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Table 5 Major categories of therapeutic uses of invertebrates (based on a variety of published sources and observations by the author during field work in North-East India)

From: Therapeutic arthropods and other, largely terrestrial, folk-medicinally important invertebrates: a comparative survey and review

  Used fresh and crushed or as a paste Used dried, fried or as a powder Boiled and use of extract of insect or spider Tonic or decoction of insect or spider Other, e.g. smoke & fumes or wash
External: applied to aching/injured body part 19 3 3 -- 2
Internal: inhaled, or swallowed with or without liquid 8 25 11 13 6 (as fumes to be inhaled)