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Table 3 Ethnobotanical uses of plants in NavaPind and Shahpur Virkan, Sheikhupura (Punjab), Pakistan

From: An ethnopharmacological evaluation of Navapind and Shahpur Virkanin district Sheikupura, Pakistan for their herbal medicines

Sr. no. Family Local name Life form Habitat Part used Methods of preparation Diseases treated Toxicity FL % UV RFC R.I
1. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees LCWU-15-01. Acanthaceae Jungle charaita Herb Wild Flowers/leaves Extract Cough, influenza, diarrhea, blood purifier Non toxic 32.19 0.015 0.66 50.8
2. Amaranthus spinosus L. LCWU-15-02 Amaranthaceae kurand Herb Wild Branches stem/leaves Extract Diarrhea, antidote, fever, fodder No toxic 41.60 0.026 0.765 3.7
3. Amaranthus viridis L. LCWU-15-03 Amaranthaceae Chulai Herb Wild/cultivated Leaves Extract, decoction, paste Constipation, skin tonic, antidote, diuretic, cooking Non toxic 51.84 0.02 0.92 25.5
4. Chenopodium album L. LCWU-15-04 Chenopodiaceae Bathu Herb Wild/cultivated Leaves/stem (whole plant) Extract, decoction Laxative, diuretic, cough, cooking Non toxic 36.30 0.01 0.95 14.6
5. Chenopodium murale L. LCWU-15-05 Chenopodiaceae Jasag Herb Wild/cultivated Whole plant Extract, decoction Laxative, cooking, Fodder, dye Non toxic 27.77 0.02 0.94 5.9
6. Achyranthes aspera (L.) Hill LCWU-15-06 Amaranthacea Puth kanda Herb Wild/cultivated Leaves Decoction, extract, fresh Cough, laxative, stomach complains, fodder, fuel Toxic 12.35 0.02 0.68 7.5
7. Coriandrum sativum L. LCWU-15-07 Apiaceae Dhaniya Herb Wild/cultivated Whole plant Oil, extract Joint pain, stomach complaints, cooking Non toxic 14.55 0.005 0.91 29.7
8. Calotropis procera R. Br. LCWU-15-08 Asclepiadaceae Aak Shrub Wild Leaves/sap milk Latex, extract, decoction Asthma, skin tonic, fever, fodder Toxic 24.48 0.03 0.81 38
9. Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kitt. LCWU-15-0902 Asteraceae Char/Krund Herb Wild Leaves/(Whole plant) Oil, extract Diuretic, stomach complains, fodder Non toxic 8.09 0.013 0.77 7.3
10. Carthamus ticntorius L. LCWU-15-10 Asteraceae Jungle poli Herbaceous Wild Whole plant Extract Laxative, wound healing, fodder Toxic 3.09 0.0062 0.795 9.26
11. Conyza bonariensis L. LCWU-15-1102 Asteraceae Aflatoon/jungle boti Herbaceous Wild Whole plant Extract, oil Asthma, diarrhea, ulcer, fodder Toxic/Non toxic 37.33 0.014 0.635 8.83
12. Conyza erigeron L. LCWU-15-1202 Asteraceae Jungle kurand/jungle boti Weed Wild Whole plant Decoction Stomach disorder, cold and cough, fever, fodder Non toxic 9.905 0.013 0.81 8.83
13. Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. LCWU-15-13 Asteraceae Jungle booti Herb Wild Whole plant Paste, extract Liver tonic, hair tonic, antidote of scorpio, fodder Non toxic 2.59 0.0075 0.665 5.87
14. Parthenium hysterophorus L. LCWU-15-14 Asteraceae Shah-tara/boti Herbaceous Wild Whole plant/leaves Extract blood purifier, back pain, fodder, Decoration Toxic 56.29 0.02 0.96 20.8
15. Silybum marianum L. LCWU-15-1501 Asteraceae Poli/boti Herbaceous Wild Whole plant Decoction, infusion Anticancer, liver tonic, wound healing, fodder Toxic 27.52 0.02 1.39 29.82
