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Table 2 Medicinal plant used at sub-division Ladha of South Waziristan agency. FC = Frequency of citation, UV = Use value

From: Ethno-medicinal survey of important plants practiced by indigenous community at Ladha subdivision, South Waziristan agency, Pakistan

Family Plant species/Family name/Voucher No Local names (Pashto language) Part(s) used Medicinal uses UV FC
Aizoaceae Portulaca oleracea L./KUSBT-511 Sormai Aerial parts Juice of the plant has diuretic effect and is considered valuable in treating urinary tract infections and gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery. The seeds of the herb are vormifuge and demulcent. 0.87 24
Alliaceae Allium cepa L./KUSBT-512 Pyoz Bulb Juice of the herb is used for treatment of gastrointestinal problems. It is also used as diuretic and expectorant. For the treatment of cough, bulb is wrap in cloth and worn like a necklace. 39.00 9
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus viridis L./KUSBT-513 Ranzaka Leaves It is used as vegetable and fodder for cattle. The powder of Leaves and seeds are mixed with half weight of sugar and then a spoon of this mixture is given with black tea to the children three times daily for the treatment of constipation. Leaves are given as emollient and are used for scorpion sting, snakebite and as anthelmintic. 0.33 11
Anacardiaceae Pistacia chinensis Bunge//KUSBT-514 Shrewaniay Fruit Galls used in native medicine, fruit oily and edible. Leaves powder is applied topically on ulcers and chronic sores. Poultice of slightly roasted Leaves is applied to inflamed swellings and rheumatic joints. 0.41 15
Arecaceae Nannorrhops ritchieana (Griff.) Aitch./KUSBT-515 Mazarai Leaves The decoction of leaves is used as stomachic. 0.29 10
Asclepiadaceae Caralluma tuberculata N.E.Br./KUSBT-516 Pamanai Whole plant The plant is effective in the treatment of different kinds of diseases such as dysentery, constipation, hepatitis B and C and stomach pain. It is also effective in diabetes and also used to control blood pressure. 0.67 18
Asteraceae Cichorium intybus L./KUSBT-517 Speen gul Whole plant Plant’s decoction is effective in the treatment of liver disorders and urinary tract infections. The herb is used as tonic, laxative and diuretic. Diarrhea is also treated with the plant. 0.44 21
Asteraceae Lactuca serriola L./KUSBT-518 Salad Whole plant Cough, bronchitis, asthma and pertussis are treated by using the herb. It is also diuretic, sedative, diaphoretic and antispasmodic. 0.87 24
Asteraceae Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber ex F.H.Wigg./KUSBT-519 Zeer gul Whole plant This herb is used as tonic having nutritive properties. It is strong stomachic and diuretic. The infusion of the herb is use for liver disorders. It is also efficient in dropsy, arthritis and rheumatism. Roots have laxative properties. 0.46 9
Asteraceae Xanthium spinosum L./KUSBT-520 Spin aghzai Whole plant This herb is used medicinally as diuretic, sedative and diaphoretic. 0.27 12
Asteraceae Xanthium strumarium L./KUSBT-521 Tatasai Fruit, Roots, seeds Powder of seeds fruits and roots are demulcent and are used in stomach disorders. 0.22 9
Berberidaceae Berberis lycium Royle/KUSBT-522 De wrogha betai Bark, Leaves, root The roots of the plant are effective in the treatment of Skin diseases, piles and chronic diarrhea. Bark and Leaves are used as antiseptic and as tonic. To treat jaundice, mostly Leaves are used. Fruit is taken orally for the treatment of kidney problems. Decoction of root is a good remedy which is used as a purgative for the children and also used as blood purifier. 0.85 24
Brassicaceae Lepidium draba L./KUSBT-523 Zangali meelay Seed Seeds of the plant are carminative. Mostly the plant is used as tonic and stomachic. 0.15 12
Brassicaceae Raphanus sativus L./KUSBT-524 Meelay Leaves To cure jaundice, urinary tract infections and piles, fresh and young roots are eaten. Leaves work as diuretic and laxative. 0.67 18
