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Table 3 Data base of invertebrate folk knowledge among Hungarians

From: Folk knowledge of invertebrates in Central Europe - folk taxonomy, nomenclature, medicinal and other uses, folklore, and nature conservation

  Fig. Scientific and proper names The most typical local names and their literal English translation Saliences Key places of encounter and habitats Proportion of informants who knew the taxon (%)
1. 12 Fasciola hepatica common liver fluke métely It is in the liver of the livestock. It’s like a pumpkin seed cut in half. Fluky stock is skinny. / You must not graze it around lakes. Surely some snail spreads it. P 64
2. 12 Toxocara canis Echinococcus spp. dog roundworm giliszta - P 9
3. 12 Taenia solium Taeniarhynchus saginatus pork tapeworm, beef tapeworm giliszta, galandféreg (galandworm) It can be found in pigs, piglets, the guts, even in man, as big as half a metre long was also taken out. P 38
4. 12 Taenia multiceps tapeworm species keringő (whirler), motoszká (fumbler) A fly lays the egg into the nostrils of the sheep and it goes up to the brain. When it is developed there, the sheep would blow it out. If one does not blow it out, it will get the circling disease. / Before, we would operate them. P 4
5. 12 Nematoda e.g. Pseudocapillaria tomentosa fish roundworm species giliszta These worms like the sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) very much, they get into the stomach. It is thin like a needle. P 2
6. 10 Ditylenchus dipsaci stem nematode fíreg, kukac Onions get worms as well. Small little worms. Yellowish. S 9
7. 12 Haemonchus contortus barber’s pole (piros) féreg (red féreg) The cow has that manyplies, it was all full with red worm inside. P 2
8. 12 Hirudo medicinalis European medicinal leech* pióka, vérszípó (blood sucker), nadály We would go into the water and it stuck on our legs. It was collected. / We would sprinkle ash on it and parted with the skin. It lives long. There are people who’s blood it does not like. / The leech is not a parasite; it was used for medicine centuries long. P, W 100
9. 12 Piscicolidae e.g. Piscicola geometra leech species on fishes pióca They kill the fish; suck their blood, stuck on them. P, W 5
10. 12 Haemopis sanguisuga horse-leech lópióka (horse pióka), turbók, drótkukac (wire worm) It was dug out from wet earth. / We call it the wire worm. They are this big and hard, dark green. / W 80
11. 12 Lumbricus spp. e.g. Lumbricus terrestris earthworms giliszta, földigiliszta (earth giliszta) Selyemkukac (silkworm) are in the garden, around the house, under the bricks, after rain, they breathe in the fresh air. It’s a soft bodied worm. S 100
12. 12 Eisenia fetida redworm giliszta, trágyagiliszta (dung giliszta) It is beside the dung. / Reddish. Not so big. S 10
13. 12 Aporrectodea dubiosa earthworm species fekete giliszta (black giliszta) It is on the waterside. Black. W 2
14. 13 Arion, Limax spp. e.g. Limax maximus slug species kopaszcsiga (bald snail), meztelencsiga (naked snail), csupaszcsiga (nude snail) It ate members of the cabbage family. / You could hardly find a plant which would not be damaged by them. / It is usually found such dark cellars. Wherever it goes, leaves this discharge behind. / After the rain. / I draw them from the well. A, S 96
15. 13 Agriolimax agrestis and similar species smaller field slugs meztelencsiga (naked snail), kopaszcsiga (bald snail) The white ones come in every four or five years but would then teem frightfully. A 4
16. 13 Arion lusitanicus Portuguese slug kopaszcsiga (bald snail), spanyol kopaszcsiga (Spanish bald snail) They are visitors here. You would not find them long ago. / It will spread here as well. / It came from Spain with vegetables and are very prolific. A 16
17. 13 Limax maximus great grey slug meztelencsiga (naked snail), meztelen erdei csiga (naked forest snail) They would gnaw away mushrooms instantly. / They would eat it, whether edible or poisonous. F 5
18. 13 Bielzia coerulans* Carpathian blue slug meztelencsigá (naked snail) You can find blue or grey ones. F 5
19. 13 Cepaea spp. e.g. Cepaea vindobonensis
land snail species
csiga, kígyócsiga (snake snail) This was called the snake snail. Where the name does come from I have no idea. / They collect the dew drops. A, S 14
20. 13 Helix spp. (*) mainly Helix pomatia
edible snails
csiga, éti csiga (edible snail) This is the strongest animal because it carries its house on the back. / I would not do any harm to them, even though they can make trouble. / I always tread on them. They like to eat my flowers. I would throw them back to the hens. / They are not so harmful. G, S 100
21. 13 Xerolenta obvia
land snail species
csiga, paradicsiga These are white little snails on the plants. They would also stick to the grass leaves. G, S 55
22. 13 Lymnaeidae e.g. Lymnaea stagnalis
freshwater snail species
vízicsiga (water snail) During floods (high water) they climb on boats or a thick branch. Floods are coming when the snail climbs out of the water. W 6
23. 13 Planorbidae (excl. Ferrissia, Ancylus, Hebetancylus) e.g. Planorbis planorbis
ramshorn snails
csiga, vízicsiga (water snail) When the water was rising, this came up to the surface. W 12
24. 13 Bivalvia e.g. Anodonta cygnea
clams
békateknő (frog tub), kagyló Frog tub. We would pick them when I was a kid. It comes off from the frog. Like the egg from the inside. W 83
25. 13 Gastropoda e.g. Zebrina detrita
snails
csiga They would gnaw during the night and they drag that mucus behind. / Little snail come out, your house is burning. You’ll get milk and butter, it will be left for tomorrow. (a child song) F, G 100