16. Sonchus arvensis L. LCWU-15-1601 Asteraceae Dodak Herbaceous Wild Leaves/flower Extract Anti-kidney stone, asthma, cough, fodder Toxic 13.74 0.012 0.87 13
17. Xanthium strumarium L. LCWU-15-17 Asteraceae Jungle booti Herb Wild Leaves Extract Fever, mother postnatal care, fodder Toxic 2.61 0.0074 0.67 4.28
18. Brassica compestris L. LCWU-15-18 Brassicaceae Sarson Herb Wild/cultivated Leaves/flower Extract, paste Skin tonic, hair tonic, anti-cancerous Non toxic 41.73 0.0075 0.7975 4.76
19. Brassica nigra L. LCWU-15-19 Brassicaceae Jungle sarson Herbaceous Wild Whole plant Extract, decoction Diuretic, respiratory problems, fodder Toxic if in excess 2.73 0.0081 0.61 20.45
20. Capsella bursapastoris L. LCWU-15-20 Brassicaceae Mirch boti Herb Wild Whole plant Decoction, infusion Internal and external bleeding, diarrhea, fodder Toxic 17.74 0.02 0.77 17.2
21. Coronopus didymus (L.)Sm. LCWU-15-2003 Brassicaceae Jungli pudina/jungle boti Herb Wild Stem/leaves (whole plant) Extract Asthma, Blood purifier Non toxic 13.96 0.015 0.7525 7.05
22. Sisymbrium irio L. LCWU-15-96 Brassicaceae Boti Herb Wild Whole plant Extract, powder Asthma, fodder, Non toxic 24.13 0.01 0.96 13
23. Cannabis sativa L. LCWU-15-22 Cannabiaceae Bhang Herbaceous Wild Leaves Extract, paste Stomach complaints, Relaxant, Severe pains repellent Toxic 42.31 0.021 0.945 3.7
24. Convolvulus arvensis L. LCWU-15-23 Convolvulaceae Lilly Herbaceous Wild Leaves Extract Fodder, animal fever Toxic 34.18 0.02 0.81 17.6
25. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. LCWU-15-24 Convolvulaceae Amar-bail Climber Wild Stem Extract Wound healing, Hair tonic Toxic 20.42 0.0186 0.805 10.8
26. Poranopsis paniculata (Roxb.)Roberty LCWU-15-25 Convolvulaceae Gulu Herb Wild Whole plant Extract, Decoration, stomach pain, diarrhea, wound healing Toxic to animals 27.65 0.007 0.69 29.57
27. Cucurbita pepo L. LCWU-15-2601 Cucurbitaceae Chibbar booti Vine Wild/cultivated Leaves/flower/fruit/whole plant Extract Skin tonic, cardiac problem, stomach disorder, Cooking, Toxic/Non toxic 20.75 0.025 0.60 33.83
28. Schoenoplectus supinus (L.)Pall. LCWU-15-27 Cyperaceae Dala Herb Wild Flower/leaves Fodder, animal cough Non toxic 2.70 0.0071 0.695  
29. Euphorbia helioscopia L. LCWU-15-28 Euphorbiaceae Dhdtar boti Herbaceous Wild Leaves/sap/seeds Extract, decoction Anticancerous, cholera Toxic in excess 54.68 0.0136 0.695 50.8
30. Euphorbia hirta L. LCWU-15-29 Euphorbiaceae Boti Herb Wild Whole plant Fodder Toxic 2.64 0.01 0.98  
31. Euphorbia thymifolia L. LCWU-15-30 Euphorbiaceae It-sit Herb Wild Whole plant Fodder Toxic 2.55 0.0152 0.655  
32. Ricinus communis L. LCWU-15-3101 Euphorbiaceae Rind/Rnola Herbaceous Wild/cultivated Leaves/seeds/whole plant Extract Wound healing, fuel, hair tonic Seed are toxic 15.53 0.012 0.65 8.83
33. Sapium sebiferum L. LCWU-15-32 Fabaceae Jungli Tahli Tree Wild Leaves/wood Decoction Antidote, diuretic, Fodder, fuel, furniture Toxic/non toxic 9.94 0.01 0.85  
34. Acacia nilotica (Linn.) Delile. LCWU-15-93 Fabaceae Jawa Herbaceous Wild Leaves Fodder Non toxic 1.81 0.007 0.68  
35. Acacia arabica Willd. LCWU-15-3301 Fabaceae Desi kikkar Tree Wild Bark Decoction Diarrhea, Skin tonic, roofing, fuel, fodder Non toxic 19.35 0.015 0.635 20.8