Cannabinaceae Cannabis sativa L./KUSBT-525 Bhangay Flowering stems of female plants leaves, Marijuana is the famous drug prepared traditionally from the plant. Fresh and young Leaves of the female plant are dried and grinded to make powder and is taken orally with water, milk and sweet to get cooling effect. The plant is also used to treat urinary tract diseases. The plant is also used in various medications in order to treat asthma, depression, insomnia and depression due to its sedative and analgesic effects. 0.80 10
Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium album L./KUSBT-526 Spin Sormei Whole plant Plant is diuretic, aphrodisiac, appetizer and used as tonic. Abdominal pain is also treated with the herb. the plant is also ant helmentic and is effective in the treatment of liver disorders, jaundice. The young shoots of the plant is soaked in a glass of water for 3–5 h and then the filtrate is used orally to treat kidney pain. To remove the kidney stones, half glass of the above filtrate is mixed with equal amount to the extract of corn hair and is taken orally. 0.89 11
Compositae Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kitam./KUSBT-527 Tarkha Whole plant Infusion is used as purgative. To treat burns smoke is a good remedy. Also relieve ear pain. 0.33 3
Compositae Aster trinervius Roxb. ex Roxb./KUSBT-528 - Root Root of the plant is useful in the treatment of pulmonary infections and cough. Hemorrhage is also treated. Seed decoction is used for obstructed menstruation. 0.60 5
Compositae Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist/KUSBT-529 - Whole plant Plant has diuretic and stimulant properties. 0.10 3
Compositae Tagetes patula L./KUSBT-530 Zear-gullai Fruit Fruit is used for cooling agent, and as demulcent. 0.27 2
Convolvolaceae Convolvulus arvensis L./KUSBT-531 Parwathiay Leaves, root The roots are dried, crushed and taken orally one or two spoon as purgative. The herb is used for skin infections. Leaves are use as poultice and as antiseptic. Leaves decoction is made up which is used two spoon daily for the regulation of abnormal menstrual cycle in woman. 0.47 4
Cucurbitaceae Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad./KUSBT-532 Maraghenaiy Fruit, seeds Juice is extracted from the plant and is mixed with sugar and is taken in dropsy. This mixture is also used externally on skin during leukoderma. Oil is extract from the seeds and used topically on skin during snake bite. Honey is mixed with the grinded fruit making Tarkha Halwa which is taken 3 to 4 teaspoon thrice a day for stomach problems and expel worms. 0.73 7
Cupressaceae Cupressus sempervirens L./KUSBT-533 Servay Fruit, root, seeds, Fruit is given to animals to produce cooling effect. Seeds and root/decoction is used for gastrointestinal diseases. 0.27 2
Fabaceae Alhagi maurorum Medik./KUSBT-534 Sobena betai Whole plant Plant is expectorant, laxative, anti-diarrheal and antiseptic. Exudation obtained from the branches and Leaves is used as blood purifier. Roots of the plant are dried and grinded into powder and then take two grams of the powder with water daily for 2 weeks in order to treat kidneys problems. 0.64 8
Fabaceae Astragalus creticus Lam./KUSBT-535 Aghazai Aerial parts Arial parts of the plant have sedative effect and are used as tonic. 0.33 3
Fabaceae Astragalus grahamianus Benth./KUSBT-536 Aghzai Whole plant The herb is a good analgesic agent and also used in the treatment of abscesses. 0.20 2
Fabaceae Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge/KUSBT-537 Aghzia Root The roots of the plant are used as and vasodilator. 0.19 3
Fabaceae Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker/KUSBT-538 Ghuger Leaves, roots, seeds Medicinally the root of the plant is used as cooling agent and as a diuretic. Leaves and seeds are used for gastrointestinal diseases urinary tract infections, eczema and are used as anthelmintic, to kill the abdominal worms. 0.69 7
Fabaceae Trifolium pratense L./KUSBT-539 Jangali Shautala Flower Flowers heads of the herb are used to cure skin infection. The herb is a good antispasmodic and expectorant. It also has estrogenic effect helping in the control of menopausal complaints. 0.46 4
Fagaceae Quercus dilatata A.Kern./KUSBT-540 Ghora tsarray Fruit, leaves The corns are roasted and eaten and are used as tonic. 0.26 2