26. 15 Julidae e.g. Megaphyllum unilineatum
millipede species
ezerlábú (thousand legged), drótféreg (wire worm) I have seen this little black insect on the garbage heap. / Who’s got the patience to pick up so many of them? They would have swept them, obviously. S, G 16
27. 15 Lithobius spp. e.g. Lithobius forficatus
common centipedes
százlábú (hundred legged) It’s so reddish. / You can get many of them when you lift the flower pots. S, G 44
28. 9 Ixodes spp. e.g. Ixodes ricinus
ticks
kullancs, csiglanc I think they are not infected here. They are rather on the blades of grass. It is dangerous because it spreads encephalitis. / You would pick at it or you put fat or oil on it and than it would climb out or fall out. / The one living on animals would not get into humans. / You would say to little kids ‘you’re a tick’. / It was not dangerous before. I think this has become infested due to this many poisons and the atom. P, F 94
29. 9 Dermatophagoides spp. e.g. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus
house dust mites
poratka (dust atka) - H 2
30. 9 Sarcoptes scabiei
itch mite
rüh [it is not seen as an animal] It would creep into your skin and little pimples would appear. It would also get wedged in among the fingers. / Something was mixed in pig fat and used as ointment. P 35
31. 9 Sarcoptes suis
pig mange mite
rüh When piglets got the itch, they would be smeared with fat, nowadays with cooking oil. P 9
32. 9 Psoroptes ovis
sheep scrab
rüh The Temoxa, we would dip them in summer and then their wool would not fall out. P 7
33. 9 Pseudoscorpiones e.g. Chelifer cancroides
false scorpions
no name This is a little beetle, I can see them some times. They are like the ones in the TV (scorpions), only they are little. It fell from a tree. It has two feelers. H 5
34. 8 Araneae e.g. Tegenaria domesticaspiders pók A wide spread belief says spiders must not be killed because it brings misfortune. H 100
35. 8 Dolomedes fimbriatus*
raft spiders
vízipók (water pók) The same shape as a spider. W 9
36. 8 Argyroneta aquatica*
diving bell spider
vízipók (water pók) It’s got a big bladder (in fact, a bubble) with which it goes down. W 4
37. 8 Araneus spp. e.g. Araneus diadematus
spider species
keresztespók (crossed pók) You put it into a white bag and let it out in the morning. You would open the bag and it has written your fortune numbers there. / We were afraid of them because they stung. / It is Greek Catholic because it’s got a double cross. G 42
38. 8 Argiope bruennichi
wasp spider
pók This is like a guest spider in these parts. / But it did not eat the common wasp. G 5
39. 8 Pholcidae e.g. Holocnemus pluchei Opiliones e.g. Phalangium opilio
cellar spiders and harvestmen
kaszáspók (scything pók), házi pók (house pók) You pick its leg out, it would still work for a while, sawing the air. / You get plenty of them in the villages. H 61
40. 8 Pardosa spp. e.g. Pardosa alacris
wolf spiders
fődipók (ground pók) Ground spider (that is: not a net weaving species). It has eggs on the back. O 5
41. 8 Thomisidae e.g. Thomisus onostus
crab spiders
pók You can get yellow ones as well. Sits on flowers. G 4
42. 9 Dermanyssus gallinae
poultry mite
poloska, pirostetyű (red louse) It’s there right away in tiny chicks. / You must roast onions and smear it under their little wings, at the tail and the neck. Or, they are stamped out with smoke. P 9
43. 9 Argas reflexus
pigeon tick
madárkullancs (bird tick), vértetű (blood louse) It is very quick. If it spreads in poultry, it would suck their blood, there is plenty of them. P 11
44. 8 gossamer ökörnyál (ox saliva) There will be no rain because the gossamer is stretching (i.e. carried by the wind). / It usually flies during Indian summer. G 16
45. 9 Parasitidae e.g. Parasitus coleoptratorum
a family of predatory mites
poloska A tiny red bug. P 5
46. 9 Microtrombidium pusillum
dwarf velvet mite
Istenbárányka (God’s lambkin), Jézusbárányka (Jesus’ lambkin) It’s so velvet-like, beautiful, no dresses like it are ever made. / They sang: Shine, Sun, shine, Jesus’ lambkin freezes to death under the gardens. And then the Sun shone. / You could see it in springtime. S 17
47. 9 Tetranychus urticae
red spider mite
hamuféreg (ashféreg) - A 4
48. 15 Astacus astacus*, Astacus leptodactylus*
European crayfish, Danubian crayfish
rák, folyami rák (river rák), cseri rák (tanned rák) It’s on the water bottom, on pebbles. / Once upon a time our canals were so clear, full of crabs. W 90
49. 15 Austropotamobius torrentium
Stone crayfish
sebesvízi rák (rapid waters crab), rák This is upstream, in mountain creeks. / You can’t eat it because it’s so tiny. W 2
50. 6 Daphnia spp. e.g. Daphnia magna
water fleas
vízibolha (water flea) Very little, bouncing in water. W 2
51. 9 Argulus foliaceus
common fish louse
tetű (louse) You can find it in marshy lands. / Fish ponds were limed. This is why this bad kind did not occur. W 10
52. 6 Oniscidea e.g. Armadillidium vulgare
woodlice
pincebogár (cellar bogár), krumplibogár (potato bogár) If you touch it, it will become a ball. / Where there is potato and the soil is wetter, it would winter there. H 51
53. 7 Mantis religiosa*
European praying mantis
imádkozó sáska (praying sáska), sáska, alázatos manó (humble imp) It’s hands are like if it would pray, but it doesn’t. / They are usually at the watersides. / It becomes rare. Because of the poisons. Mostly it is encountered on grazing land. / We mostly have these green ones, but you could find some brown ones as well. A, O 42
54. 7 Acrida hungarica*
Hungarian snouted grasshopper
sáska It leaps like magic. / They come in different colours. G, O 2
55. 7 Oecanthus pellucens
Italian tree cricket
