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Table 4 Plants and generic terms mentioned as maintaining and improving the health of animals in Eastern Tyrol (n = 144)

From: Local knowledge held by farmers in Eastern Tyrol (Austria) about the use of plants to maintain and improve animal health and welfare

Category Local name FL1 + FL2 FL3 HI Fo/Fe Animal Application Other
Plants
 Abies alba Mill. Tanne 1 0 x a/c/d var Ap; Dig; Goo; Is; Per; Rest; Em
 Achillea millefolium L. Schafgarbe 3 12/22 x b/c/d go, var Ba; Dig; Is; Rep2; Sed; Ra
 Alchemilla spp. Frauenmantel 1 2/4 x a/d var, ca Dig; Goo; Is; Rep1; Ra
 Allium cepa L. Zwiebel 0 6/20 x d ca, sh Rep2; -
 Allium sativum L. Knoblauch 0 2/8 x c/d ca Ap; Rep1; -
 Alnus alnobetula (Ehrh.) K.Koch Lutterstaude 0 0 x b var Ba; -
 Althaea officinalis L. Eibisch 0 3/5 x d ca, var Is; Rep2; Ra
 Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. Wiesenkerbel, Rosskümmel 3 0 - a/b ca Ba; Goo; -
 Armoracia rusticana P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. Kren 1 0 x - var - Ra
 Arnica montana L. Arnika 2 11/58 x c/d var, ca Is; Rep2; Hr, Ra
 Artemisia absinthium L. Wermut 0 24/39 x c/d ca Dig; Is; Sed; Ra
 Avena sativa L. Hafer, Hobo 15 6/15 x c/d ca, sh, ho Goo; Per; Rep1; Rep2; Sed; Sk; -
 Beta vulgaris L. Futterrübe, Runkel 8 0 x a ca, pi Goo -
 Betula spp. Birke 0 1/2 x d var Is; -
 Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. Kobis, Weißkraut 2 1/6 x a/d pi, ca Goo; Is; Rep1; Rep2; -
 Brassica rapa var. rapa L. Rübe, Herbstrübe 2 0/15 x a/c/d ca, pi Goo; Is; Per; Ur; -
 Calendula officinalis L. Ringelblume, Ringelrose 0 1/30 x d ca, var Dig; Is Ra
 Cannabis sativa L. Hanf 0 1/1 x d ca Rep2; -
 Carlina acaulis L. Silberdistel 0 0 x a ca, pi Goo; -
 Carum carvi L. Kümmel, Kümmelstaude 0 2/6 x d ca Rep2; -
 Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. Goasstraube, Isländisch Moos 22 13/44 x c/d ca, sh, ho, pi Is; Per; Rest; Rep1; Sk; -
 Cirsium spinosissimum (L.) Scop. Einhacken 1 0 x c ca, pi Per; -
 Coriandrum sativum L. Koriander 1 0 - d ca Dig; -
 Corylus avellana L. Hasel 0 0 x a var Goo; -
 Cucurbita spp. Focknkürbis 0 0 x a pi Goo; -
 Elymus repens (L.) Gould Queckenwurzn 0 0 x a ca, sh Fs; -
 Epilobium spp. Weidenröschen 0 0 x - var - Ra
 Equisetum arvense L. Zinnkraut 1 0 - a var Goo; -
 Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Buchweizen 0 1/1 - d ho Rep1; -
 Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fenchel 1 2/6 x d ca Dig; Rep2; -
 Fraxinus excelsior L. Esche 2 0 x a/c ca, sh Goo; Em
 Geranium spp. Storchenschnabel 0 4/4 x d ca Rep1; -
 Helianthus annuus L. Sonnenblume 0 0 x c/d var Sed; -
 Heracleum sphondylium L. Bärenklau, Bärentatze 0 0 x a/b ca Ba; Goo; -
 Hordeum vulgare L. Gerste 16 5/16 x c/d ca, sh, ho Per; Rep1; Rep2; Hr
 Hypericum perforatum L. Johanniskraut 1 2/12 x d var, ca Is; Rep2; Hr, Ra
 Juglans regia L. Walnuß 1 0/2 x - var - Em
 Juniperus communis L. Kranewitten, Wacholder 6 5/14 x a/c/d ca Dig; Goo; Is; Per; Sed; Em
 Lamium spp. Taubnessel 1 0 - a chi Goo; -
 Larix decidua Mill. Lärche 1 0/40 x a var Goo; Em
 Ligusticum mutellina (L.) Crantz Madaun, Goblitz, Mutterwurz 0 0 x a var Goo; -
 Linum usitatissimum L. Leinsamen, Hoorsomen, Linsat 34 22/49 x c/d ca, sh, ho Dig; Per; Rep2; Sk; Sed; Hr
 Malva neglecta Wallr. Kaspappel 0 0/9 x c/d ca Dig; -
 Matricaria chamomilla L. Kamille 1 27/100 x c/d var, ca, chi Is; Rep1; Rep2; Sed; Hr, Ra
 Medicago sp. Luzerne 1 0 - a var Goo; -
 Melissa officinalis L. Melisse 1 0 - - var - Em
 Mentha spp. Minze 2 0/1 x d var Is; Sed; Em, Ra
 Papaver somniferum L. Mohn, Mogn 0 1/4 x d ca Rest; -
 Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) W.D.J. Koch Meisterwurz 0 3/5 x d var Is; Ra