Fumariaceae Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley/KUSBT-541 Paparie Whole plant Extract of the whole plant is used for the production of cooling effect. The plant is diuretic, diaphoretic. 0.68 8
Geraniaceae Geranium wallichianum D.Don ex Sweet/KUSBT-542 Ranjot Rhizome To lower the blood pressure and to treat the leucorrhea, rhizome of the plant is used. The rhizome is also used as a source of tonic and also helps in treating rheumatism. 0.53 6
Juglandaceae Juglans regia L./KUSBT-543 Matak Fruit, root Kernels are eaten raw to gain weight, also used as brain tonic. Root bark and Leaves are used for teeth cleaning. 0.65 5
Labiatae Marubium vulgare L./KUSBT-544 Qurashka Whole plant The plant is used as tonic. It has also expectorant and diuretic properties and is used for pulmonary problem. Used in cold fever. 0.60 7
Labiatae Mentha aquatica L./KUSBT-545 Podina Whole plant Decoction of the herb is used to treat digestive problems and cough. The herb is carminative and is used for flatulence. 0.80 9
Labiatae Mentha longifolia (L.) L./KUSBT-546 Valanai Leaves Leaves decoction has carminative properties. Leaves are also employed for rheumatic pain, nausea, sickness and vomiting. Leaves of the herb are also a good remedy for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery. Leaves powder are mixed with water and are used for stomach pain and also for cooling effect. 0.87 10
Labiatae Nepeta cataria L./KUSBT-547 Chemjan betai Whole plant Leaves and flowering tops are dried and used as carminative agent, diaphoretic, refrigerant. Leaves are boiled and tea is prepared from it which is useful cold and fever. The tea also gives sedative effect. 0.49 7
Labiatae Perowskia atriplicifolia Benth/KUSBT-548 Sansubai Flower Flowers are soaked in water and the water is applied to the body of the patient to produce cooling effect in fever. 0.31 3
Labiatae Stachy parviflora benth./KUSBT-549 - Leaves, stem The bruised stem and Leaves are anthelmintic and are useful for intestinal worms 0.41 3
Labiatae Teucrium stocksianum Boiss./KUSBT-550 Kastori Whole plant Whole of the plant water boiled and left for overnight. The water is then decanted and is taken for the treatment of cold. It is also used in cases of heart pain. 0.36 2
Labiatae Thymus mongolicus (Ronniger) Ronniger/KUSBT-551 Marvezay Whole plant The herb has many medicinal properties such as it is used as carminative, as a tonic, antispasmodic. it improve poor vision. It is also used for stomach and liver problems also suppress urine and menstruation. Seeds are used as vermifuge. 0.90 11
Labiatae Thymus linearis Benth./KUSBT-553 Gulapi beetai Leaves Leaves are used to cure cough, and asthma and expel worms from the abdomen. The Leaves have also antiseptic values. 0.31 4
Liliaceae Allium ascalonicum L./KUSBT-554 Ghandana Bulb For the treatment of ear pain the extract of the bulb is used. 0.20 2
Liliaceae Allium carolinianum DC./KUSBT-555 Jangali pyoz Bulbs, leaves Both of the plant parts are effective in cough and fever. 0.38 2
Liliaceae Tulipa lehmanniana Merckl./KUSBT-556 Shamdai Flower The flower of the herbs are given to goat for increase lactation 0.27 3
Malvaceae Hibiscus trionum L./KUSBT-557 Khatool Flowers, leaves Flowers are sunken in water and the infusion is helpful in treating skin ailments, itching. The infusion has also used as diuretic. Leaves are dried and are eaten to avoid the stomach pain. 0.47 4
Malvaceae Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench/KUSBT-558. Bhenday Fruit, leaves, seeds Poultice is prepared from its Leaves and is used externally to stop irritation and treat swellings and pains. Mucilage of the fruit and seeds is a useful remedy for the treatment of irritations occurs inside the genitor urinary system. 0.40 4
Malvaceae Malva neglecta Wallr./KUSBT-559 Tikalai Seeds Seeds are crushed and are used to cure cough and ulcer inside the bladder. 0.27 2
Malvaceae Malva parviflora L./KUSBT-560 Tikalai Leaves, root, seeds Seeds are used in cough and in the treatment of ulcer inside the bladder. Leaf decoction is a good remedy for the expulsion of tap worm and profuse menstruation. Underground part is bruised and washed which is grinded to make fine powder then 2 g of the powder is taken and is wrapped inside the butter, eaten after dinner for sex tonic. Plant is also used as laxative. 0.53 3