őszifíreg (Autumn worm) őszike (little in autumn), haris (roarer) It says ‘gather, gather’. / Autumn is here, the autumn worm sounds. / It comes out only in the evening. / It was brought in on flower vases on the leaves. O 40
56. 7 Locusta migratoria*
migratory locust
siska, sáska, szöcske (hopper) This does not sing, it grazes. It was here long ago, now is gone. / Hay meadows were stripped barren. We collected them. A 11
57. 7 Tettigonia viridissima
great green bush-cricket
sáska, kabóca, szöcske (hopper) It grows high. / Flies and jumps as well. / It likes to be in the reeds on sedges, weeds. / Haven’t seen it for a few years. / It likes to eat leaves, comes in the house. Causes panic, although it does not bite your head off. O 73
58. 7 Dociostaurus maroccanus
Moroccan locust
sáska A bad lot, eats away everything. They fly. / We had them before, in 1951 for the last time. O 9
59. 7 Calliptamus italicus and similar species
Italian locust
szöcske (hopper), sáska They fly. G 7
60. 7 Chorthippus spp. e.g. Chorthippus parallelus
smaller grasshoppers
szöcske (hopper), sáska, kabóca This tiny thing is on the hay meadow. But I don’t know the name. / You get green ones, brown ones. G 63
61. 7 Gryllus campestris
field cricket
tücsök, mezei tücsök (meadow tücsök) Black cricket. It is lured out of the hole with a blade of grass. / It can not jump any more when you crossed it with your finger. As long as it did not return to the ground. Then it would be able to jump again. / It makes music in summer and does not care with the winter. / It has a kind of wing but light. / They would be in the same hole with the dung-beetle (Geotrupes spp.). I would say it is menial of the other one. G 95
62. 7 Acheta domestica
house cricket
tücsök, házi tücsök (house cricket), fehér tücsök (white cricket) Brown-reddish. / Sing in the night. / Well, it leaps, giant leaps. / Long ago it was there in bakeries and in old peasant houses in the door case. / It likes to come in the house, crawls to and fro all winter. / Behind the refrigerators, because it is both warm and damp. / It would loose its colour in the house and sometimes will be quite white by the time it comes out in Spring. H 33
63. 6 Gryllotalpa gryllotalpa
European mole cricket
lótetű (horse louse), lóhere (horse drone), csúr, csikóbogár (foal beetle), medve (bear), ollós bogár (scissors beetle) It can be found in manure. / Eats worms. And the mole eats them and worms alike. / It would make big troubles in seedling beds. / It is called louse, but it’s not so tiny to be a louse. / Flies in the night. / It has millions of tiny eggs in the nest. / Around Losonc it was called a bear. It resembles it. S 98
64. 6 Pyrrhocoris apterus
firebug
suszterbogár (cobbler bug), csiribabó, verőkőtő, kőverő (stone beater), bodobács Nice beetles. The first one to come out in Spring to the sun. / ‘They stick together like the csiribabó’ (firebugs). / ‘They sit out like the verőkőtő’. / Usually on rotten trees. S 100
65. 6 Notonectidae e.g. Notonecta glauca
backswimmers (true bugs)
vízibolha (water flea) This kind of bug is in the water, two legs are long. / If the net was any denser, they would eat up smaller fish in the apex. / Jumps and bites. W 10
66. 8 Gerris spp. e.g. Gerris paludum
water striders
vízipók (water spider), vízimolnár (water miller), vízibizigli (paddle boat) Collects lesser bugs on the surface of the water. Very quick. Always on the top of the water. Maybe it was called water miller for this reason. / We also called it paddle boat. They run in groups. / They can play on the water very well. W 58
67. 6 Dolycoris baccarum and similar species
sloe bug (true bugs)
büdösbogár (stink bogár), büdösbence (stinking Ben), poloska, büdösmártin (stinking Martin), büdösbanka (stinky banka), mezei poloska (meadow poloska) Sometimes you snatch it with raspberries. It’s bitter. And very stinky. / Before cold weather comes, they are already between the window panes. They know winter is coming. H, O 98
68. 6 Palomena prasina, Nezara viridula
green shield bug
southern green stink bug
büdösbogár (stink bogár), büdösbence (stink Ben), poloska Do you know, which is green? The one born this year. By next year it will be the same colour. This is like a swan. A young swan is greyish mottled. H, O 82
69. 6 Graphosoma lineatum
Italian striped-bug
büdösbogár (stink bogár) Lives on dills. Each stem has 10 or 15. / They suck out moisture up at the seeds. / If you only touch any of them, they are stinky. S 15
70. 6 Eurydema ornatum
red cabbage bug
káposztabogár (cabbage bogár), büdösbogár (stink bogár) The same smell as [Dolycoris baccarum]. / Eats cabbage. / Comes in lots. S 14
71. 6 Carabidae e.g. Zabrus tenebrioides
ground beetles
bogár They are running about. Here in the greenhouse. / When the grave is dug, you would see such black bugs often in the ground. H 42
72. 6 Geotrupes spp. e.g. Geotrupes vernalis
dor beetles
ganajtúró (dung grouter) Grouts in cow dung. Undemanding beast. / Makes pellets and rolls them. / There were millions. Today only now and then. S 53
73. 6 Melasoma populi
poplar leaf beetle
no name It would come on poplars in the woods. Crawls on leaves. F 4
74. 6 Phytodecta rufipes
brassy willow leaf beetle
ötpettyes katicabogár (five spots Kate bogár), katicabogár (Kate bogár) It is lighter, yellowish-red, five spots. Gnawed sown Trifolium away. / A pest in parcels under lucerne. A 4
75. 6 Leptinotarsa decemlineata
Colorado potato beetle
krumplibogár (potato bogár), mandalinka, kolorádóbogár (Colorado bogár), kórórágó (stalk gnawer), pizsamás bogár (pijama bogár) This is what we got from America. / You must put nettle in water and leave it for week. It will become stinky and sprays the plant. / You could get paid if you found such bugs. / It was introduced with the potato. / Just now there are not so many. It rained a lot. A 100
