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Table 1 Overview of the documented useful plant species and their uses sorted by plant families

From: Plants from disturbed savannah vegetation and their usage by Bakongo tribes in Uíge, Northern Angola

UCa Subcategory, explanation of usage PPb Preparation, Explanations Administration Nc CId Le DBf
Acanthaceae
Acanthus montanus (Nees) T.Anderson; +; 042677   1 0.02   M, C
 M Skin disease L Infusion Dermal 1   o  
Brillantaisia owariensis P.Beauv.; Lemba-lemba; + 044075   4 0.10   M
 M Cardiac disease L Decoction (with sugar) Oral 1   o  
 M Childhood disease L   Bath 2   -  
 M Blood pressure (high or low) L Directly consumed Oral 1   o  
 M Abdominal pain L Directly consumed Oral 2   +  
 M Childhood disease (Gota) L Cold water extract Oral 1   -  
 M Eye disease L Directly consumed Oral 1   -  
Amaranthaceae
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants; Santa Maria, Nkavua; * (Chenopodium ambrosioides), 042698 10 0.24   M, C
 M Abdominal pain L   Enema 1   o  
 M General L Directly consumed Oral 2   -  
 M Respiratory disease L Infusion Oral 1   +  
 M Backache and rheumatic pain L With Milletia versicolor, Ocimum gratissimum and Persea americana Steam Bath 1   +  
 M Fever L With Cyperus sp., Xylopia aethiopica, Monodora myristica, Kafuke (Asteraceae indet.), Enema 1   +  
 M Gynaecological disorder L With Chromolaena odorata and O. gratissimum   1   +  
 M Malaria L With X. aethiopica, Kafuke (Asteraceae indet.), M. myristica, O. gratissimum   1   o  
 M Childhood disease (Growth disorders) L With Ageratum conyzoides and O. gratissimum Dermal 1   o  
 M Diarrhoea L (A) Directly consumed (B) with X. aethiopica, Kafuke (Asteraceae indet.), M. myristica, O. gratissimum Oral 2   o  
Anacardiaceae
Lannea cf. antiscorbutica (Hiern) Engl.; Nkumbi; +; F10-1961, 043178 4 0.10   --
 M Toothache B (A) Decoction of crushed bark (B) with Carica papaya (A) Applied to tooth 2   /  
 M Pulled muscles, fractures B Decoction of crushed bark Applied externally and left to dry, forms cast 3   /  
Anisophyllaceae
Anisophyllea cf. quangensis Engl. ex Henriq; Mfungua, Bilasoba; +; 043115   2 0.05   --
 M Skin disease R Balm is made after bark is removed Dermal 1   /  
 N Fresh fruit F Directly consumed   1   +  
Annonaceae
Annona senegalensis Pers.; Nlolo, Nlolo kambulu, Nlolopolo, Nloloa pequena, Mfuilu; +; 043115 16 0.39   M, C
 M Menstrual disorder R Decoction Oral 1   +  
 M Haemorrhoids R Crushed root Rectal 1   -  
 M Fertility R, L, B Infusion Oral 4   +  
 M Hernia R Decoction Oral, 2 cups daily 1   -  
 M Leg pain R, L Infusion Oral 1   o  
 M Abdominal pain R, L Decoction Oral or enema 2   +  
 M Worms R, L Infusion Oral 2   +  
 M Respiratory disease   With Aframomum alboviolaceum   1   +  
 N Fresh fruit F    1   +  
 T   L    4   -  
Monodora myristica (Gaertn.) Dunal; Peve, Gipeve, Gipehe; +; 042679   8 0.20   M, C
 M Cough S Directly consumed Oral 1   +  
 M Malaria S With X. aethiopica, Kafuke (Asteraceae indet.), D. ambrosioides, O. gratissimum   1   o  
 M Diarrhoea S with X. aethiopica, Kafuke (Asteraceae indet.), D. ambrosioides, O. gratissimum   1   o  
 M Abdominal pain L, S Sometimes on combination with other species Enema 3   +  
 M Backache S With Ochna cf. afzelii subsp. mechowiana., M. myristica and Kupidi (Piper sp.)   1   o  
 M Fever S With Cyperus sp., X. aethiopica, D. ambrosioides, Kafuke (Asteraceae indet.), Enema 1   +  
 M Worms S Infusion with other species, e.g. Kupidi (Piper sp.), X. aethiopica and Ndungu za nzó (Aframomum sp.) Oral 1   +  
Apiaceae
Steganotaenia araliacea Hochst.; Mumvumbimvumbi; +; 043212   1 0.02   M, C
 M Thrombosis L Decoction Dermal 1   -  
 M Fertility B, R Decoction of 1,5 spoon of powder in 1 l of water Oral, 2 cups daily 1   +  
Apocynaceae
Landolphia owariensis P.Beauv.; Macongue, Makonge; +; 043969   6 0.15   M
