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Table 1 Inventory of dietary plants used by the Naxi people during drought in Lijiang area, Northwest Yunnan, China (ranked alphabetically by species)

From: Ethnobotanical study of traditional edible plants used by the Naxi people during droughts

Voucher Code Scientific name Chinese Name Habitat Part Used Diet type SI
NE125 Aconitum stapfianum Hand.-Mazz.*** 玉龙乌头 W Root Healthcare food 0.5
NE132 Allium beesianum W. W. Sm. 蓝花韭 W Leaf Vegetable, Seasoning 0.5
NE008 Allium cepa var. proliferum Regel 红葱 G Whole plant Vegetable, Seasoning 0.5
NE133 Allium chrysanthum Regel 野葱 W Whole plant Vegetable, Seasoning 0.5
NE007 Allium fistulosum L. G Whole plant Vegetable, Seasoning 0.5
NE027 Allium hookeri Thwaites 宽叶韭 W Leaf Vegetable, Seasoning 0.5
NE010 Allium sativum L. G Bulb Seasoning, Healthcare food 0.5
NE023 Allium tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng G Leaf, Root Vegetable, Seasoning 0.5
NE139 Amygdalus persica L. V Fruit Fruit 0.5
NE102 Aralia chinensis L. 楤木 W Tender stem and leaf Vegetable 2
NE061 Arceuthobium pini Hawksworth et Wiens 高山松寄生 W Leaf Drink, Healthcare food 0.1
NE005 Arctium lappa L. 牛蒡 W Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 1
NE018 Aruncus sylvester Kostel. 假升麻 W Tender stem and leaf Vegetable 2
NE078 Athyrium kuratae Serizawa 仓田蹄盖蕨 W Tender stem and leaf, Root Vegetable, Substitute grain, Wine-plant 5
NE062 Auricularia auricula (L. ex Hook.) Underw 黑木耳 W Whole plant Vegetable, Healthcare food 0.5
NE068 Avena sativa L. 燕麦 F Seed Grain 5
NE076 Berberis liophylla Schneid. 滑叶小檗 W Flower Vegetable 0.1
NE082 Berberis pruinosa Franch. 粉叶小檗 W Flower Vegetable 0.1
NE087 Berberis wilsonae Hemsl. 金花小檗 W Flower Vegetable 0.1
NE142 Berchemia sinica C. K. Schneider 勾儿茶 W Fruit Fruit 0.5
NE054 Brassica chinensis L. 青菜 G Aerial part Vegetable 3
NE071 Brassica chinensis L. cv ‘Dakucai’ 大苦菜 G Aerial part Vegetable 3
NE057 Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. 油芥菜 F Seed Oil 2
NE024 Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. 甘蓝 G Leaf Vegetable 1
NE032 Brassica rapa L. 芜青 F, BF Fleshy root, Leaf, Tender leaf Grain, Fruit, Vegetable 5
NE123 Campylotropis hirtella (Franch.) Schindl. 毛杭子梢 W Leaf Drink 0.1
NE070 Cannabis sativa L. 大麻 BF Seed Oil, Snack 0.5
NE108 Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. W Aerial part Vegetable, Healthcare food 3
NE046 Caragana franchetiana Kom. 云南锦鸡儿 W Flower Vegetable 0.5
NE100 Chaenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai 皱皮木瓜 V Fruit Fruit, Seasoning 1
NE020 Chenopodium album L. W Aerial part Vegetable 3
NE021 Cicer arietinum L. 鹰嘴豆 F Seed Grain, Snack 1
NE112 Cirsium chlorolepis Petrak ex Hand.-Mazz. 两面刺 W Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 1
NE113 Cirsium eriophoroides (Hook. f.) Petrak 贡山蓟 W Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 1
NE092 Cirsium griseum Levl. 灰蓟 W Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 1