76. 6 Chaetocnema spp. and Phyllotrema spp. e.g. Chaetocnema tibialis
flea beetles
balha, káposztabolha (cabbage bolha) It jumps. Makes holes in radish, kohlrabi leaves, cabbage. / Tiny black bugs. A 61
77. 6 Chaetocnema spp. and Phyllotrema spp. (+Erwinia stewartii)
flea beetles and Stewart’s wilt
balha, bogár Tiny black bugs, leaves long marks on the greenish part of maize. / Sucks the leaves, likes sweet corn best. A 4
78. 6 Epicometis hirta
hairy beetle
szőrös kandalló (hairy hearth), bogár Hairy. / Comes on flowers. There are many, in particular on the fields, sunflowers and wheat. A 11
79. 6 Tenebrio molitor
mealworm beetle
drótkukac (wire worm), lisztkukac (flour worm) I bought corn meal in the shop and it was full with it. / It also breeds in ground pepper. / You had better screen the flour before use. H 14
80. 6 Curculionidae e.g. Larinus turbinatus
true weevils
orrúbogár (nosy bug) It has a long trunk. / The wings are hard. A 10
81. 6 Anthonomus pomorum
apple blossom weevil
bimbólikasztó (bud puncher), bimbólikasztó bogár (bud puncher bogár), A tiny bug, gets into the buds when it starts to sprout and does harm to cherries, plums. O 19
82. 6 Cleonus punctiventris
sugar-beet weevil
répabogár (beet bogár) Carrot beetle. Gnaws a hole in the carrot. Sucks the sap of tiny carrots and they perish, wither. This is why it was controlled by spraying. A 2
83. 6 Ceuthorrhynchus macula-alba
poppy ceutorrhynchid beetle
mákbogár (poppy bogár) Punches poppy heads while young. And it would not yield because the worms eat it away from inside. A 2
84. 6 Sitophilus granarius
wheat weevil
zsúzsok, búzazsúzsok (wheat zsúzsok) It is also a bad lot, eats the wheat. / Does harm to fodder inside. / If there is only a little water, it would grow. H 22
85. 6 Bruchus pisi, Acanthoscelides obtectus
pea beetle, bean beetle
zsúzsok, paszulyzsúzsok (bean zsúzsok) Comes from inside the peas. / More recently you can find in beans as well. / All beans must be discarded. Eats the cotyledon out. H 58
86. 6 Lytta vesicatoria
Spanish fly
kőrisbogár (ashtree bogár) My grandmother would say, rain is coming the ash tree stinks. / Very stinky, in particular on the ash tree. F, G 88
87. 6 Cantharidae e.g. Rhagonycha fulva
soldier beetles
kőrisbogár (ashtree bogár) - F, G 7
88. 6,
10
Melolontha melolontha
cockchafer
cserebogár, májusi cserebogár (May cserebogár), pajod, csimmaz, pillangó (butterfly) You can get cockchafer in Spring. Not later. / You need three years before it develops. / If there is a lot of cockchafers, you will get high corn yields. / Cockchafer would lay (give birth to) that white butterfly. O 100
89. 6 Amphimallon solstitialis
summer chafer
cserebogár, kis cserebogár (small cserebogár) It comes later on, in June, mostly (as opposed to the ordinary cockchafer). / This is lesser and yellowish. O 5
90. 6 Cerambyx cerdo
great capricorn beetle*
cincér, hőscincér (hero cincér) It can weep like hell when you get it. / Got large moustache and long legs. / ‘Your moustache is like that of a capricorn beetle.’ S, F 33
91. 6 Rosalia alpina*
Rosalia longicorn
cincér - F 2
92. 6 Pyrrhidium sanguineum
Welsh oak longhorn beetle
kőrisbogár (ashtree bogár) - S 4
93. 6 Lucanus cervus*
stag beetle
szarvasbogár (horn bogár), csikkantós bogár (pinching bogár), bika, tehén (bull, cow) Once you catch it, it would grasp your finger like a pair of scissors. / We would nail it on the wall, the kids just gazed. / This is the bull (male), and this is the cow (female). / They wrestle. Two bulls. / It comes mostly around oak trees. F 98
94. 6 Oryctes nasicornis*
European rhinoceros beetle
orrszarvúbogár (nose horn bogár), orrszarvú (nose horn), szarvasbogár (horn bogár) You can’t get it everywhere. / They like old trees. / A kind of horn beetle. F, S 61
95. 6 Lethrus apterus*
flightless earth-boring dung beetle
bogár This bores holes in the ground and drags in leaves in reserve gear. G 2
96. 6 Pentodon idiota
beetle species
bogár This is in springtime. Those big ones on the sidewalk. S 4
97. 6 Coccinella septempunctata
seven-spot ladybird
katicabogár (Kate bogár), hétpettyes katicabogár (seven spots Kate bogár), petikebogár (Pete bogár) It eats aphids. It seems it likes them. / ‘Kate beetle! Where I go to marry?’ And then we watched. Blew at it till it flew away. That way we married. S, G 100
98. 6 Adalia bipunctata
two-spot ladybird
katicabogár (Kate bogár), petikebogárka (little Pete bogár) Similar to Kate beetle, but has only two spots, unfortunately. S, G 12
99. 6 Psyllobora vigintiduopunctata
22-spot ladybird
katicabogár (Kate bogár), sárga katicabogár (yellow Kate bogár), 11 pettyű katica (11 spots Kate) There are yellow Kate beetles as well. S, G 68
100. 6 Harmonia axyridis
harlequin ladybird
katicabogár (Kate bogár) There was such a Kate beetle invasion last year. They are not the ones I saw when I was a kid. / The Sun shone there in a warm afternoon, there were so many you could grasp them. H 71
101. 6 Meloe spp. e.g. Meloe proscarabaeus (*)
oil beetles
bogár It’s got a big belly like this. F, A 11
102. 6 Calosoma sycophanta*
forest caterpillar hunter
bogár Usually it is on the ground as well. When we get home, it sneezes. You are not hit by what it blows out. Maybe only a little air. Protects itself. / Runs away quickly. F 7
103. 6 Gyrinidae e.g. Gyrinus natator
whirligig beetles
bogár - W 4
104. 6 Dytiscus spp. e.g. Dytiscus marginalis
great diver species
vízibogár (water bogár) - W 4
105. 6 Hydrous piceus
great silver water beetle
