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Table 2 Note that the taxonomic positions and names of some of the insects mentioned in this table are likely to have changed since the original publication in 1943 by Umemura, on which this table and a similar one in German by Schimitschek (1968) are based. However, in order to avoid ambiguity and confusion, it was felt it was best for this translated version to retain the nomenclature used in the Japanese original. Note also that precise descriptions of the various ways that treatments are administered are not given in this translation. Left out are species included by Umemura (1943) to be used only as generally wholesome food items, e.g., pupae of Psilogramma increta and larvae of Dendrolimus spectabilis, Chilo simplex, Schoenobius incertellus and Zeuzera pyrina (Lepidoptera), larvae of Vespa japonica and larvae and pupae of 5 species of Polistes (Hymenoptera), larvae of Prionus insularis (Coleoptera), adults of Loxoblemus orientalis, L. doenitzi and Gryllodes bethellus (Orthoptera), Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera) and adults of various species of cicadas (Hemiptera). That numerous additional species of insects historically found acceptance as traditional food in Japan is apparent from the list given by Mitsuhashi (2008) in his book on edible insects of the world

From: Therapeutic arthropods and other, largely terrestrial, folk-medicinally important invertebrates: a comparative survey and review

Classification Treatment Additional information
Lepidoptera (Bombycidae)
Bombyx mori Larvae employed in stopping bleedings, throat troubles, fever and snake bite;
Pupae used in connection with throat problems, tuberculosis, kidney problems;
Adults to stop bleedings and counter snake bite.
Faeces used in connection with bellyache, intestines, lumbago, cramps, eye infections, gonorrhoea, brain haemorrhage, haemorrhoids
Antheraea yamamai Larvae used in connection with asthma and cramps;
Pupae for throat and skin troubles, lumps and cramps;
Cocoon used in connection with bone fractures
Antheraea pernyi Pupae to reduce tumour growths & lumps Cocoon to treat bone fractures and cramps
Dictyoploca japonica Eggs used in treating skin problems  
Rhodinia fugax Cocoon for tumour & lump reduction Whooping cough
Lepidoptera (Sphingidae)
Theretra oldenlandiae Larvae all considered effective in treatments of TB, stomach upsets, umps, tumours and fever as well as snake bites  
Theretra nessus  
Acherontia styx  
Pergesa elpenor lewisi  
Macroglossa stellatarum  
Herse convolvuli  
Psilogramma increta  
Lepidoptera (Brahmaeidae)
Brahmaea japonica Larvae used in connection with cramps, respiratory and stomach troubles Larvae can mitigate anaemia
Lepidoptera (Cochlidionidae)
Cnidocampa flavescens Larvae help against cramps; Pupae and adults considered to have positive effect on vision  
Lepidoptera (Hepialidae)
Phassus excrescens Larvae used for lung and stomach troubles and snake bite  
Lepidoptera (Psychidae)
Cryptothelea minuscula Larvae used for toothache and larvae as well as adults for respiratory problems Also used in connection with anaemia
Lepidoptera (Aegeriidae)
Paranthrene regalis Larvae used for stomach upsets, cramps and gynaecological issues Used in cases of diphtheria
Lepidoptera (Cossidae)
Holocerus vicarius Used in fighting fever and cramps  
Lepidoptera (Papilionidae)
Papilio xuthus Larvae and adults all used in connection with skin disorders; adults moreover in treatments of lumps and tumours  
Papilio machaon  
Papilio protenor demetrius  
Papilio macilentus  
Papilio alcinous  
Graphium sarpedon nipponus  
Hymenoptera (Apidae)
Apis indica japonica Honey used in connection with skin, respiratory, urinary and intestinal disorders, snake bite and rabies;
Wax used also in connection with skin and digestive problems and snake bite: Larvae & adults in connection with rheumatism
Honey given in cases of influenza, the common cold and whooping cough; wax for freckles and constipation
Hymenoptera (Xylocopidae)
Xylocopa apendiculata circumvolans Larvae used in connection with fever and respiratory/lung ailments Considered also effective in cases of haemorrhoids
Hymenoptera (Vespidae)
Vespa auraria Larvae used in connection with skin diseases, fever and respiratory problems;
Pupae used in connection with whooping cough
Nest material for ear, eye and dental problems, skin disorders and cramps
Larval treatment in cases of haemorrhoids
Vespa mandarina  
Nest material considered effective in venereal disease and haemorrhoids
Hymenoptera (Braconidae)
Euurobracon penerator Larvae used in cases of cramp  
Coleoptera (Cerambycidae)
Apriona rugicollis Larvae used in connection with lung problems, cramps and palsy  
Batocera lineolata Larvae used to mitigate cramps Used in cancer therapy and diphtheria
Chloridolum thaliodes Larvae involved in treating smallpox  
Coleoptera (Meloidae)