 N Fresh fruit F Directly consumed   6   +  
Asteraceae
Acanthospermum sp.; Makoloko; F09-1725   1 0.02   
 M Headache P Directly consumed Chew 1   +  
Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L.; Kambwa katela, Mbokatela, Mbukata;+; 043150   5 0.12   M, C
 M Fever P Decoction Bath 2   +  
 M Eye disease L Leaf sap from crushed leaves Applied to eye 1   +  
 M Childhood disease (Growth disorders) L With O. gratissimum and D. ambrosioides Dermal 1   o  
 M Abdominal pain     1   +  
Baccharoides guineensis (Benth.) H.Rob.; Matita, Matitita, + (as Vernonia guineensis Benth.); 043110 4 0.10   M, C
 M Worms R Cold water extract from crushed root tubers Enema 1   o  
 M Childhood disease (Baço) R Directly consumed (peeled root tubers) Oral 1   o  
 M Wounds R Directly consumed (peeled root tubers) Oral 1   +  
 M Hernia R Directly consumed (peeled root tubers) Oral 1   +  
 M Abdominal pain R Directly consumed (peeled root tubers) Oral 1   o  
Bidens pilosa L.; Potajambua; +; 042705   1 0.02   M, C
 T   L    1   +  
Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; Mobutu, Kongo dia sika, Mululusaire; - (*); 042708 7 0.17   
 M Gynaecological disorder L With O. gratissimum and D. ambrosioides   1   o  
 M Abdominal pain L (A) Cold water extract of crushed leaves (B) crude crushed leaves (A) Oral/enema (B) Compress (abdomen) 2   -  
 M Wounds L Crushed leaves Dermal, applied to wound 3   +  
    Ot Soil fertility P Planted in Manihot esculenta field   1   +  
Crassocephalum rubens (Juss. ex Jacq.) S. Moore; Bungudia; +; 044078   8 0.20   M
 N Cooked leaves L Cooked and eaten as a vegetable   5   +  
   Fo   L For rabbits and pigs   3   -  
Emilia coccinea (Sims) G.Don; Malalulalu; +; 044086, 044087   3 0.07   M, C
 M Wounds L Leave sap from crushed leaves Dermal, applied to wound 1   +  
   Fo   L For rabbits   1   +  
 M Eye disease L Leave sap from crushed leaves Rubbed into eyes 1   +  
Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav.; Kabuata branca; (*); 043141 1 0.02   M
 M Hepatitis L Decoction Oral 1   -  
Gymnanthemum cf. glaberrimum (Welw. ex O.Hoff.) H.Rob.; Nsalu; Kisalu; 044039 4 0.10   --
 M Anaemia R Decoction of crushed root Oral 1   -  
 M Scabies L Ash Dermal 1   +  
 M Backache R Cold water extract Oral 1   -  
 M Worms R Cold water extract Oral 1   -  
 M Abdominal pain R, L (A) Crushed root (B) Infusion (A) Dermal (B) Oral 3   +  
Helichrysum mechowianum Klatt; + (var. mechowianum); 044088   1 0.02   --
    Ot Toilet paper L    1   -  
 --; Kafuke; 044034     7 0.17   
 M Abdominal pain L Sometimes with e.g. X. aethiopica, M. myristica Enema 3    
 M Childhood disease (light stomach pain) L   Enema 1    
 M Diarrhoea   With D. ambrosioides, X. aethiopica, M. myristica, O. gratissimum   1    
 M Fever R With Cyperus sp., X. aethiopica, D. ambrosioides, M.myristica Enema 1    
 M Malaria     1    
 M Fertility L With Urena lobata Enema 1    
 M Worms L   Enema 1    
Melanthera scandens (Schumach. & Thonn.) Roberty; Kalahi, Kalau, Makaila; +; 042782, 042778 2 0.05   M, C
 M Wounds L Crushed leaves Dermal, applied to wound 2   +  
Pleiotaxis rugosa O.Hoffm.; Ntelamakatexe, Kakatiana; 044020 3 0.07   --
 M Abdominal pain L, R Directly consumed or infusion Oral, not during pregnancy 2   /  
 M Diarrhoea L, R Directly consumed (root) or infusion (leaves), masticate root   1   /  
Polydora serratuloides (DC.) H.Rob.;+ (listed as Vernonia perrottetii Sch. Bip. ex Walp.); 042793 1 0.02   --
 O   P Planted on graveyards   1   /  
Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A.Gray; Mululula; *; 044090 1 0.02   M, C
M Abdominal pain L Crushed leaves Compress (abdomen) 1   +  
Vernonella subaphylla (Baker) H.Rob. & Skvarla; Makutula; + (listed as Vernonia subaphylla Baker); 044024, 042795, 042797 5 0.12   --
 T   L    3   /  