vízibogár (water bogár), csíbor (pincher), vízibölény (water buffalo) Big and black, likes warm water. / Mostly in lakes. / Sets on the fish, gnaws on it. / They say it bites. / When it ebbed, they flew here to the light. W 79
106. 6 Cetonia aurata
green rose chafer
szentjánosbogár (Saint John’s bogár), foszforbogár (phosphorus bogár), aranyos virágbogár (golden flower bogár) All say glow worm because it shines as the Sun hits it. But this can not be seen in the night. / Flies with a buzz. Creeps into drying cloth. G 82
107. 6 Lampyris noctiluca, Lamprohiza splendidula
common glow-worm, Central European firefly
szentjánosbogár (Saint John’s bogár), foszforbogár (phosphorus bogár) They are tiny and light up. You can see in the night air. / It’s only a small worm. I would illuminate when the [Oecanthus pellucens] sounds. The back is lighting. G 69
108. 6 Ips spp. e.g. Ips typographus
engraver beetles
szu, szujétel, faszu (wood szu) It makes very small holes, tiny dense holes. / I would put firewood in tin trays to keep it from the parquet. H 100
109. 6 Agriotes spp. e.g. Agriotes sputator
click beetles
drótkukac (wire kukac), drótbogár (wire bogár), drótféreg (wire féreg) Likes carrots. Yellowish, hardy. H 27
110. 6 Diabrotica virgifera
Western corn rootworm
kukoricabogár (corn bogár) Can make a lot of harm. Sucks the sap of the leaves. A 2
111. 6 Blaps spp. e.g. Blaps lethifera
tenebrionid beetle
büdösbogár (stink bogár), büdösbanka (stinky banka), kátránybogár (tar bogár), svábbogár (Swabian bogár) Very stinky when you step on it. / Mostly in cellars. Formerly tar paper was put down in dirt floored houses and it was underneath. H 33
112. 4 Xylocopa violacea, Xylocopa valga
black colored carpenter bees
dongó (buzzer), cigánydongó (Gypsy buzzer) Big, black and collects honey also. Bites. Has a loud buzz. / Does not bite. / I’ve got a barn full of wood. They drill on them like drilling machines. It laid eggs into it. S 53
113. 4 Apis mellifera
European honey bee
méh, méhecske (little méh), házi méh (house méh) It was August when there is less flowers and these times bees are more dangerous, attack you easier. O 100
114. 4 Apis mellifera var. ligustica
Italian bee
vadméh (wild méh), erdei méh (forest méh) It was an old house, full of wild bees in the end. They sting, its painful. / We call them forest bee. Once we brought some home with my father. Ants attacked and killed them off. / They make hives in hollows. / The tree brings that wax. And they eat it. G, F 31
115. 4 Osmia adunca
mason bee species
nádiméh (reed méh) It can nest in a single stem of reed, but can go up to the first node only. / They do not bring in honey, but pollens, and they put a lid on it made of mud, which is gnawed away by the young when they come out of it. H 18
116. 4 Andrenidae e.g. Andrena flavipes
mining bees
csemelyke, vadméhe (wild méh) It is in the ground. Such brownish in colour. Collects nectar, pollen. Tiny. / Leaves little heaps around with a hole in the middle. It does not have a strong sting but it does sting. It’s got a net but not so beautiful which is built by the common wasp. G 15
117. 4 Bombus terrestris
buff-tailed bumblebee
dongó (buzzer), csemélyke, földiméh (ground méh) Hairy. They dwell in the ground. Don’t do any harm to man. Collect honey as well. / Maybe there is a yellowish stripe in the back on top. / Like my finger – they make little round nests to put honey in it for themselves. Foxes, dogs, mice rake it out and eat. G, O 25
118. 4 Bombus lapidarius
red-tailed bumblebee
dongó (buzzer) It does not die as the other bee which has the sting coming out. This one does not tear its sting off, it merely stings you. / Such a big black with red and yellow head. G, O 7
119. 11 Formica rufa*
red wood ant
vöröshangya (red hangya), erdei vöröshangya (forest red hangya) Where there is this big ant, it makes a big ant hill. If you poke it millions come out, but they are all alike. F 14
120. 11 ant casts with wings szárnyashangya (winged hangya) It drills the ground and then billions fly around in the air. / It comes out from the parquet in the apartment. / We would say if the winged ant comes out, it will rain. S 85
121. 11 Camponotus spp. e.g. Camponotus ligniperda
carpenter ants
tököshangya (ballsy hangya), hangya, fekete hangya (black hangya) They gnaw at trees. / We could not stay there under the walnut tree (sitting, talking) there were so many. I put salt on their way and later I could see that they move away. Now see, that one came back, just like talking something to the others and they queue up and move out. I say, cunning beasts, they are. That one was the officer, who commanded. / It’s ballsy because it carries the eggs between the legs like a big squash. / I brought into the flat with the wood. F 42
122. 11 Lasius flavus, L. umbratus
yellow meadow ant
sárga hangya (yellow hangya) That one is yellow, bites like hell. / Like the poppy seeds, so tiny they are. A 21
123. 11 Temnothorax spp. e.g. Temnothorax affinis
ant species
hangya Galls grow on oak trees. Some kind of tiny ants are fond of living in them. They make a little hole in it where they can get through. They would thrive on the gall. F 2
124. 11 Tetramorium caespitum and similar ant species hangya, fekete hangya (black hangya) There are so many in the garden it is like a miracle. They climb on our legs but do not bite so hard. Tiny black bits. S 100
125. 4 Sceliphron destillatorium
mud dauber wasp
darázs, szalmadarázs (straw darázs) Makes nest of mud on the rafter. / It’s long and thin. S 20
126. 4 Sphecidae e.g. Ammophila sabulosa
digger wasps
földidarázs (ground darázs) Drills a hole in the sand. Come and go in it. G 2
127. 4 Vespa crabro