 Picea abies (L.) H.Karst. Fichte 19 4/26 x a/c/d ca, sh, go Ap; Dig; Goo; Is; Per; Rest; Em
 Pimpinella anisum L. Anis 1 1/3 - d ca Dig; -
 Pimpinella saxifraga L. Bockwurz, Bibernelle 0 0 x c chi Is; -
 Pisum sativum L. Erbse 1 0 - a ca Goo; -
 Plantago lanceolata L. Spitzwegerich 1 0 - a var Goo; -
 Prunus avium L. Kirsche 0 0 x a var Goo; -
 Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Adlerfarn 0 1/1 x d sh Ap; Em
 Quercus spp. Eiche 0 0 x a var Goo; -
 Ranunculus spp. Hahnfuß 1 0 - b var Ba; -
 Rhinanthus spp. Klopf 1 0 - b var Ba; -
 Rhododendron spp. Almrose 0 0 x b var Ba; -
 Rosa spp. Rose 0 1/1 - d ca Rep2; -
 Rubus idaeus L. Himbeere 0 0/1 x a var Goo; Ra
 Rumex spp. Saupletschn, Focknpletschn, Sauer-Ampfer 8 0/1 x a/b/c/d ca, pi, ho, chi Ba; Goo; Is; Per; Rep2; -
 Salix spp. Palmbuschn 2 2/2 x - var - Hr, Ra
 Salvia officinalis L. Salbei 0 0/3 x - var - Ra
 Sambucus nigra L. Schwarzer Holler 3 2/16 x c ca, pi Is; Em, Hr
 Secale cereale L. Roggen 7 12/18 x b/c/d ca, pi Ba; Rep1; Rep2; -
 Solanum tuberosum L. Erdäpfel, Kartoffel 5 0/2 x a/d chi, ca, sh Fs; Goo; Rep2; -
 Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Hühnerdarm, Hiagepanze 0 0 x a pi, chi Goo; -
 Symphytum officinale L. Beinwell 1 0/2 - a chi Goo; -
 Thymus spp. Quendel 1 1/3 x c/d ca, Pi Ap; Is; Per; Hr
 Trifolium spp. Kleegras 2 0 - a ca Goo; -
 Triticum aestivum L. Weizen 14 2/8 x c/d ca Dig; Rep2; Rest; -
 Urtica dioica L. Brennessel 13 1/5 x a/c/d ca, pi, chi Dig; Goo; Is; Per; Rest; Sk; -
 Usnea spp. Baumbart, Rock 0 0 x a var Fs; -
 Vaccinium myrtillus L. Schwarzbeere, Heidelbeere 0 0/8 x - var - Ra
 Verbascum spp. Himmelsbrand 0 0 x - ar - Ra
 Vicia faba L. Scholleboan, Bühn 5 0 x a var Fs; -
 Vicia sativa L. Futterwicke 1 0 - a ca Goo; -
 x Triticosecale Wittm. Triticale 0 1/1 - d sh Rep1; -
 Zea mays ssp. mays L. Türgn, Mais 2 0/1 x a chi Goo; -
Processed commercial products
 Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (black tea) Schwarztee 0 4/41 x d ca Is; Rest; -
 Coffea arabica L. (coffee) Kaffee 1 17/29 x d ca Rest; Rep2; -
 Echinacea spp. (homöopathic medicine) Echinacea 1 0 - - ca - Hr
 Malus domestica Borkh. (apple cider vinegar) Apfelessig 4 5/10 x c/d ca, pi, var Is; Rep1; Ca, Em
 Mentha spp. (peppermint oil) Minzöl 1 0 - - ca - Ca
 Vitis vinifera L. (red and white wine) Wein 1 4/6 x d ca, go Rep1; Rep2; Rest; -
Generic terms
 “Alpine fodder” Almgras, Almfutter 7 0 x a var Goo; -
 After-grass Gruimat 6 0 x c var Rep2; Is; Ra
 Ash Asche 0 1/1 x d pi Rep1; -
 Beer Bier 0 4/4 - d ca Rest; Rep2; -
 Bread Brot 0 0 x d ca, var Rest Hum, Ra
 Concentrated feeding stuff Leck, Kraftfutter 9 0 x a/c var Goo; -
 Grass Gras 4 1/4 - a/c/d ca, chi Goo; Rep1; -
 Grist Schrot 1 0 x a ca Goo; -
 Hard liquor Schnaps 0 39/84 x d ca Rest; Rep2; Sed; Hr
 Hay Heu 10 0/7 x a var Dig; Goo; Is Ra
 Hay from marshy/mossy meadow Sauerheu 3 0 - a ho Goo; -
 Hay-blossoms Bliuma, Mürach 35 3/10 x a/c/d pi, ca, chi, var Goo; Is; Per; Rest; Rep2 Em, Hr, Ra
 Herbs Kräuter 14 0/1 x a ca, pi, var Goo; Is; Ra
 Marc Trester 1 0 - a ca Goo; -
 Moss Moos 0 1/1 x - pi - Em
 Mountain meadow hay Bergheu, Wiesenheu, Almheu 27 0/6 x a/c/d var Dig; Goo; -
 Roughage Raufutter 2 0 - a var Goo; -
 Sawdust Sägemehl 2 0 - - var - Em
 Silage Gärfutter 2 0 - a var Goo; -
 Straw Stroh 9 0 x a/c var Fs; Rep2; Em, Hr
 Sugar Zucker 0 3/6 x d ca Rep2; -
 Thistles Disteln 5 0 x c ca, pi Per; -
  1. Legend
  2. FL1 and FL2: Plants mentioned in Free List 1 and Free List 2. Figures are frequency of mention
  3. FL3: Plants mentioned in Free List 3. First figure gives frequency of mention for preventive purposes. Second figure gives total frequency of all mentions of this plant being for preventive but also curative use. e.g. 22/49: Linum usitatissimum mentioned 49 times in total, 22 of these mentions were related to preventive use