NE093 Cirsium lidjiangense Petrak ex Hand.-Mazz. 丽江蓟 W Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 1
NE037 Codonopsis convolvulacea Kurz. var. pinifolia (Hand. -Mazz.) Nannf. 松叶鸡蛋参 W Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 0.5
NE052 Coriandrum sativum L. 芫荽 G Whole plant Vegetable, Seasoning 0.5
NE084 Cotoneaster franchetii Bois 西南栒子 W Fruit Fruit 0.5
NE090 Cotoneaster microphyllus Lindl. 小叶栒子 W Fruit Fruit 0.5
NE064 Crataegus chungtienensis W. W. Smith 中甸山楂 V Fruit Fruit, Healthcare food 1
NE063 Crataegus scabrifolia (Franch.) Rehd. 云南山楂 V Fruit Fruit, Healthcare food 1
NE004 Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight 牛皮消 W Milky-juice Coagulating agent 0.1
NE034 Dioscorea delavayi Franch. 高山薯蓣 W Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 1
NE035 Dioscorea hemsleyi Prain et Burkill 粘山药 W Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 1
NE045 Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. 牛奶子 W Fruit Fruit 0.5
NE127 Eriophyton wallichii Benth. 绵参 W Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 0.1
NE025 Fagopyrum esculentum Moench 荞麦 F, BF Seed, Tender stem Grain, Vegetable 4
NE026 Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn. 苦荞麦 F, BF Seed, Tender stem Grain, Vegetable 5
NE051 Fargesia communis Yi 马亨箭竹 W Bamboo shoot Vegetable 0.1
NE048 Fargesia melanostachys (Hand.-Mazz.) Yi 黑穗箭竹 W Bamboo shoot Vegetable 0.1
NE050 Fargesia yulongshanensis Yi 玉龙山箭竹 W Bamboo shoot Vegetable 0.1
NE053 Fargesia yunnanensis Hsueh 昆明实心竹 W Bamboo shoot Vegetable 0.1
NE001 Foeniculum vulgare Mill. 茴香 G Aerial part, Seed Vegetable, Seasoning 1
NE095 Fragaria gracilis Lozinsk. 纤细草莓 W Fruit Fruit 1
NE096 Fragaria moupinensis (Franch.) Card. 西南草莓 W Fruit Fruit 1
NE094 Fragaria vesca L. 野草莓 W Fruit Fruit 1
NE011 Galeopsis bifida Boenn. 鼬瓣花 W Seed Oil 1
NE129 Galium elegans Wall. ex Roxb. 小红参 W Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 0.5
NE120 Gentiana cephalantha Franch. ex Hemsl. 头花龙胆 W Aerial part Fermenting agent 0.1
NE116 Gentiana rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl. 滇龙胆草 W Aerial part Fermenting agent 0.1
NE118 Gentiana szechenyii Kanitz 大花龙胆 W Aerial part Fermenting agent 0.1
NE101 Helwingia japonica (Thunb.) Dietr. 青荚叶 W Tender leaf Vegetable 3
NE019 Hemerocallis citrina Baroni 黄花菜 G Flower Vegetable 0.5
NE022 Hippolytia delavayi (Franch. ex、W. W. Smith) Shih 川滇女蒿 W Aerial part Vegetable, Healthcare food 0.5
NE009 Hordeum vulgare L. 大麦 F, BF Seed Grain 3
NE012 Juglans sigillata Dode 泡核桃 V Kernel Nut 0.5
NE006 Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. 川芎 G Aerial part, Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 2
NE141 Lilium duchartrei Franch 宝兴百合 G Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 0.5
NE143 Lilium lancifolium Thunb. 卷丹 G Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 0.5
NE028 Lobaria fuscotomentosa Yoshim. 黑毛肺衣 W Whole plant Substitute grain 5
NE014 Lobaria orientalis (Asahina) Yoshim. 东方网肺衣 W Whole plant Substitute grain 5