European hornet
lódarázs (horse darázs) That one is dangerous. Some 5–6 bite you, you may die. / We say, if nine horse wasps bite the horse, it will perish. / It made a 12 storey nest, hanging on the wall. / You had to pee on the ground and smear the mud over it (the bite). / Many are allergic when bitten. It would not die after biting. Goes on, bites again. F 100
128. 4 Vespula vulgaris, Polistes gallicus
paper wasp species
kecskedarázs (goat darázs), darázs, házi darázs (house darázs), padlási darázs (attic darázs) My whole head was swollen. I was a kid, the old women gathered around, some brought sour cream, this or that. I was smeared over, embalmed. Next day I was okay. / Likes mainly the attic. / The mother survives in winter and then there are many in summer. / Aphid appear on the young upper leaves of the peach tree, then the wasp comes but they do not do any harm to the lice I think they eat what the aphid produce. S 61
129. 4 Paravespula germanica
German wasp
darázs, földidarázs (ground darázs) They put fire above the nest, they were poured over with hot water, put chemicals on it. / It had a tiny hole like this. They would keep on coming and going there and built a beautiful honeycomb. S 100
130. 15 Cynips quercusfolii
gall wasp species
cseregolyó (oak ball), gubacs This is not the fruit of the tree, it is on the leaves. On oak trees. / There is some bug in this ball as well. Hatches from it. F 37
131. 15 Rhodites rosae
mossy rose gall wasp
gubics, hamufíreg (ash worm), macskatöki (cat’s bollocks), csipkelabda (rose hips ball) It’s on briars. I saw it on roses. Good for nothing like the balls of a cat. G 11
132. 15 Andricus hungaricus
Hungarian gall wasp
gubacs (gall), gubics (gall) My mother made us thrown them away. You must not keep it (at the house) because brood will not hatch the eggs. F 83
133. 14 Acherontia atropos*
Death’s-head hawk moth
ördögpillangó (devil’s pillangó), boszorkánylepke (witch lepke), halállepke (death lepke), halálfejes lepke (death’s head lepke) Quite big. A pest. / Big and ugly like the devil. / They say it was a witch butterfly, but this is wrong. Some old bitches made it up. / Comes in the evening and flies around here. / It has a big death's head. S 77
134. 14 Macroglossum stellatarum
hummingbird hawk-moth
lepke, kocsisirma (carman Irma), kolibri (hummingbird) Has a long tongue reaching in every flower. / Is like a hummingbird. / Make noises with the wings. S 36
135. 14 Lepidoptera e.g. Melitaea athalia
butterflies
lepke, pillangó, hernyó Not a real pest. We were glad to see them long ago. They are very nice. G 100
136. 14 Ephestia kuehniella
Mediterranean flour moth
moly A little worm. When you screen the flour, it’s like a spider web, woven in. Flour gets the moth when you keep it long, let’s say a year. H 7
137. 10 Coccyx turionella
pine bud moth
rügyfúró (bud driller) They can make big damage when they are many. Does harm to cherry trees in springtime mostly. This is long like this, has a bill, it punches the plants with. O 2
138. 10 Cydia pomonella, Anarsia lineatella
codling moth, peach twig borer
kukac, hernyó Moth larvae are called worms here. Likes to take a place in quince. O 9
139. 14 Inachis io*
European peacock butterfly
pávaszemes lepke (peackock lepke), pávaszem (peackock’s eye) If you see a red one first in the new year, you will remain healthy and fall in love. G 9
140. 14 Vanessa atalanta*
red admiral
lepke - O 2
141. 14 Vanessa cardui
painted lady
lepke It was like this which came from Africa (heard on the radio). And next year I saw two or three but never again. Maybe it would not find food to stay. O 2
142. 14 Gonepteryx rhamni
common brimstone
sárga lepke (yellow lepke), sárga pille If you see a yellow butterfly first in spring, you’ll fall ill. G 7
143. 14 Pieris brassicae
large white
káposztalepke (cabbage lepke), lepke, fehér lepke (white lepke) Lays eggs on the cabbage and a little green worm comes out of it. / Its wings are white and there are plenty. Cockchafers lay its worm. You say when there are many cockchafers, there is plenty of worms on the trees. A 86
144. 14 Polyommatus spp. e.g. Polyommatus icarus
blues (butterfly species)
lepke, pillangó, kék pillangó (blue pillangó) After the rain these white butterflies are in the edges of puddles. As many can get to it. / Bluish grey. It was small. G 31
145. 14 Mamestra brassicae
cabbage moth
bagolylepke (owl lepke), éjjeli pille (nocturnal pille) Eats cabbage, cauliflowers, broccoli. When you see plenty of butterflies, soon the worms will come. / It comes through the window when it is open. A 11
146. 14 Tineola biselliella
common clothes moth
moly, molylepke Eats your clothing. / The little moth worms. H 96
147. 14 Ostrinia nubilalis
European corn borer
málépillangó (maize pillangó), molylepke If you are careless and leave old corn in the silo and put the new one on top, that one will be two years old and definitely infested with it. / Doesn’t eat the corn, just the germ. / When corn is over, half a handful of dust is left. It is butterfly droppings. S 70
148. 14 Catocala elocata
French red underwing
bagolylepke (owl lepke) The one with the red back wings. A 2
149. 14 Helicoverpa armigera
cotton bollworm
bagolylepke (owl lepke), paszuly-molypillangó (beans molypillangó) It goes into the geranium buds and eats them from inside. / Likes to attach to trees. And to the walls, frequently comes in. / When it comes out of the bean, a hole is left behind. A little white worm. A 23
150. 14 Cossus cossus
goat moth
szúlepke (engraver beetle lepke) Big brown butterfly. Puts eggs into the bark. It gets into timber laid a long time raw with the bark on. They are almost as big as a grub. Gnaw out passages like a pencil. S 5