Malvaceae Malva pusilla Sm./KUSBT-561 Nagankai Leaves, seeds Leaves are applied externally to treat to scurvy and reckoned useful in piles. Seeds of the herb are used to treat skin diseases and also used in the treatment of cough, bronchitis inflammation of bladder. 0.60 6
Malvaceae Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal/KUSBT-562 Shapianga Fruit, leaves, seed Dried fruit are very efficient for dyspepsia and flatulence. Fruit is crushed and the powder is taken orally daily with a glass of water to avoid the stomach ache. To treat gass trouble, 2 or 3 seeds of the herbs are taken after meal. Seeds and fruits of the plant are used to treat digestive problems, diabetes and gastritis. 0.84 11
Moraceae Ficus carica L./KUSBT-563 Togha Fruit Fruits of the plant are eaten in constipation because of demulcent and laxative properties. Ripened fruit of the plant are crushed mixing with a glass of curd and is taken to relieve constipation. Fruit is also useful for the treatment of diabetes, urinary tract diseases and piles. 0.79 7
Moraceae Morus alba L./KUSBT-564 Teeth Fruit, leaves Fruit of the plant have laxative properties used to relieve constipation. Leaves are expectorant and are also used to treat the fever, throat infection. 0.55 6
Moraceae Morus nigra L./KUSBT-565 Thor Teeth Fruit Fruit has a unique test and is eaten by the local people. the fruit is useful in expelling the worm from the abdomen and useful in treating the disease of bad thorax. 0.30 3
Myrataceae Eucalyptus globulus Labill./KUSBT-566 Sofaida Leaves the Leaves of the plant are given to diabetic patient. 0.20 2
Nitrariaceae Peganum harmala L. KUSBT-567 Sponda Aerial parts Seeds are crushed and then they are used to treat colic, asthma, jaundice. They are also anthelmentic. Seeds are antispasmodic, narcotic. Decoction is made from the seeds so as to treat laryngitis. Fruit of the plant is useful for heart pain. 0.93 11
Oleaceae Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Wall. & G.Don) Cif./KUSBT-568 Shawan Fruit, leaves Leaves are antiseptic. The fruit is also used as tonic. 0.47 4
Oleaceae Olea ferruginea Wall. ex Aitch./KUSBT-569 Shawan Fruit, oil Fruit of the plant is an effective appetizer and useful treating caries of teeth and toothache. Oil of the plant is purgative. The oil is also useful in treating liver disorders and rheumatism. Powder of fruit is taken orally on empty stomach in a dose range manner of one teaspoon for forty five days. This remedy is effective in diabetes. 0.78 8
Oxalidaceae Oxalis debilis var. corymbosa (DC.) Lourteig/KUSBT-570 - Whole plant Jaundice and dyspepsia are treating by using whole plant. 0.20 2
Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata L./KUSBT-571 Tarvekai Whole plant Children eat the fresh Leaves of the herb and the local people are used the juice to treat diarrhea and stomach problems. Root decoction is used to expel worms. The extracts of the plant powder is used for scorpion sting. 0.60 5
Papilionaceae Medicago polymorpha L./KUSBT-572 shapeshthlary Leaves Leaves have carminative properties. For the patient of blood pressure, Leaves and young and fresh shoots are very useful. 0.40 3
Papveraceae Papaver nudicaule L./KUSBT-573 Jangali afeen Fruit, leaves Leaves and fruit of the plant have many properties like narcotic, sedative. Treating the lungs infection and bronchitis. 0.29 4
Plantaginceae Plantago lanceolata L./KUSBT-574 Ispaghool Leaves, seeds The leaves of the plant have emollient (softening or soothing the skin) and expectorant properties. Leaves are also used as demulcent and astringent. cough and bronchitis are treated by the infusion of the Leaves. a thicken syrup is made up from the Leaves of the plant in order to alleviate the coughing in childern. seed of the plant has laxative properties. the Leaves of the plant are taken in mouth and remain there in order to avoid the toothach. 0.65 11