NE002 Lobaria yunnanensis Yoshim. 云南网肺衣 W Whole plant Substitute grain 5
NE017 Maianthemum atropurpureum (Franch.) LaFrankie 高大鹿药 W Tender stem and leaf Vegetable 3
NE016 Maianthemum forrestii (W. W. Sm.) LaFrankie 抱茎鹿药 W Tender stem and leaf Vegetable 3
NE015 Maianthemum henryi (Baker) LaFrankie 管花鹿药 W Tender stem and leaf Vegetable 3
NE036 Malus pumila Mill. 苹果 G Fruit Fruit 1
NE091 Malus rockii Rehd. 丽江山荆子 W Fruit Fruit, Healthcare food 1
NE067 Malva verticillata L. 野葵 W Tender stem and leaf Vegetable, Healthcare food 1
NE080 Origanum vulgare L. 牛至 W Aerial part Spice 0.1
NE060 Phaseolus lunatus L. 棉豆 F Seed Vegetable, Grain 2
NE069 Phaseolus vulgaris L. 菜豆 G Legume Vegetable 1
NE114 Pinus armandii Franch. 华山松 W Kernel, Tender leaf, Pollen Nut, Vegetable, Healthcare food 0.1
NE115 Pinus yunnanensis Franch. 云南松 W Kernel, Tender leaf, Pollen Nut, Vegetable, Healthcare food 1
NE105 Pisum sativum L. 豌豆 F Seed, Tender stem and leaf Grain, Vegetable, Snack 2
NE097 Plantago depressa Willd. 平车前 W Aerial part Vegetable, Healthcare food 1
NE099 Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle 卷叶黄精 W Rhizome Healthcare food 0.5
NE103 Prinsepia utilis Royle 扁核木 W Kernel, Tender stem Oil, Vegetable 3
NE077 Pteridium revolutum (Bl.) Nakai 毛轴蕨 W Tender stem and leaf, Root Vegetable, Substitute grain, Wine-plant 5
NE145 Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. latiusculum (Desv.) Underw. ex Heller W Tender stem and leaf, Root Vegetable, Substitute grain, Wine-plant 5
NE135 Pyracantha angustifolia (Franch.) Schneid. 窄叶火棘 W Fruit Fruit 2
NE134 Pyracantha fortuneana (Maxim.) Li 火棘 W Fruit Fruit 2
NE031 Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai 沙梨 G Fruit Fruit 1
NE074 Quercus aquifolioides Rehd. et Wils. 川滇高山栎 W Kernel Grain, Wine-plant 4
NE072 Quercus guyavaefolia H. Leveille 帽斗栎 W Kernel Grain, Wine-plant 4
NE075 Quercus monimotricha Hand.-Mazz. 矮高山栎 W Kernel Grain, Wine-plant 4
NE030 Raphanus sativus L. var. raphanistroides (Makino) Makino 蓝花子 BF Seed Oil 3
NE086 Rhododendron hippophaeoides Balf.f. & W. W. Sm 灰背杜鹃 W Flower Vegetable 0.1
NE085 Rhododendron yunnanense Franch. 云南杜鹃 W Flower Vegetable, Healthcare food 0.1
NE126 Ribes glaciale Wall 冰川茶藨子 W Fruit Fruit 0.5
NE130 Rosa omeiensis Rolfe 峨眉蔷薇 W Tender stem Vegetable 0.1
NE088 Rosa omeiensis Rolfe f. pteracantha Rehd. et Wils. 扁刺峨眉蔷薇 W Tender stem Vegetable 0.1
NE029 Rosa rugosa Thunb. 玫瑰 V Tender stem, Petal Vegetable, Spice 0.1
NE089 Rosa sericea Lindl. 绢毛蔷薇 W Tender stem Vegetable 0.1
NE140 Rosa soulieana Crep. 川滇蔷薇 W Tender stem Vegetable 0.1
NE040 Roscoea cautleoides Gagnep. 滇象牙参 W Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 0.5
NE041 Roscoea cautleoides Gagnep. 早花象牙参 W Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 0.5
NE039 Roscoea tibetica Bat. 藏象牙参 W Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 0.5
NE137 Rubus aurantiacus Focke 桔红悬钩子 W Fruit Fruit 0.5
NE106 Rubus biflorus Buch.-Ham. ex Smith 粉枝莓 W Fruit Fruit 1