151. 14 Saturnia pyri*
giant peacock moth
boszorkánypille (witch pille), halállepke (death lepke), szemeslepke (eyed lepke) They are big, appear late in the evening when you put the lights on. / Superstitious folks would nail it above the door. O 16
152. 14 Iphiclides podalirius*
scarce swallowtail
fecskefarkú lepke (swallow tail lepke), fecskeszárnyú pillangó (swallow winged pillangó) The same (as Papilio machaon), only with a different colour and patterns. / The wings have forked ends. G 14
153. 14 Papilio machaon*
common swallowtail
fecskefarkú lepke (swallow tail lepke), fecskeszárnyú pillangó (swallow winged pillangó) See above G 14
154. 14 Lymantria dispar
Gypsy moth
gyapjaspillangó (woolly pillangó), gyapjaslepke (woolly lepke) Worm, eats away the leaves of a tree. One year it grazed off all leaves by the first of July. Within less than one and half months it was green again because what nature can spoil, can make it right again. F 56
155. 14 Bombyx mori
domesticated silkmoth
selyemhernyó (silk hernyó), selyemlepke (silk lepke) They had to go each day, picked the mulberry tree leaves for them. H 4
156. 15 Aedes spp. e.g. Aedes vexans
mosquito species
szúnyog, baglinc Can cause inconvenience. / Has the impertinence to enter the house. / Little, thin, but if sucks itself full of blood, the bite would itch, you can’t help it. / When it's rainy, there is plenty, and evenings in marshy places. / I got the malaria once from a mosquito bite. I was a little girl. H 100
157. 6 Ceratopogonidae e.g. Culicoides imicola
biting midges
báglinc, muslinca Tiny beasts, like a bigger poppy seed. / It was black, but it is also bad. / There was plenty on the meadow in floods. / Harder and smaller than the mosquito. / If you smear it over with vinegar, itching will go away. F 14
158. 14 Psychodidae e.g. Clogmia albipunctata
moth flies
no name There is a million in the bath. Both summer and winter. H 13
159. 6 Drosophila spp. e.g. Drosophila melanogaster
fruit flies
muslica, muska, baglinc There are millions. When the wine works. / Doesn’t go into the must. H 100
160. 15 Tipula spp. e.g. Tipula maxima
crane flies
szúnyog, szúnyogkirály (king szúnyog), árvaszúnyog (orphan szúnyog), apatini szúnyog, óriásszúnyog (giant szúnyog) It does not bite, only flies around in the house. / The long legged one does not creep on you. / We stroke the mosquito king to death, there will be no mosquitoes now – this is how we said. H 60
161. 5 Tabanus bovinus
pale giant horse-fly
bögöly, pécsik It’s got streaked eyes. / Bites you as well, but cows get them in lots! / When you sweat, it will attack you. P 11
162. 5 Oestrus ovis
sheep bot fly
bogár A fly lays eggs in the nostril of the sheep. When developed, the sheep would blow it out. We would always see two or three in the fodder trough. P 4
163. 5 Gastrophilus intestinatus
horse bot fly
lóbögöly (horse bögöly) - P 2
164. 5 Haematopota spp. e.g. Haematopota pluvialis
clegs (horsefly species)
pécsik, pécsiklégy, bögöly, lólégy (horse légy), bogaraztató légy (make-jump légy) It bites the cows in summer. Horses even more. Greyish. Bite more before rain. / From beginning, mid-July up to mid-August is the season when they attack livestock in big numbers. P 83
165. 5 Hypoderma bovis
warble fly
iméj, böge, dongólégy (buzzing légy), zigarzóbogár Winters under the skin of wild game. Long ago they were there under the skin of the cattle, livestock. / We would press them out from the back of the cows. / When it started to buzz, it rounded up livestock like a dog. P 77
166. 5 Lucilia spp. e.g. Lucilia caesar
blow flies
döglégy (carcass légy), beköpőlégy (spiting légy) Shiny, mostly on droppings. / You must not have meat left exposed because flies would have spat on it. S 73
167. 5 Calliphora vicina
bluebottle blowfly
döglégy (carcass légy), köpőlégy (spiting légy) Spit on meat (=lays eggs on meat). / Bluish ones are bigger than the green ones. S 21
168. 5 Fannia canicularis
lesser house fly
légy, kutyalégy (dog légy), istállólégy (stable légy) Little black. Not so noisy like an ordinary fly. And keeps on flying around the lamp. H 15
169. 5 Musca domestica
housefly
légy, házi légy (house légy), pusztuljka (little perish) It’s not so dangerous which is in the house. / When flies bite, it will rain, they say. H 100
170. 5 Stomoxys calcitrans
stable fly
légy Smaller with a pointed nose. They would bite my leg. S 2
171. 5 Haematobia irritans
horn fly
óli légy (pen légy), légy That one is longer nosed, but smaller, bites so hard that you jump. S 7
172. 5 Sarcophaga carnaria
common flesh fly
nyűszaró (maggot shit), dongólégy (buzzing légy), köpőlégy (spiting légy) Big blacks also spat on the meat. And then the maggots gnawed out the meat. / Big and humming, flies quickly. / Maybe this lays most because it is directly full with those tiny worms. You can see it when you squash it. S 66
173. 5 Simulium spp. e.g. Simulium colombaschense
black flies
kolombácsi (originated from Kolumbács) This attacks the livestock, cows intensively. They say, it may happen that the cow will perish when bitten. / This fly was here in 1938 and it was drummed out that everybody should take care and not go to the meadows too frequently, because you will get bitten. / We put (dry) manure in a pot and walked around the grandma so she could hoe and this fly did not hurt her. We made smoke of it. S 25
174. 9 Melophagus ovinus
sheep ked
juhkullancs (sheep kullancs), kullancs Stays in sheep. Flat. / Gnawed the wool. P 4
175. 5 Hippobosca longipennis
dog fly
kutyalégy (dog légy) Sticks on the dog, you can hardly get rid of it. P 2
176. 10 Rhagoletis cerasi s.l.