36. Acacia farnesiana L. LCWU-15-34 Fabaceae Kabli kikar Tree Wild Wood/flower/leaves Extract Diarrhea, scent, fuel, furniture, Non toxic 16.48 0.04 0.65 9
37. Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. LCWU-15-3501 Fabaceae Shireen Tree Wild Leaves/seed/wood Extract Fuel, wound healing, Cough, burning, postnatal care Non toxic 33.22 0.02 0.66 11.15
38. Cassia angustifolia L. LCWU-15-3602 Fabaceae Sukh chain Tree Wild Branches/pods/seeds Extract Purgative, hair tonic, teeth tonic Toxic/Non toxic 64.33 0.02 0.87 13
39. Cassia fistula L. LCWU-15-37 Fabaceae Amaltas Tree Wild Leaves/ legumes Infusion, extract Laxative, fodder, cough, stomach pain Toxic in excess 21.39 0.02 0.77 7.83
40. Cassia occidentalis L. LCWU-15-38 Fabaceae Boti Herb Wild Wood/leaves Extract Stomach disorder, laxative, fuel, roofing, bitter taste Toxic 19.45 0.04 0.72 8.83
41. Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC. LCWU-15-3901 Fabaceae Tali Tree Wild Wood/leaves Extract Wound healing, hair tonic, fodder, fuel, furniture Toxic/non toxic 34.64 0.025 0.91 8.83
42. Indigofera linifolia (L.f) Retz. LCWU-15-40 Fabaceae Gorakh pan/jungle boti Herbaceous Wild Whole plant Extract Stomach complaints, blood purifier, liver problems, fodder, obtain dye Toxic to some extent 55.13 0.02 0.722 75.8
43. Lathyrus aphaca L. LCWU-15-41 Fabaceae Jungli matter/gangla Herbaceous Wild Leaves Fodder Toxic/non toxic 3.52 0.0055 0.905  
44. Melilotus indica L. LCWU-15-4202 Fabaceae Jungle meeni or meena/Jungli shatala Herbaceous Wild Leaves/whole plant Extract Laxative, diarrhea, cooking, fodder, bitter taste, skin tonic Toxic to some extent 18.17 0.02 0.78 8.58
45. Mimosa pudica L. LCWU-15-94 Fabaceae Chijan Herb Wild Leaves Extract Antidote, wound healing, diarrhea, fuel, fodder Toxic in excess 4.44 0.01 0.68  
46. Tamarindus indica L. LCWU-15-4301 Fabaceae Imli/khatti imli Tree Wild Branchesstem/leaves/fruit/whole plant Extract Malaria, fever, bitter taste, Laxative, burning Non toxic 39.61 0.03 0.83 27.1
47. Vicia faba L. LCWU-15-4402 Fabaceae Jungli cheraal/Phalya/Arari Herbaceous Wild Legumes/leaves Extract Diuretic, fodder, food, soap Non toxic 43.04 0.02 0.86 25.8
48. Ocimum basilicum L. LCWU-15-45 Lamiaceae Niazbo Herb Wild Leaves Extract Scent, flavoring, cough, headache, diarrhea Non toxic 37.96 0.0176 0.85  
49. Ocimum sanctum L. LCWU-15-4601 Lamiaceae Jungle booti Herbaceous Wild Leaves/whole plant Powder, extract, oil Appetizer, mosquito repellent, fodder, fever, cough Toxic/non toxic 11.50 0.008 0.798 14.7
50. Allium roylei Strearn. LCWU-15-47 Liliaceae Bola ganda Herbaceous Wild Leaves Oil, extract Cholera, curative, flavoring Non toxic 62.03 0.0163 0.915 25.8
51. Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. LCWU-15-48 Asphodelaceae Kwal qandal Succulent plant Wild Leaves Oil, extract Skin tonic, cough, hair tonic, fever Non toxic 18.80 0.03 0.70 30.5
52. Lawsonia Inermis L. LCWU-15-49 Lythraceae Mehndi Shrub Wild Leaves/roots Paste, extract Wound healing, hair tonic Non toxic 28.04 0.0213 0.935 10.8
53. Malva verticillata L. LCWU-15-50 Malvaceae Booti Herb Wild Whole plant Paste Fodder, animal ulcer Non toxic 2.51 0.07 0.645  
54. Malva indica LCWU-15-51 Malvaceae Sonchal booti/jungle boti Herbaceous Wild Whole plant Decoction, extract Cough, cooking, fodder Toxic in excess 11.26 0.011 0.628 7.04