NE117 Rubus niveus Thunb. 红泡刺藤 W Fruit Fruit 1
NE119 Rubus subornatus Focke 美饰悬钩子 W Fruit Fruit 1
NE122 Rubus trijugus Focke 三对叶悬钩子 W Fruit Fruit 1
NE104 Sagittaria trifolia L. 慈菇 W Root Vegetable 1
NE079 Salix balfouriana Schneid. 白背柳 W Inflorescence Substitute grain 5
NE083 Salix delavayana Hand.-Mazz. 腹毛柳 W Inflorescence Substitute grain 5
NE081 Salix spodiophylla Hand.-Mazz. 灰叶柳 W Inflorescence Substitute grain 5
NE058 Sambucus adnata Wall. ex DC. 血满草 W Tender stem, Fruit Vegetable, Fruit 1
NE042 Sanguisorba filiformis (Hook. f.) Hand.-Mazz. 矮地榆 W Root Vegetable, Healthcare food 1
NE124 Saussurea leucoma Diels 羽裂雪兔子 W Whole plant Vegetable, Healthcare food 0.1
NE098 Schisandra rubriflora (Franch). Rehd. et Wils. 红花五味子 W Fruit Fruit, Healthcare food 0.1
NE013 Scurrula parasitica L. 红花寄生 W Fruit Snack 0.1
NE049 Solanum tuberosum L. 洋芋 F, BF Tuber Grain, Vegetable 5
NE128 Stebbinsia umbrella (Franch.) Lipsch. 肉菊 W Root Healthcare food 0.1
NE047 Sticta nylanderiana Zahlbr. 平滑牛皮叶 W Aerial part Substitute grain 5
NE110 Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz. 蒲公英 W Aerial part Vegetable, Healthcare food 1
NE066 Thamnolia subuliformis (Ehrh.) W. L. Culb. 雪地茶 W Whole plant Drink 0.1
NE065 Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Ach. ex Schaerer 地茶 W Whole plant Drink 0.1
NE109 Thlaspi arvense L. 菥蓂 W Aerial part, Seed Vegetable, Oil 3
NE056 Triticum aestivum L. 普通小麦 F Seed Grain 2
NE059 Usnea longissima Ach. 长松萝 W Whole plant Healthcare food 0.1
NE136 Vaccinium fragile Franch. 乌鸦果 W Fruit Fruit 0.1
NE121 Viburnum betulifolium Batal. 桦叶荚蒾 W Fruit Fruit 0.5
NE138 Viburnum cylindricum Buch. -Ham. ex D. Don 水红木 W Kernel Oil 1
NE003 Vicia faba L. 蚕豆 F Seed Grain 3
NE073 Vicia sativa L. 救荒野豌豆 BF Tender stem Vegetable 2
NE111 Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. 花椒 V Fruit, Tender stem and leaf Seasoning, Healthcare food, Vegetable 0.1
NE144 Zea mays L. 玉米 F Seed Grain 5
NE146 Cucurbita moschata (Duch. ex Lam.) Duch. ex Poiret 南瓜 G Fruit Vegetable 3
  1. W Wild land, F Rich Farmland, G Home garden, BF Cyclic Fallowed Barren Farmland, V Inner village
  2. ***Aconitum stapfianum Hand.-Mazz (玉龙乌头) is a highly toxic plant because of the presence of aconitine. The preparation process was very strictly controlled to protect against toxic effects. The cleaned fresh aconitum root is stewed with pork fat, but importantly, it must be stewed in boiling water throughout the entire cooking process, as the addition of any cold water can cause toxic effects. The specific cooking process is as follows: when cooking begins, the water must be fully boiling, and then cleaned, fresh aconitum root and pork fat can be added; during the stewing process, when water needs to be added, it must be fully boiling water, and cool water must not be added, or poisoning may occur. Another key point is that, after eating, people must not be exposed to cold wind and should stay in rooms with windows closed for 1 night