 M Skin disease (furuncle) L Infusion Oral 2   /  
Bixaceae
Bixa cf. orellana L.; Ndalamuenga; *; F03-131 3 0.07   M, C
 M Childhood disease (Baço) B Decoction Oral 1   -  
 M Abdominal pain R Directly consumed or cold water extract Oral 2   o  
 M Malaria B Decoction Oral 1   -  
    Ot Cosmetics   Used for red colour   1   +  
Burseraceae
Canarium schweinfurthii Engl.; Mbidi, Gimbidi; +; F09-1730, F09-1734   6 0.15   M, C
 N Cooked fruit F Left in warm water for 1 h or until pulp softens   1    
 M Respiratory disease Re   Rubbed on breast, inhalation 1   +  
 M Toothache L Decoction with Psidium guajava and Alchornea cordifolia Rinsed in mouth 1   -  
 M Abdominal pain Re, R (A) heat resin and mix with palm oil, X. aethiopica and M. myristica (B) clean (and crush) crude root (A) Add to food (B) Oral or enema 2   +  
 M Nightmares Re Burnt Inhalation 1   -  
    Ot Candles Re Used as wax substitute   1   o  
Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J.Lam; Safueiro, +, F02-1181 2 0.05   M, C
 N Cooked fruit F Heated in water or in pan until pulp softens   2   +  
Cannaceae
Canna indica L.; Chala (verde), Cholo; *; 042701   2 0.05   M, C
 M Thorax pain L Whole leaves Compress at abdomen 1   -  
 H   S For rattles   1   +  
Caricaceae
Carica papaya L.; Mamoeiro; *; F10-1978   4 0.10   M, C
 M Abdominal pain L Crushed leaves Compress at abdomen 1   +  
 M Nausea L Crushed leaves Compress at abdomen 2   o  
 M Toothache R Decoction, (sometimes with Lannea antiscorbutica) Rinsed in mouth 3   +  
Caryophyllaceae
Drymaria cordata (L.) Willd. ex Schult.; Lumpwua; +; 042678   1 0.02   M, C
 M Hepatitis L, P Crushed material Dermal or enema 1   o  
Commelinaceae
Commelina diffusa Burm.f.; Ndakalaka; +; 044029   1 0.02   M
 M Eye disease L Crush leaves with three salt crystals, add some water for the crystals to dissolve. Applied to eye, three drops two times daily 1   o  
Costaceae
Costus afer Ker Gawl.; Nsangalavula; +; F08-1918, F06-1709   7 0.17   M, C
 M Gota St   Bath (also for children) 2   o  
 M Hepatitis St Directly consumed Oral (eat like sugar cane) 1   -  
 M Measles     1   -  
 M Eye disease     2   +  
 M Yellow fever     2   -  
 M Strengthening St Directly consumed Oral (eat like sugar cane) 1   -  
 N Raw stem St Directly consumed Oral (eat like sugar cane) 1   o  
Crassulaceae
Kalanchoe crenata (Andrews) Haw.; Luikiaikuai; +; 042667   2 0.05   M
 R   P Part of the ceremony to ask the ancestors for permission to enter the Grutas do Nzenzu   1   -  
 M Earache L Sap of crushed leaves Applied to ear 1   +  
Cucurbitaceae
Lagenaria sp.; Disenga; 043144   1 0.02   
 H   F Dried fruit is opened and used as brush   1    
Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.Roem.; Nzenga-nzenga; +; 042712   1 0.02   M, C
 H   F Dried fruit used as sponge   1   +  
Momordica charantia L.; Lumbuzam-buza, Nlumbuzu-buzua; +; 042663   4 0.10   M, C
 M Sore throat P Directly consumed Wrapped around neck 1   -  
 M Fever L Decoction Enema 2   +  
 M Constipation L Decoction Enema, for children 1   +  
 M Typhoid fever L Decoction Oral or enema 2   -  
Cyperaceae
Cyperus sp.; Nsagonsago; F09-1717 to F09-1721   1 0.02   
 M Fever R With M. myristica, X. aethiopica, D. ambrosioides, Kafuke (Asteraceae indet.) Enema 1    
Dennstaedtiaceae
Pteridium centrali-africanum (Hieron.) Alston; Manguelele, Mizili, Manzelele; 043242   5 0.12   --
 N Cooked leaves L Young fronds are cooked as side dish (Mitekwa)   4   +  
 M Epilepsy L, Rh Decoction Bath or enema 1   -  
Dioscoreaceae
Dioscorea dumetorum (Kunth) Pax; +; 044023   1 0.02   M, C
 N Cooked root tubers R    1   +  
Euphorbiaceae
Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Müll.Arg.; Luunze; +; 043214   5 0.12   M, C
 M Fever L Crushed leaves Dermal 1   +  
 M Skin disease (furuncle) F Directly consumed Oral, swallowed in whole 1   +  