cherry fruit fly
kukac My mother would say we should not look for it, because the tiny worm was created in it. Well, it was, because it was put in it during blossoming. O 94
177. 10 Rhagoletis pomonella
apple maggot
almalégy (apple légy) In fact not all are the same, this one gnaws at the apples only. O 10
178. 10 Psila rosae
carrot fly
fíreg, murokfíreg (carrot worm) Little soft white worm. S 6
179. 10 Delia radicum
cabbage fly
káposztaféreg (cabbage féreg) Gnaws on cabbage leaves, but what it will become, we do not know. A 12
180. 9 Braula coeca
bee louse
méhkullancs (bee kullancs) A tiny animal. / You get them on bees, this red one. It kills the bees. / When you neglect their management, it’s when it comes. P 6
181. 9 Aphididae (green) e.g. Aphis pomi
green colored aphid species
levéltetű (leaf tetű), tetű, ződtetyű (green tetű) That one is green. It does not hatch (does not lay eggs), it litters (gives birth). The ladybird eats them. The dropping is sweet. Ants would climb the tree to feed on it. / It is under the leaves. It sucks and the leaf goes dry. If there are many on the peach tree, wasps would also gather. O 100
182. 9 Myzus cerasi
black cherry aphid
fekete levéltetű (black leaf tetű), levéltetű (leaftetű) The black leaf louse likes cherries better. / The edges of the leaf curl up because it sucks on it. O 16
183. 9 Dysaphis plantaginea
rosy apple aphid
szürketetű (grey tetű), tetű Tiny and grey. Water with bordeaux mixture, it will be killed off. A little weak something. The leaf would curl up. O 21
184. 9 Planococcus citri
citrus mealybug
gyapjastetű (woolly tetű) This one is like if it was mouldy. It is mostly at the stem of leaves. This does not fly, where does it generate, where does it come from, I do not know. O 4
185. 9 Aleyrodina e.g. Aleyrodes proletella
whiteflies
hamufíreg (ash fíreg), tetű, pillangó The twig would go entirely white. / Those whites are the butterflies. It does harm to the grapevine. Gnaws at it when in blossom. A 20
186. 9 Pulex irritans
human flea
bolha Jumps, tiny and black. / We would put walnut tree leaves in the neck to the shirt, so they did not hurt us. P 100
187. 9 Ctenocephalides canis
dog flea
bolha, rókabolha (fox bolha) There are many fleas in the dog which also attacks man. / That one would bite you as well, but it does not stay, does not like it so much. P 6
188. 9 Viteus vitifolii
vine louse
filoxera - O 2
189. 9 Coccoidea e.g. Quadraspidiotus perniciosus
scale insect
pajzstetű (shield tetű) We did not have it when I was a child. / It’s like an armour on the back. Eats away the leaves but the stems even more. / That one is here on the plum tree. Sometimes it’s not any more only the house. It has left it. O 7
190. 9 Eriosoma lanigerum
woolly apple aphid
vértetű (blood tetű) - O 4
191. 9 Pediculus humanus capitis
head louse
tetű, fejtetű (head tetű), hajtetű (hair tetű), serke Climbs on you, on your head. / It’s not a shame to get it, only to keep it. / It was healed at the house. We mixed oil, spirit and petrol and smeared with it. We still have it. It’s because untidiness. P 100
192. 9 Menacanthus stramineus
chicken body louse
tyúktetű (hen tetű), tetű It does not stick to man. / It was controlled by onion oil. You must roast onions and smear it. / Pig fat, small red peppers were put in it, and [Sambucus ebulus] in the pen. P 91
193. 9 Haematopinus suis
hog louse
tetű, disznótetű (pig tetű), sörte It’s greater than the other lice, but does not live of man. P 29
194. 9 Bovicola bovis
red louse
tetyű Cattle would be smeared over with tobacco juice. There is none any more. P 20
195. 9 Pediculus humanus humanus
body louse
ruhatetű (cloth tetű), tetű Which lives in the cloth, would not go on your head. / That one is white. P 91
196. 9 Pthirus pubis
crab louse
lapostetű (flat tetű) They say it’s on your loin only. Nowhere else. P 8
197. 9 Cimex lectularius
bed bug
poloska You had to sleep with the lights on because in the dark the plant bug would come out. / They occurred only during the war. P 27
198. 6 Blatta orientalis
oriental cockroach
csótány, svábogár (Swabian bogár) In the blocks of flats. Totally black beetle, a larger one. / They creep under the cupboards. / If you put on the light, it will disappear. H 23
199. 6 Blattella germanica
German cockroach
csótány, svábogár (Swabian bogár) They like to stay in neglected, abandoned kitchens. H 12
200. 6 Dermaptera e.g. Forficula auricularia
earwigs
fülbemászó (ear crawler) Climbs in your ear and drills it. A bad lot. It has a little dart. / Some went deaf. / Runs away quickly, thin and long. / Cloth, coat was left hung on the tree, this would enter there. O 92
201. 7 Cicadinae (except Cicada orni) e.g. Cicadella viridis
cicadas
sáska, szöcske (hopper) A little bouncing bug. G 7
202. 7 Cicada orni*
bigger cicada species
őszike (little autumn), trücsök It is able to sound for hours (vocalisation). Starts to buzz at harvest time. It is able to howl for 10 minutes, for 20 minutes the same tone. / It’s rare in our region, but there are many of them at the sea (Adriatic). O 7
203. 15 Cercopidae e.g. Philaenus spumarius
froghoppers (cicad species)
hab (foam) It might be a kind of saliva. / There are little ash worms in it, that’s why. G 74
204. 6 Myrmeleontidae e.g. Myrmeleon formicarius
antlions
porvaatka (dust mite), bogár There is a lot of dust under the barn, where it is dry, it makes that nest. But it turns around with such a speed it would scatter dust on both sides. / Sparrows pick them out all. S 12
205. 14 Chrysopa spp. e.g. Chrysopa perla
lacewings
szitakötő (sieve weaver), aranyszemű fátyolka (gold eyed veil), lepke Flutters its wings. / Comes in to the light. / Very stinky when you catch it. / Its wings are like a sieve. There is plenty of them in Fall. H 29
206. 15 Palingenia longicauda*
Tisa mayfly
tiszavirág (Tisza flower), kérész Short lived. One day and it’s over. W 18
207. 15 Odonata e.g. Sympetrum sanguineum
red dragonflies
szitakötő (sieve weaver), vízipillangó (water pillangó), víziszita (water sieve) It’s got a wing like a sieve. / Flies above the water and feeds on mosquitoes. Flies quickly, stops suddenly and hovers. W 21
208. 15 Odonata e.g. Anax imperator
blue dragonflies
szitakötő (sieve weaver), vízipillangó (water pillangó), víziszita (water sieve) See above. W 100
  1. Latin equivalent, English scientific name and Hungarian vernacular names of 208 invertebrate taxa with a typical citation for each, main habitat and proportion of informants who knew the taxon. Key places of encounter and habitats are as follows: aquatic, riparian habitat (W); forest (F); grassy, shrubby areas (G); cropland (A); vineyard, orchard (O); surrounding of the house, village, garden (S); on animal/human (P); in the house (H), everywhere (O)