  4. HI: Plants mentioned in interviews (n = 144, including 5 key informants) on history of fodder and feeding (x = plants mentioned)
  5. Fo/Fe: Plants mentioned in the category fodder/feeding: (a) good fodder; (b) bad fodder; (c) functional fodder; (d) fodder medicine
  6. Animal (mentioned in the category fodder/feeding): chi = chicken; ca = cattle; go = goat; ho = horse; pi = pig; sh = sheep
  7. Application: Lists only applications for preventive use for fodder/feeding, according to the information of the respondents as exemplified in the citations for possible applications below:
  8. (Ap) Antiparasitics: preventive of intestinal parasites
  9. (Ba) Bad quality in a general alimentary way: lowers quality of hay if too much represented in grassland, not to feed to swine to prevent swine erysipelas; weed
  10. (Dig) Digestion: enhances and improves digestion, increases appetite, prevents diarrhoea, prevents disorders in digestion, avoids disorders in digestion by conversion of feeding especially for young stock, healthy digestive tract (especially after deworming) good for digestion while also calming, avoids metabolic disorders during conversion of feeding especially for young stock, stimulates digestion
  11. (Fs) Fodder used in times of scarcity of fodder
  12. (Goo) Good quality in a general alimentary way, variation in diet and eaten with pleasure (when fed fresh), rearing fodder for chicks, good fodder quality (palatable and good nutritive value only if harvested properly), appetising and easily digestible, good fodder quality if fed with caution and not looking too much at performance (negative when used in large quantities), freshly cut grass has good fodder quality if animals are unable to graze on pastures
  13. (Is) Immune system: prevents bovine influenza, improves health and fitness in general, spring therapy for good health and to avoid iron deficiency, prevents swine erysipelas, good for strong immune system, generally blood cleansing, increases the body’s defences, in general tonic, rearing fodder for poultry to prevent diseases
  14. (Per) Performance enhancer: promotes weight gain, growth and development, fattening fodder, increases production of milk, improves milk yield and milk fat, after birth to increase milk production, gives power, nutritious, improves laying performance, gives butter a nice colour
  15. (Rep1) Reproductive 1: avoids milk fever, facilitates delivery, prevents retained placenta, nutritious for pregnant animals (in the final month before delivery), preparation fodder for birth, labour inducer and to induce uterine contractions, refreshment after delivery and to avoid circulatory disorders, helps with quick expulsion of the placenta, expands birth canal, avoids expulsion of uterus
  16. (Rep 2) Reproductive 2: preparation fodder for improved oestrus and avoiding silent oestrus, good for female organs, given before the dams are inseminated (bred) for better acceptance of foetus, stimulates ovulation/oestrus inducer
  17. (Rest) Restorer: restorer after diseases, restorer when animals look ill and have lost weight, restorer for weak animals, restorer after delivery, refreshment for calves after birth
  18. (Sed) Sedative: to avoid irritated animals, to avoid stress after transport or being bought in
  19. (Sk) Skin: improves skin, udder health and hoof quality, improves coat gloss, improves condition of eggshells
  20. (Ur) For better urination
  21. Other categories besides fodder/feeding: (Ca) care of the animals, (Em) environmental management, (Hr) household remedy, external application, in contrast to internal application as fodder medicine, (Hum) Human-animal relationship; (Ra) cultural/religious activities