 M Toothache L Decoction with Psidium guajava and Canarium schweinfurthii Rinsed in mouth 3   +  
Euphorbia cotinifolia L.; - (*); F11-2000 to F11-2004   1 0.02   C
 O   P    1   /  
Euphorbia hirta L.;- (*); 042704   1 0.02   M, C
 M Eye disease Ms Latex from sprout Applied to eye 1   +  
Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch;*; 042700   3 0.07   M, C
 M Childhood disease (blood loss)   With Maesa sp.   1   /  
 M Inflammation Ms Latex from sprout Dermal 1   /  
 O   P    1   /  
Euphorbia thymifolia L.; Mayene mankombo; - (*); 042692   2 0.05   M, C
 M Eye disease Ms Latex from sprout Applied to eye 1   -  
 M Childhood disease (Diarrhoea) P Decoction Oral, drunken by mother, cleans breast milk 1   -  
Jatropha curcas L.; Mpuluka; *; F10-1959   4 0.10   M, C
 N Cooked fruits F Cooked   1   -  
 M Toothache L Decoction Rinsed in mouth 3   +  
Neoboutonia melleri (Müll.Arg.) Prain; Kiunze, Luunze, +; 043156   3 0.07   C
 M Diabetes R Decoction Oral or enema 1   -  
 M Diarrhoea R Decoction Oral or enema 1   -  
 M Abdominal pain L Crushed with salt Oral 1   o  
Ricinus communis L.; Mamonoa; *;042668   3 0.07   M, C
 M Nausea L Cold water extract of crushed leaves Oral 1   +  
 M Headache L crushed leaves Applied to head, compress 3   +  
Hypericaceae
Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex Poir.; Ntunu; +; 043193   5 0.12   M, C
 D Yellow or orange dye B Cold water extract   3   +  
 M Yellow fever B Decoction with e.g. Erythrina abyssinica Enema (causes strong, cleaning diarrhea) 2   +  
 M Hepatitis B Decoction with e.g. Erythrina abyssinica Enema (causes strong, cleaning diarrhea) 1   +  
Psorospermum febrifugum Spach; Nlengula, Kilengula, Pau preto; +;042683   5 0.12   M, C
 M Leprosy R Crushed root Dermal 1   +  
 M Fertility   Decoction Oral 1   -  
 M Skin disease B Crushed bark Dermal 2   +  
 M Childhood disease (Baço)     1   o  
Iridaceae
Eleutherine cf. bulbosa (Mill.) Urb.; - (*); 043138   1 0.02   M, C
 O   P    1   +  
Lamiaceae
Alvesia rosmarinifolia Welw.; +; 042670   1 0.02   --
 M Anaemia L Crushed leaves Dermal 1   o  
Clerodendrum formicarum Gürke; Lomba a mvula (pequena); +; 042662   4 0.10   C
 M Yellow urine L Infusion Oral 1   /  
 M Childhood disease (Abdominal pain) L, R Infusion Oral or enema 3   /  
Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.; Kinsaquati; - (*); 043097 1 0.02   M, C
 M Fever L Infusion Inhalation, steam bath 1   o  
 indet.; 043148     1 0.02   
 M Eye disease   Liquid from crushed material Applied to eye 1    
Leonotis sp.; Kakenginzongo; F08-1805   1 0.02   
 M General L Infusion Oral 1    
Ocimum gratissimum L.; Mazudizudi, + (as var.); 042719   11 0.27   M, C
 M Childhood disease (Growth disorders) L With Ageratum conyzoides and D. ambrosioides   1   o  
 M Fever, Malaria L Infusion of crushed leaves Oral or steam bath 5   +  
 M Backache, Rheumatic pain L With Milletia versicolor, D. ambrosioides and Persea americana Steam bath 1   +  
 M Gynaecological disorder L With C.odorata and D.ambrosioides   1   +  
 M Diarrhoea   With D. ambrosioides, Kafuke (Asteraceae indet.), M. myristica, X. aethiopica   1   +  
 M Respiratory disease L Infusion of crushed leaves Oral or steam bath 4   +  
Vitex madiensis subsp. madiensis; Mafilu, Mfilumfilu; +; 042773   10 0.24   M
 M Backache L Infusion Oral 3   -  
 M Childhood disease (Gota) L Infusion, sometimes with Gardenia ternifolia and Smilax anceps   2   o  
 M Potency, Strengthening (for women and men)   Infusion Oral 1   +  
 T   L    1   -  
 N Fresh fruits F    2   +  
   Fo    Pasture for cattle   1   -  
Leguminosae
Albizia sp.; Mulu, Muanse; 043102   2 0.05   
 M Headache R Liquid from crushed root Applied into nose 1    
 M Diarrhoea B Cold water extract from crushed bark Enema 1    
Bauhinia variegata L.; - (*); F11-2064 1 0.02   M, C
 O      1   /  
Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.; Wandu; *; 043216 2 0.05   M, C
 M Childhood disease (Gota) L Liquid from crushed leaves Applied into nose and eyes 1   o  
 N Cooked fruits F    1    
Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.; *; 042672   1 0.02   C
   Ot Soil fertility P Planted in crop area   1   /  
Canavalia cf. gladiata (Jacq.) DC.; Nzimamanu; - (*; origin undeterminated); F01-1142 to F01-1144 4 0.10   M, C
 R Protection against mischief F, P (A) Fruit hung around wrist of big children prevents defamation (B) Plant at the edge of field protects it against influence of bad neighbours   3   +  
 M Childhood disease F Fruit hung around wrist of crying babies   1   -  
Desmodium velutinum (Willd.) DC; Malamalama; +; 044091, 044092 1 0.02   --
 M Headache L Crushed leaves Dermal, applied to head 1   -  
Eriosema glomeratum (Guill. & Perr.) Hook.f.; Zila wando; +; 043170   1 0.02   C
 M Diarrhoea L Directly consumed Oral 1   o  
Erythrina abyssinica DC.; Mulungulungu, Mungomangoma, Nlungwa kwma; +; 042666, 043211 10 0.24   M, C
 M Hepatitis B (A) Infusion (B) decoction with i.a. Harungana madagascariensis (C) Cold water extract from crushed bark (A, C) Oral (B) Enema, causes cleaning diarrhoea 7   o  
 M Yellow fever B (A) Infusion (B) decoction with i.a. Harungana madagascariensis (A) Oral (B) Enema, causes cleaning diarrhoea 2   o  
 M Typhoid fever B Infusion Oral 2   -  
 M Fertility B Decoction with sugar Oral 1   +  
 M Backache     1   o  
 indet.; Monguenia; 043096   3 0.07   
 M Backache B Crushed bark Enema 1    
 M Diarrhoea R Cold water extract Enema 1    
 M Abdominal pain R Cold water extract Enema 1    
 indet.; Musuemba; 043103   2 0.05   
 D Dye     1    
   Ot Fish poison     1    
 indet.; Musoshi; 043133   1 0.02   
 M Burns L Balm from ash mixed with palm oil Dermal 1    
Inga sp.; Banana makako, Caseleira; 043101   5 0.12   
 N Fresh fruits F    2    
   Fu   W For charcoal   3    
Millettia cf. versicolor Baker; Pau ferro, Mbota, Mbandu; +; 043220   11 0.27   M, C
 Fi   B/BF E.g. used to tie off leg   1   -  
 M Measles B   Tie around wrist 2   -  
 M Backache and rheumatic pain L Decoction with D. ambrosioides, O. gratissimum and Persea americana Steam bath 1   o  
 H   W E.g. to produce mortars   5   +  
   Fu   W For charcoal production   2   +  
Senna alata (L.) Roxb.; *; 042691   3 0.07   M, C
 M Skin disease L Crushed leaves Dermal 1   +  
 M Leprosy L Balm from roasted leaves and oil Dermal 1   +  
 M Headache L Crushed leaves Compress around head 1   +  
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link; Maniokanioka; *; 044093   6 0.15   M
 M Abdominal pain R, F Cold water extract Oral, suitable for persons aged 6 years and up 4   +  
 M Eye disease (e.g. parasites) L Liquid from crushed leaves Applied to eye 4   +  
Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f.; +; 043209   1 0.02   C
   Ot Fish poison L Cold water extractfrom crushed leaves   1   o  
Loranthaceae        
Phragmanthera sp.; Kinama, Nama; F2399; 043159   2 0.05   
 M Fertility   In combination   2    
MALVACEAE
Adansonia digitata L.; Kibaba; +   3 0.07   M, C
 H   W    1   +  
 N Fresh/dried fruit F Fresh or dried pulp or juice   1   +  
   Fu Charcoal W    1   o  
Cola acuminata (P.Beauv.) Schott & Endl.; Coleira; +; F06-1664   2 0.05   M, C
 N Fresh/dried fruit S Seeds eaten to accompany alcoholic drinks. To alleviate the bitter taste, fruits are sometimes put into termite nests prior to consumption.   2   +  
Gossypium barbadense L.; Algodeiro, Husu; -(*); 042775   2 0.05   M, C
 M Abdominal pain L Decoction Oral 1   o  
 M Earache F (A) Boil unripe fruit and apply juice into ear (B) Rub unripe fruit in hands and stick into ear   2   +  
Sida acuta Burm.f.; Lumzumzu; -(*); 042791   4 0.10   M, C