Epicauta gorhami Adults used in treatments of hair, skin excretory (kidney) system and rabies Considered effective in cases of warts
Coleoptera (Cicindelidae)
Cicindela chinensis Adults used in connection with skin, tumours and gynaecological problems  
Coleoptera (Telephoridae)
Luciola lateralis Adults used in connection with bleedings, hair and tumours Considered effective in cases of whooping cough, haemorrhoids and as a tonic
Luciola cruciata
Coleoptera (Hydrophilidae)
Hydrous acuminatus Larvae used in connection with skin disorders and cramps Considered effective in cases of whooping cough
Hydrophilus affinis
Sternolophus rufipes
Coleoptera (Dytiscidae)
Cybister brevis Larvae prescribed in cases of asthma, respiratory and stomach problems  
Cybister japonicus  
Cybister trpuntatus  
Rhantus pulverosus Adults used in cases of skin disorders  
Coleoptera (Scarabaeidae)
Xylotrupes dichotomus Larvae involved in treating gynaecological problems  
Coleoptera (Lucanicidae)
Lucanus macrifemoratus Larvae and adults involved in treatments of gynaecological problems  
Psalidoremus inclinatus  
Coleoptera (Gyrinidae)
Gyrinus curtus
Gyrinus japonicus
Dineutes marginatus
Larvae and adults both used in connection with lung and stomach problems, fever and cramps  
Diptera (Syrphidae)
Eristalis tenax Pupae for eye problems. tooth ache, and fever; adults inconnection with cramps  
Diptera (Tabanidae)
Tabanus trigonus Adults used for eye disorders and tumours  
Tabanus rufidens  
Tabanus chrysurus  
Tabanus mandarinus  
Diptera (Muscidae)
Musca domestica Larvae used in treating snake bites and fever, gut and stomach problems and eye disorders;
Adults in connection with fever, tooth ache and skin disorders
Effective in cases of haemorrhoids
Muscina stabulans
Fannia canicularis
Calliphora lata Used in connection with venereal diseases
Diptera (Ortalidae)
Dryomyza formosa Larvae used to reduce fever, in cases of snake bite, gut and stomach problems and eye disorders  
Diptera (Culiciidae)
Culex pipiens Adults used to counteract venereal diseases  
Aedes japonicus  
Aedes albopictus  
Anopheles japonicus  
Aphaniptera (Pulicidae)
Pulex irritans Adults all used in connection with venereal diseases  
Ctenocephalus canis  
Ctenocephalus felis  
Anoplura (Pediculidae)
Pediculus corporis Adults used in cases of venereal diseases  
Pedicuus humanus  
Orthoptera (Gryllotalpidae)
Gryllotalpa africana Adults used to reduce fever, mitigate skin and kidney troubles and fight tumour growths Considered also useful in connection with venereal disease
Orthoptera (Gryllidae)
Gryllus mitratus Larvae and adults used for fever and tumour reduction Adults used for dysentery
Orthoptera (Locustidae)
Oxya velox Adults used in cases of fever, respiratory, skin and gynaecological problems Effective in treating cancer, haemorrhoids and anaemia
Oxya vicina
Paratenodera aridifolia Adults used in treating fever, beriberi, tooth ache, fever, hair and respiratory problems  
Paratenodera angustiennis  
Statilia maculata  
Hierodula patellifera  
Mantis religiosa  
Blattella germanica Adults used in connection with skin and stomach disorders  
Periplaneta americana  
Periplaneta picea  
Blatta orientalis  
Odonata (Libellulidae)
Sympetrum darwinianum Adults used in connection with throat aches, asthma, tumours and fever Larvae considered to help against whooping cough
Sympetrum elatum Adults used for asthma  
Sympetrum croceolum Adults all considered effective in cases of asthma  
Sympetrum frequense  
Orthetrum albistylum  
Crocothemis servillia Adults used for ear, eye, throat and gut problems as well as fever Used also in connection with diphtheria and cough
Neuroptera (Myrmeleonidae)
Hagenomyia micans Larvae used in connection with fever, migraine/headaches, beriberi and gonorrhoea; adults considered effective in cases of whooping cough  
Neuroptera (Sialidae)
Prothermes grandis Larvae used for treating lung, stomach and gut problems  
Plecoptera (Perlidae)
Perla tibialis Larvae considered effective in cases of cramps  
Perla tinctipennis  
Hemiptera (Nepidae, Belostomatidae, Aphidiidae)
Lacotrephes japonensis Eggs used in connection with bleedings, intestinal and uterine problems; adults in connection with cough, dysentery and haemorrhoids  
Ranatra chinensis  
Ranatra unicolor  
Kirkaldya deyrollei  
Schlechtendalia chinensis Larvae used for endocrine disorders  
Hemiptera (Coccidae)
Ericerus pe-la Wax used to stop bleedings and in connection with lung and stomach problems Considered effective against warts
Hemiptera (Cicadidae)
Terpnosia vacua Larvae used in cases of anaemia;
Exuviae for ear problems, tooth ache and fever as well as kidney problems and tumours
Exuviae also considered effective in cases of smallpox, coughs and haemorrhoids
Platypeura kaempferi
Graptopsaltria nigrofuscata
Cryptotympana japonensis
Tanna japonensis
Oncotympana maculaticollis
Meimuna opalifera
Lepisma villosum Adults used in cases of eye disease and kidney dysfunction Adults also considered effective in cases of paralysis