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Table 2 Medicinal plants used to prepare “horchata” and sold at 31 traditional markets in Loja province

From: “Horchata” drink in Southern Ecuador: medicinal plants and people’s wellbeing

Scientific name Vernacular name Geographic status Habit Morphological structure used Therapeutic use Conservation status Voucher number
Adoxaceae
Sambucus nigra L. Sauco, tilo Introduced Tree Flower Antiflu, antitussive, sedative NE FT1252
Amaranthaceae
Aerva sanguinolenta (L.) Blume Escancel Introduced Herb Plant without root Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, diuretic, emmenagogue, restorative, stomachache NE FTMAL008
Alternanthera porrigens (Jacq.) Kuntze Moradilla Native Shrub Branch, flower Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, restorative, tonic NE FT0010
Amaranthus caudatus L. Amaranto, ataco, ataku morado, sangorache Native Herb Inflorescence Antiflu, anti-inflammatory, blood circulation, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, hepatic, stimulant, tonic NE FT0278
Amaranthus hybridus L. Ataco, ataku, bledo, sangorache Native Herb Inflorescence, young leaf Antiflu, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, emmenagogue, tonic, vulnerary NE FTMAL006
Iresine diffusa Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. Chulku, escancel Native Herb Branch Analgesic, antiflu, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, hepatic, tonic NE HUTPL433
Iresine herbstii Hook. Escancel, tigrecillo Native Herb Branch, shoot Analgesic, antiflu, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, sedative, tonic NE FT0486
Apiaceae
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Eneldo, hinojo Introduced Herb Leaf Analgesic, carminative, digestive, diuretic, hepatic, stomachache, tonic NE FT0025t
Niphogeton dissecta (Benth.) J.F. Macbr.a Culantrillo Native Herb Plant without root Analgesic, carminative NE FT0024t
Asclepiadaceae
Orthosia ellemannii (Morillo) Liede & Mevea Cola de caballo Endemic Vine Branch Anti-inflammatory, diuretic VU FT037t
Asteraceae
Gamochaeta americana (Mill.) Wedd.a* Lechugilla, lancetilla Native Herb Plant without root Antiflu, antidiarrheal, vulnerary NE FT026t
Matricaria recutita L. Manzanilla Introduced Herb Plant without root Analgesic, antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, carminative, digestive, sedative, stomachache NE FT0014t
Sonchus oleraceus L. Kana yuyu, cerraja Introduced Herb Plant without root Analgesic, antiflu, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, diuretic, hepatic, stomachache NE FT28t
Tagetes filifolia Lag. Anís Native Herb Flower, leaf Anti-inflammatory, antiflu, carminative, digestive, febrifuge, sedative, stomachache, tonic NE FT0987
Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. Diente de león Introduced Herb Whole plant Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cholagogue, depurative, digestive, diuretic, hepatic, restorative, stomachache, vulnerary NE FT0029t
Begoniaceae
Begonia × tuberhybrida Voss Begonia Native Herb Petal Sedative, tonic NE FT1250
Boraginaceae
Borago officinalis L. Borraja Introduced Herb Flower, leaf Analgesic, antidiarrheal, antiflu, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, emmenagogue, febrifuge NE FT011MAL
Brassicaceae
Matthiola incana (L.) W.T. Aiton Alhelí Introduced Herb Flower Analgesic, antiflu, cardiotonic, digestive, hepatic, sedative, stomachache NE FT1250
Caryophyllaceae
Dianthus caryophyllus L. Clavel Introduced Herb Petal Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic, restorative, sedative NE FT1253
Commelinaceae
Callisia repens (Jacq.) L. Calcha, calsi Native Herb Leaf Hypotensive NE FT51MPAT
Tradescantia zebrina Heynh. ex Bosse Calcha Introduced Herb Leaf Analgesic, febrifuge, hypotensive NE FT30t
Equisetaceae
Equisetum bogotense Kuntha Cola de caballo, caballo chupa Native Herb Branch Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, diuretic, febrifuge, hepatic, hypotensive NE FT031t