 M Hepatitis L (A) Liquid from crushed leaves (B) Cold water extract from crushed leaves (A) Applied to eye (B) enema 2   -  
 M Malaria L Cold water extract from crushed leaves Enema 1   o  
 M Joint swelling, Build-up of fluid     1   +  
Triumfetta cordifolia A.Rich.; Kingongi, Luvunga (Pl. Mpunga); + (var. tomentosa); 044030   4 0.10   --
 Fi   BF    3   +  
 M Pregnancy L Decoction Enema, to “clean” fetus 1   o  
Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq; Ginsunsu branco; +; 042835   1 0.02   M
 Fi   BF    1   /  
Urena lobata L.; Makolokosso, Gingonge, Ginsunsu; +; 042697   5 0.12   M, C
 M Fertility L With Kafuke (Asteraceae indet.) Enema 2   +  
 M Childhood disease (general weakening) L   Enema 1   o  
 Fi   BF    2   +  
MELASTOMATACEAE
Tristemma mauritianum J.F. Gmel.; +; 042665   2 0.05   --
 N Fresh fruit F    2   /  
Meliaceae
Azadirachta indica A.Juss.; Neem; -(*)   1 0.02   M, C
 M General L Directly consumed or infusion Oral 1   o  
Moraceae
Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn) Fosberg; Fruta Pão; -(*); 042674, F19-2542 2 0.05   M, C
 N Cooked fruit F Cooked   1   +  
   Fo   F, L For pigs   1   +  
Myrtaceae
Psidium guajava L.; Goiabeira; -(*); 042660 9 0.22   M, C
 N Fresh fruit F    4   +  
 M Toothache L Decoction with A. cordifolia and C. schweinfurthii Rinse in mouth 1   +  
 M Diarrhoea L Directly consumed Oral 1   +  
 M Abdominal pain L Directly consumed Oral 4   +  
Syzygium guineense (Willd.) DC.; Nkizu; +; 043108 3 0.07   M, C
 M Diarrhoea R Cold water extract of crushed leaves, sometimes with Hymenocardia acida Oral 2   +  
 M Fertility R Cold water extract of crushed leaves Oral 1   o  
Ochnaceae
Ochna cf. afzelii subsp. mechowiana (O.Hoffm.) N.Robson; Coxianti; 043153 2 0.02   M, C
 M Abdominal pain L With X. aethiopica, M. myristica and Kupidi (Piper sp.)   1   -  
 M Backache L With X. aethiopica, M. myristica and Kupidi (Piper sp.)   1   -  
Orobanchaceae
Sopubia lanata Engl.; Diamba dia kana; + (subsp.); 042703   3 0.07   --
 M Gynaecological disorder L Suppository from crushed leaves mixed with e.g. garlic Rectal 1   /  
 M Measles P Crushed material Dermal or enema 2   /  
Oxalidacaeae
Oxalis latifolia Kunth; Banana folha; -(*); 044096   1 0.02   --
 M Anaemia L Directly consumed Oral, also during pregnancy 1   /  
Passifloraceae
Passiflora edulis Sims; Maracujá; *   2 0.05   M, C
 N Fresh fruit F    2   +  
Phyllanthaceae
Bridelia cf. ferruginea Benth.; Nkánkati, Muindu, Windu, Nkalakala; +; 043240   11 0.27   M
 M Worms B, R Cold water extract from crushed plant material Enema 3   o  
 M Abdominal pain L Infusion Oral 1   +  
 M Diarrhoea B, R Infusion from crushed plant material Oral 2   +  
 M Wounds B, R (A) Crushed material mixed with small amount of water; (B) Crude bark Applied to wound 3   o  
   Ot Tobacco F, L Dry and mix with tobacco   2   -  
 D Red dye B    1   +  
Hymenocardia acida Tul.; Luvete (Pl: Mpete); +; 043186   7 0.17   M, C
 M Worms L With Bridelia ferruginea Enema 1   +  
 M Diarrhoea R With Syzygium guineense   1   +  
 M Skin disease B Balm from powder mixed with oil   2   +  
 M Backache     1   o  
 M Abdominal pain L, B Directly consumed Oral or enema 1   +  
   Fu Firewood W    1   +  
Hymenocardia ulmoides Oliv.; Nkalangangula; +; 043194   4 0.10   --
 M Abdominal pain L Directly consumed (young reddish leaves) Oral 2   o  
 M Diarrhoea L Directly consumed (young reddish leaves) Oral 1   +  
 M Nausea L Directly consumed (young reddish leaves) Oral 1   -  
 M Hunger L Directly consumed (young reddish leaves) Oral 1   -  
 H   W    1   +  
Piperaceae
Piper sp.; +; Kupidi 3 0.07   
 M Worms S Infusion with e.g. X. aethiopica, M. myristica and Ndungu za nzó (Aframomum sp.) Oral 1    
 M Abdominal pain L With X. aethiopica, M. myristica and Ochna cf. afzelii subsp. mechowiana   1    
 M Backache L With X. aethiopica, M. myristica and Ochna cf. afzelii subsp. mechowiana .   1    
