutrient cycles and erosion control. Increasing carbon sequestration and reduction of GEG emitions, contributing to mitigation of effects of climate change. Improve functional biodiversity.
Bhagwat et al. (2008) [27] Tropical Tropical areas of the World General review Refuge of species out of protected areas, maintain heterogeneity of habitat and landscape, reduce anthropogenic pressure on wild areas, may be buffer or corridor areas among conserved zones.
Steffan-Dewenter et al. (2007) [68] Tropical Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Cocoa plantations Reduce soil temperature, increase humidity and decomposition rate and maintain soil fertility.
Jose et al. (2004) [79] Temperate General review General review Biological control through ecological interactions among species, nitrogen fixation due to presence of legume species.
Quinkenstein et al. (2009) [76] Temperate Europa General review Improve microclimates and thus the stability of productivity of crops. Efficient use of hydric resources and nutrients, sustainable use with low input of fertilizers, pesticides and hand labour. Increase structural heterogeneity of landscape. Promotion of biodiversity, favoring landscape connection. Carbon capture in soil.
Vallejo et al. (2014) [49] Temperate Tehuacán Valle, México Maize fields Provide shade, protect against strong winds, and provide fruit. Fuel wood and fodder.
Shankarnarayan, K. A., Harsh, L. N., & Kathju Arid India Prosopis AFS Stabilize dunes, maintain trees adapted to thin soils, reduce effects of strong wind, reduce evapotranspiration, multipurpose trees (fruit, fuel, fodder, etc.).
Moreno-Calles et al. (2010) [15] Arid Tehuacán Valley, México Maize fields Provide shade, fodder and fruit
Altieri and Toledo (2005) [22] Arid México General review Conservation of soil and water, reduce evapotranspiration, maintain soil fertility and useful species.