Poaceae Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schult./KUSBT-575 Sargarrai Whole plant Differnt parts of the plant are used as tonic. Decoction of the plant is useful for the patient suffering from typhoid fever. 0.27 2
Poaceae Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers./KUSBT-576 Osha Whole plant The grass has laxative properties and also used in asthma. 0.33 3
Pteridaceae Adiantum capillus-veneris L./KUSBT-577 - Aerial parts Local inhabitants of the area use the fern to cure sore throat, bronchitis and cough. 0.40 3
Punicaceae Punica granatum L./KUSBT-578 Nargosa Bark, fruit Fruit is a rich source of iron. To overcome the iron deficiency, the fruit of the plant is eaten. For nasal congestion the bark of the plant is used. Epicarp of the fruit is dried and is given to cattle for treating diarrhea. 0.91 5
Ranunculaceae Ranunculus muricatus L./KUSBT-579 Chambailee Aerial parts Herb is diuretic. It is also used to treat urinary tract infections dysentery and jaundice. It is also useful in treating eczema, ringworm and leprosy. 0.67 6
Rosaceae Duchesnea indica (Jacks.) Focke/KUSBT-580 - Leaves Local healers use the plant for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. Leaves are astringent and used as diuretic. 0.33 3
Rosaceae Rosa webbiana Wall. ex Royle/KUSBT-581 Jangali Gulab Fruit, flowers Flower are stomachic while for the treatment of asthma the decoction of its is used. 0.21 2
Salicaceae Salix babylonica L./KUSBT-582 Wala Leaves Leaves are crushed, and water is released from it then this water is used in 2 to 3 drops three time a day to treat ear pain. 0.13 1
Sapotaceae Sideroxylon mascatense (A.DC.) T.D.Penn./KUSBT-583 Gurgura Fruit Fruit of the plant is used to compensate the Fe deficit. The plant is attractive to honey bees. Fruit is a strong laxative having digestive properties and are also used to treat the urinary tract infections. 0.53 5
Scrophulariaceae Verbascum thapsus L./KUSBT-584 Zakhta Aerial parts The formation and stimulation of coughing up of phlegm can be minimized by using the leaves and flowers of the plant. It is also emollient and astringent. 0.47 5
Solanaceae Datura metel L./KUSBT-585 Tatsai Flowers, leaves, roots, seeds The plant parts are effective in fever caused due to catarrh. They are also used to remove the cerebral complications. Diarrhea and skin diseases are also treated with plant parts. 0.60 5
Solanaceae Datura stramonium L./KUSBT-586 Tatisai Fruit, leaves Fruit and leaves are effective in Parkinson disease, bronchitis and asthma. 0.47 3
Solanaceae Solanum nigrum L./KUSBT-587 Tor mrach Fruit, leaves Leaves are effective against sore throat, hepatitis, abdominal pain and ear pain. Berries of the plant are diuretic and are useful for piles pain. Bark of the root has laxative properties 0.67 6
Umbelliferae Coriandrum sativum L./KUSBT-588 Danya Aerial parts Decoction of the fruit is used to relieve colic pain, bleeding piles. Fruit of the herb is stimulant, aphrodisiac, carminative and refrigerant. It also increases gastric juice secretion. Seeds of the herb are famous for increasing appetite. To treat throat infection, the decoction of the plant is used through gargling. 0.87 10
Umbelliferae Daucus carota L./KUSBT-589 Gajara Fruit, leaves, seeds Seeds are useful in the treatment of kidney problems and uterine pain. Leave are used as vegetables Fruit and seeds are carminative, stimulant, aphrodisiac and refrigerant. 0.67 8
Urticeae Urtica dioica L./KUSBT-590 Teet beetai Aerial parts Plant is used as tonic, diuretic, anti rheumatic, astringent. 0.53 4
Zygophyllaceae Fagonia cretica L./KUSBT-591 Spelaghza Whole plant Plant extract is used for the patient suffering from diabetes mellitus, inflammation and scabies. The hakims of the area use the plant extract for gastrointestinal problems and pains. Fresh leaves and twigs of the plant are grinded and juice is made of them. One glass of the juice is taken daily for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, expulsion of abdomen worms and blood purification. 0.80 6
Zygophyllaceae Tribulus terrestris L./KUSBT-592 Maklenda Seed Seeds of the plant are grinded and then 10 g powder is taken which is mixed with 4 g of maize flour. Then this mixture is taken 3 g after every 3 h to expel the kidney stones. 0.21 2