Poaceae
Hyparrhenia sp.; Capim, Maxinde, Musoki; 043992   6 0.15   
 H   L For roofing, also for walls   4    
   Fu Firelighter     1    
  Fo   L Pasture (burn regulary for young shoots)   1    
Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch.; Kindonga; +; 044098 5 0.12   M, C
 M Diabetes Rh Decoction Oral 1   +  
 M Burns S Balm (with palm oil) Dermal 1   o  
 H   L For roofing   4   +  
Setaria megaphylla (Steud.) T.Durand & Schinz; Makangaya Madianga; +; 043246 2 0.05   M
   Fo   L For pigs and rabbits   2   +  
Primulaceae
Maesa sp.; Nkambakiana; F07-1771   3 0.07   
 M Childhood disease (blood loss)   With Euphorbia pulcherrima   1    
 M Abdominal pain B    1    
 M Infertility B With Phragmenthera sp.   1    
 T   B    1    
Rubiaceae
Gardenia ternifolia subsp. jovis-tonantis(Welw.) Verdc.; Kidia, Kilemba nzau; 043241 10 0.24   M
 M Childhood disease (Gota) S Directly consumed, sometimes with S. anceps, V. madiensis Oral 2   -  
 M Hernia R Cold water extract Oral 1   -  
 M Measles F, B, S (A) Decoction, (B) Crushed seeds (A, B) Oral or Enema 3   -  
 M Diabetes     1   +  
 R Lightning arrester P Planted close to house/ branch placed on roof   2   +  
 R Protection against bad spells P Planted in surroundings of house or field   1   -  
 R Nightmares F Placed under pillow   1   -  
 indet.; Ngolanti, Mamunguamungua; 044021   1 0.02   
 M Potency B Decoction Oral, 2 cups daily 1    
 M Epilepsy B Decoction Oral, 2 cups daily 1    
Morinda lucida Benth.; Mazige, Nsiki; +; 043215 4 0.10   M, C
 M Abdominal pain B, L Infusion or directly consumed Oral (very bitter) 3   +  
 M Diarrhoea     1   +  
 M Backache B, L Crushed material Dermal, applied to back 1   +  
Mussaenda arcuata Poir.; Nsilu-nsilu; +; 042654 2 0.05   C
 M Hepatitis L Crushed leaves Dermal 1   -  
 M Skin disease L Crushed leaves Dermal 1   +  
Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A.Bruce; Kelolo, Kilolwa grande; +; 043154 16 0.39   M, C
 M Abdominal pain R (A) Cold water extract or decoction (leave in water for 1 h) (B) directly consumed (A) Oral or enema, (B) Oral 8   +  
 M Worms R, B (A) Directly consumed (B) cold water extract (C) decoction (A,B) Oral (C) Enema 3   +  
 M Potency R (A) Directly consumed (B) Decoction (A) Oral (B) Oral or enema 1   +  
 M Pains R (A) Directly consumed (B) Decoction (A) Oral (B) Oral or enema 1   +  
 M Typhoid fever R Decoction Oral 1   -  
 M Birth R Cold water extract Oral 1   -  
 M Respiratory disease B Directly consumed Oral 1   +  
   Fu Firewood W    1   +  
 R Protection F Put on baby   1   -  
 T   L    1   -  
Rutaceae
Zanthoxylum gilletii (De Wild.) P.G.Waterman; Ndansia tenga; +; F15-2398, F15-2396 1 0.02   C
 M Pregnancy L Cooked, young leaves, strengthing Oral, mixed into meals 1   +  
Smilacaceae
Smilax anceps Willd.; Gipolo, Mpolo, Mukulu; +; 042702 3 0.07   --
 M Cough L Infusion Oral 1   o  
 M Gota L With V. madiensis and G. ternifolia   1   o  
 M Epilepsy L, R Decoction Bath or enema 1   -  
Solanaceae
Datura metel L.; *; 042714   3 0.07   M, C
   Ot Intoxicant S Burn Inhalation 1   +  
 M Rheumatism S With other species   1   -  
 M Inflammation L Crushed leaves Dermal 1   +  
Solanum aculeastrum Dunal; Mabumi, Gituno; + (var.); 043132   2 0.05   M, C
 M Childhood disease (Baço) F, B Decoction Enema or oral 2   -  
Solanum americanum Mill.; Lundumbo, Ndumbo; *; 043164   3 0.07   M
 N Cooked leaves L Cooked and eaten as a vegetable   2   -  
 M Abdominal pain L Cold water extract of crushed leaves Oral 1   o  
Solanum mauritianum Scop.; Daniele; *; 044100   1 0.02   M
 M Cough L Decoction Steam bath or inhalation 1   -  
Solanum nigrum L.; Gizue, Lundumbo, Windangonge; *; 043139 3 0.07   M, C
 M for Babys L Sap from crushed leaves Few drops daily applied to umbilical cord 1   o  
 M Fever L Infusion Oral, suitable for children 1   +  
