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Table 7 Practices related to wasp care in Central Japan, with examples of other relevant human–insect relationships. An earlier version of this table and its accompanying text was published by Payne (2015) in Japanese in the journal 生物化学 (Journal of Biological Sciences) [64]. A discussion of the meanings of Japanese verbs used here can be found in Appendix 2

From: Nested Houses: Domestication dynamics of human–wasp relations in contemporary rural Japan

Shorthand Operationalised as Main impact on Practices specific to wasp care Further examples of insect care
‘Harvesting’ 採集する (saishū-suru) Structured/strategic/systematic harvesting Population demography (1) Harvesting that is influenced by human land use patterns (e.g. preferential harvesting from locations near to roads, settlements); (2) Harvesting that is limited by concerns about population preservation - e.g. some collectors decide to leave nests/areas untouched for fear of over-harvesting. Anaphe panda, Democratic Republic of Congo [98]; Gonimbrasia belina, Namibia [99]; Encosternum delegorguei, Zimbabwe [100].
‘Provisioning’ 餌をやる (esa wo yaru) Encouragement/cultivation/relocation of preferred food source Nutrition and reproductive success; Distribution Leaving food for wasps in locations that are anticipated to be close to nests, mainly when searching for wasps to keep Cirina forda/butryospermi, Nigeria [101]; Oxya spp., Asia [102].
‘Keeping’ 飼育する (shiiku-suru) Relocation/altering location for one generation Distribution; Adaptation to habitat Placing wasp nests in wooden hive boxes, usually (but not exclusively) in areas where nests are not commonly found - e.g. in the village, next to houses. Vespula spp., Japan [103]; Anaphe panda, Democratic Republic of Congo [98].
‘Herding’/ ‘Ranching’ 養殖する (yōshoku-suru) Maintaining relocation/altering location across successive generations Altered selective pressure n/a In parts of DRC, people move caterpillar colonies to feeding trees nearer to the household [104]. Whether this altered location is then maintained over successive generations is unknown.
’Cultivating’ 養殖する (yōshoku-suru) Maintaining relocation/altering location AND encouragement/cultivation/relocation of preferred food source throughout the organism’s life cycle and across successive generations Altered selective pressure Overwintering of gynes, and re-release within an enclosed area near hive boxes with the hope that a new queen begins a colony directly in a hive box, is a conscious attempt to achieve this, but has not yet met with success. Tenebrio molitor, Gryllus spp., the Netherlands [105]; Acheta domesticus, Thailand [69]. Gonimbrasia belina, Zimbabwe [71].