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Table 4 General advantages and problems of agroforestry systems of tropical, temperate and arid zones

From: TEK and biodiversity management in agroforestry systems of different socio-ecological contexts of the Tehuacán Valley

Ecological zone Uses Main agroforestry practices Ecosystem benefits Problems
Tropical •  Shade crops (coffee. cocoa) Fringes Soil protection Intensification
• Fruit production Living fences Shade  
• Timber products Isolated trees Soil fertility Loss of TEK
• Pest control   High biodiversity Pesticides, deforestation
Temperate • Windbreaker Windbreaker barriers Microclimate conditions Intensification
• Snowing damage Living fences Buffering winds No replacement of trees
• Fruit production Fringes, isolated trees Soil protection Fruit commercialization
• Timber products Vegetation patches Reduction of damages by frosts Loss of TEK
• Control of pests Vegetation patches Biodiversity Industrialization
Arid • Resistance to dryness Windbreaker barriers Water management Specificity of native species
• Retention of humidity and soil Isolated trees Soil protection Abundance of rare species
• Timber and non-timber Vegetation patches Shade Intensification
• Medicinal Living fences, fringes Biodiversity I