 M Diarrhoea R    1   +  
Urticaceae
Laportea sp.; Kihidi, Hidi; 043157   3 0.07   
 M Cough L Infusion Oral suitable for children 2    
 M Haemorrhoids L Cooked Oral, eaten with peanuts 1    
Verbenaceae
Lippia multiflora Moldenke; Bulukutu; +; 044101   2 0.05   M, C
 T   L Infusion   2   +  
Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich.) Vahl; Kalangue; -(*); 043188 3 0.07   M, C
 M Malaria   Crushed material Rectal, suppository 1   -  
 M Diarrhoea   Decoction Oral 1   -  
 M Joint swelling, Build-up of fluid L Infusion Oral 1   -  
 M Skin disease L Infusion Oral 1   o  
 M Respiratory disease L Infusion Oral 1   -  
Vitaceae
Cayratia gracilis (Guill. & Perr.) Suess.; Nlembuzi; +; 043147 1 0.02   --
 M Joint swelling, Build-up of fluid L Crushed leaves Dermal, applied to swollen joints 1   o  
Cayratia sp.; Hoselia, Uuse; 043166   2 0.05   
 M Anaemia L Cooked Oral 1    
 N Cooked leaves L Cooked and eaten as a vegetable   1    
Cissus rubiginosa (Welw. ex Baker) Planch.; Nkokelakai, Mukokelakai; +; 043207   4 0.10   M
 M Fever L Crushed leaves added to bathwater Bath,suitable for children 1   -  
 M Childhood disease (Baço) L Crushed leaves Enema 2   -  
 M Worms L Crushed leaves Enema 1   -  
 M Rheumatism, leg pain L Decoction Enema 1   +  
 indet.; Dizo dia lunguenia; 043122   1 0.02   
 M Poisoning St - Used to tie off poisoned limb 1    
Xanthorrhoeaceae
Aloe buettneri A.Berger; Badianseka; +; F05-1633 7 0.17   M
 M Skin disease L Sap from cut leaf Dermal 3   +  
 M Potency L Decoction Oral or Enema 1   -  
 M Fertility L Decoction Enema 1   o  
 M Worms L Decoction Enema 1   +  
 M Backache L Decoction Oral or Enema 1   -  
 M Respiratory disease L Directly consumed or decoction Oral, contains many vitamins 1   +  
 M Blood-purifying F Directly consumed Oral 1   -  
 N Cooked leaves L Eaten with beans as a vegetable   1   -  
Zingiberaceae
Aframomum alboviolaceum (Ridl.) K.Schum.; Ginguenga da queimada, Masunjá. Mansassa, Dimbomboa; +; F19-2561, F01-1105 14 0.34   M
 N Fresh fruit F Directly consumed or as juice   9   +  
 M Yellow fever Rh Crushed rhizome Enema 1   -  
 M Headache L Sap from chewed material Applied to eyes 1   +  
 M Hepatitis Rh    1   -  
 M Respiratory disease Rh With root of A. senegalensis   1   +  
 M Epilepsy Rh L Decoction Bath or Enema 1   -  
Aframomum sp.; Ndungu za nzó; F18-2534 2 0.05   
 M Worms S Infusion with i.e. Kupidi (Piper sp.) M. myristica and X. aethiopica Oral 2    
Zingiber officinale Roscoe; Gengibre, Gibidi; -(*) 3 0.07   M, C
 M Respiratory disease Rh    2   +  
 M Fever Rh    1   +  
   Ot   Rh As condiment in palm wine “Maruwu”   1   o  
  1. Legend: All species identified until family level are listed with scientific and local name and details to representation in Angolan checklist [31]: “+” listed, * listed as naturalised; (*) not listed in checklist, but known to be naturalised in Angola. If herbarium specimens were entered into Herbarium Dresdense, the codes are listed in the table. If it wasn’t possible to prepare specimens or if the material was damaged during transportation, numbers of the foto documention are mentioned, marked by ‘F’. a UC Use categories, D Dye, Fi Fibres, Fo Forage, Fu Fuel, H Handicraft/building material, M Medicine, N Nutrition/food, O Ornamental, R Ritual/Magic, T Tea, Ot Other; bUsed plant parts: B Bark, BF Bast fibres, F Fruit, L Leaves, Ms Milksap, P Whole plant, R Root, Re Resin, Rh Rhizome, S Seed, St Stem, W Wood; c NUR Number of use-reports per plant and citations per usage; d CI Cultural Importance Index; e L Comparision to [44] for medical uses or to [46] for other than medical uses: “ + ” use listed; “o” similar use listed; “-” use not listed; “/” species not listed; f DB Result of PubMed-Database-Inquiry in June 2015: (M) medical studies performed, (C) chemical analysis performed