Equisetum giganteum L.a Cola de caballo, chupa caballo Native Herb Plant without root Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, depurative, diuretic, hepatic NE FT1009
Fabaceae
Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. a Tintanil Native Shrub Branch, flower Anti-inflammatory, tonic NE FT21t
Gentianaceae
Centaurium erythraea Rafn Canchalagua Introduced Herb Whole plant Antiflu, blood circulation, hypolipemiant, tonic NE FT1016
Geraniaceae
Erodium cf. cicutarium (L.) L'Hér. ex Aiton Agujilla Introduced Herb Branch Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, tonic NE FTE001MC
Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér.ex. Aiton Esencia de rosa, malva esencia Introduced Herb Leaf Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, carminative, diuretic NE FT1258
Pelargonium odoratissimum (L.) L´Hér. Malva olorosa Introduced Herb Branch Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, carminative, tonic NE FT016t
Pelargonium zonale (L.) L'Hér. Geranio, geranio rojo Introduced Herb Petal Antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, astringent, diuretic, vulnerary NE FT17t
Lamiaceae
Melissa officinalis L. Toronjil Introduced Herb Branch Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, cardiotonic, digestive, sedative NE FT45MPAT
Mentha x piperita L. Hierba buena, menta Introduced Herb Leaf Analgesic, antidiarrheal, antiflu,, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, carminative, digestive, tonic NE FT1261
Mentha spicata L. Hierba buena, menta, menta negra Introduced Herb Leaf Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiflu, antidiarrheal, antitussive, carminative, digestive, febrifuge, tonic LC FT1260
Ocimum basilicum L. Albahaca, albahaca de sal, albahaca negra Introduced Herb Leaf Analgesic, antidiarrheal, antitussive, carminative, hepatic, digestive, diuretic, sedative, stomachache, tonic NE FT46TMPA
Ocimum campechianum Mill. Albahaca, albahaca blanca, albahaca de dulce Native Herb Leaf Analgesic, blood pressure, carminative, digestive, restorative, sedative, stomachache, tonic NE FT46aMPA
Linaceae
Linum usitatissimum L. Linaza Introduced Herb Seed Anti-inflammatory, digestive, diuretic, hepatic, stomachache NE FT47TMPA
Malvaceae
Alcea rosea L. Malva goma, malva rosa, malvón Introduced Herb Flower Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, depurative, diuretic, tonic NE HUTPL891
Malva arborea (L.) Webb & Berthel. Malva altea, malva blanca Introduced Shrub Flower, leaf Anti-inflammatory, depurative, tonic NE FT042MC
Malva parviflora L. Malva alta, malva blanca Introduced Herb Flower, leaf Anti-inflammatory, depurative, hepatic, tonic NE FT015MCE
Myrtaceae
Myrcianthes hallii (O. Berg) McVaugh Arrayán Native Tree Leaf Analgesic, antiflu, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, hepatic, restorative NE FT215G
Onagraceae
Fuchsia harlingii Munz Pena pena, pena pena de la montaña Endemic Shrub Flower Anti-inflammatory, sedative VU HUTPL5784
Fuchsia hybrida Hort. T. ex Siebert & Voss Pena pena grande, pena pena roja Introduced Shrub Flower Anti-inflammatory, antiflu, cardiotonic, sedative, stomachache NE FT1262
Fuchsia loxensis Kunth Pena pena rosada Endemic Shrub Flower Cardiotonic, febrifuge, sedative LC FT1158
Fuchsia magellanica Lam. Pena pena morada Introduced Shrub Flower Sedative NE FT0147
Ludwigia nervosa (Poir.) H. Hara Flor de reina, mejorana de huerta Native Shrub Flower Anti-inflammatory, sedative NE FT194
Oenothera rosea L'Her. ex Aiton Shullu Native Herb Plant without root Anti-inflammatory, digestive, diuretic, hepatic NE FT53MPAT
Orchidaceae
Epidendrum jamiesonis Rchb. f.a Flor de Cristo, maywa Native Epiphyte Flower Anti-inflammatory, sedative, diuretic, hepatic A II FT1063
Oxalidaceae
Oxalis corniculata L.a Chulco, chulku Native Herb Branch Antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, hepatic, restorative NE FT1022
Piperaceae
Peperomia galioides Kunth Congona de cerro, sacha congona Native Herb Plant without root Analgesic, cardiotonic, diuretic, sedative, stomachache, tonic NE FT124SAR
Peperomia ilaloensis Sodiro Congona de castilla, congona negra Native Herb Plant without root Analgesic, sedative NE FT01t
Peperomia inaequalifolia Ruiz & Pav. Congona, congona grande Native Herb Branch Analgesic, cardiotonic, diuretic, hepatic, sedative NE FT1197
Piper crassinervium Kunth Waviduca de dulce Native Shrub Leaf Analgesic, antiseptic, stomachache NE FT237
Plantaginaceae
Plantago major L. Llantén Introduced Herb Plant without root Anti-inflammatory, diuretic, hepatic, stomachache, vulnerary LC FT13t
Poaceae
Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Hierba luisa, paja luisa Introduced Herb Leaf Analgesic, cardiotonic, digestive, diuretic, hypertensive, sedative, stomachache NE FT011t
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Grama dulce Introduced Herb Young branch Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, diuretic, hepatic NE FT008MCE
Hordeum vulgare L. Cebada Introduced Herb Seed Anti-inflammatory, digestive, sedative NE MCE017
Polypodiaceae
Niphidium crassifolium (L.) Lellingera Calawala Native Epiphyte Root Anti-inflammatory, diuretic, hepatic NE FT40T
Proteaceae
Oreocallis grandiflora (Lam.) R. Br.a Cucharillo, gañil Native Tree Flower Anti-inflammatory, digestive, diuretic, hepatic, hypoglicemic agent, vulnerary NE FT04t
Pteridaceae
Pityrogramma ebenea (L.) Proctora Doradilla plateada, luna plateada Native Herb Leaf Restorative, stomachache, tonic NE FT014
Rosaceae
Alchemilla aphanoides Mutis ex L. f. Saucillo Native Herb Branch Analgesic NE FT007
Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Teschem. Fresa salvaje Introduced Herb Leaf Depurative NE FT0019t
Rosa cymosa Tratt. Rosa, rosa de castilla Introduced Shrub Petal Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, digestive, sedative, tonic NE FT274
Sanguisorba minor subsp. muricata (Bonnier & Layens) Briq. Pimpinela Introduced Herb Flower, leaf Astringent, cardiotonic, depurative, hemostatic, hypoglycemic agent, hypertensive, sedative, tonic NE FT014MZ
Rutaceae
Citrus x junos Siebold ex Tanaka Naranja agria, naranjo Introduced Tree Leaf Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, digestive, sedative, stomachache NE FT007t
Solanaceae
Solanum americanum Mill. Hierba mora, mortiño Native Herb Leaf Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, digestive, febrifuge, sedative, stomachache NE FT36t
Streptosolen jamesonii (Benth.) Miersa Flor de quinde, flor del sol, jaboncillo Native Shrub Flower Anti-inflammatory NE FT12t
Tiliaceae
Triumfetta semitriloba Jacq.a Abrojo, cadillo, mostrante Native Shrub Flower, leaf Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, astringent, diuretic, febrifuge NE FT39T
Verbenaceae
Aloysia triphylla Royle Cedrón Native Shrub Flower, leaf Analgesic, antispasmodic, blood pressure, cardiotonic, carminative, digestive, hepatic, hypoglycemic agent, restorative, sedative, stomachache NE FT1265
Phyla scaberrima (A. Juss. ex Pers.) Moldenke Buscapina, novalgina Introduced Shrub Plant without root Analgesic, carminative, digestive, stomachache NE FT1240
Violaceae
Viola odorata L. Violeta, violeta de jardín Introduced Herb Flower Antibronquitic, antiflu,, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, depurative, digestive, hoarseness, vulnerary NE FT1266
Viola tricolor L. Pensamiento Introduced Herb Flower Analgesic, antidiarrheal, antiflu, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, diuretic, febrifuge, hoarseness NE FT1267
Zingiberaceae
Hedychium coronarium J. Koening Caña agria Introduced Herb Stem Anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, diuretic NE FT002t
  1. Conservation status: LC = Least concern, NE = Not evaluated, VU = Vulnerable; A II = CITES Appendix II
  2. aWild medicinal plant species collected in nature by women