55. Malvastrum coromandelianum L. LCWU-15-52 Malvaceae Boti Herbaceous Wild Whole plant Extract Fodder, wound healing Toxic 16.06 0.02 0.60 8.83
56. Azadirachta indica A. Juss LCWU-15-53 Meliaceae Neem Tree Wild Leaves/wood Extract, oil Fodder, skin tonic, fuel Toxic to some extend 20.62 0.03 0.79 10.5
57. Melia azadirachta L. LCWU-15-5402 Meliaceae Bakain/dhareek Tree Wild Leaves/wood/seed Extract Wound healing, cough, fuel, furniture, fodder Seeds are toxic 22.04 0.03 0.94 9.22
58. Ficus sarmentosa Bush: Ham. Ex J.E. Smith LCWU-15-95 Moraceae Walaiti bohr Tree Wild Wood/leaves Decoction Fuel, fodder Toxic 6.89 0.01 0.85  
59. Ficus benghalensis L. LCWU-15-5501 Moraceae Borh/desi borh Tree Wild Leaves/sap milk/fruit/wood Decoction, extract Influenza, diarrhea, fuel, decoction Toxic to some extend 40.06 0.03 0.85 29.82
60. Ficus religiosa L. LCWU-15-56 Moraceae Peepal Tree Wild Wood/leaves/bark Decoction, extract Asthma, diarrhea fuel, fodder, ulcer, molar pain, cardiac problem Toxic in excess 28.33 0.03 0.902 19.4
61. Morus alba L. LCWU-15-5701 Moraceae Shehtoot/Toot Tree Wild/cultivated Wood/fruit/branches/leaves Extract Cough, fodder, respiratory disorders Sap is toxic 13.58 0.02 0.98 7.64
62. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. LCWU-15-58 Myrtaceae Sufaida Tree Wild Leaves/wood/oil Extract, infusion Influenza, skin tonic, Fuel, furniture, stomach disorder Toxic in excess 31.32 0.02 0.83 17.32
63. Syzygium cumini L. LCWU-15-59 Myrtaceae Jaman Tree Wild Fruit/wood/leaves Extract Heart problem, diarrhea Fruit, fuel, fodder, Non toxic 24.76 0.03 0.98 25.5
64. Jasminum nudiflorum Lindl. LCWU-15-6002 Oleaceae Chasko Shrub Wild Leaves/flower/fruit Extract Vegetable, stomach pain, Cooking, Toxic 9.71 0.03 0.59  
65. Oxalis corniculata L. LCWU-15-6101 Oxalidaceae Khatmal booti/jungle boti Herb Wild Whole plant Extract Antidote, stomach disorder, cooking, fodder Toxic 38.35 0.012 0.773 8.83
66. Fumaria indica Linn. LCWU-15-6202 Papaveraceae Soye/Papra Herb Wild Branches/stem/leaves/whole plant Extract Laxative, fodder Non toxic 11.04 0.01 0.83 3.7
67. Acrachne racemosa (Roem&schult) LCWU-15-63 Poaceae Jungle ghaas Grass Wild Whole plant Decoction Fodder Toxic on skin 3.17 0.0061 0.815  
68. Asthenatherum forkalii (Vahl)Nexski. LCWU-15-64 Poaceae Jungle ghass Grass Wild Whole plant Extract Fodder, animal fever Toxic/non toxic 3.27 0.0059 0.84  
69. Avena sativa L. LCWU-15-65 Poaceae Jo Herb Wild Staw Extract Postnatal care Toxic to some extend 51.40 0.01 0.945 5.3
70. Cenchrus setigerus Vahl. LCWU-15-66 Poaceae Jungli boti Grass Wild Whole plant Extract Fodder Non toxic 2.11 0.006 0.79  
71. Chloris barbata Sw. LCWU-15-67 Poaceae Jungle boti Herb Wild Whole plant   Fodder, skin disorder Toxic 22.70 0.01 0.78 10.5
72. Chloris virgata Sw. LCWU-15-68 Poaceae Boti Grass Wild Whole plant   Fodder, wound healing, malaria Toxic 50.09 0.02 0.71 25.5
73. Chrysopogon aucheri Bioss LCWU-15-69 Poaceae Goad ghass Grass Wild Whole plant   Fodder, fuel Toxic 5.26 0.01 0.73  
74. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. LCWU-15-70 Poaceae Ghaas Grass Wild Whole plant Extract Stomach complaint, constipation, antidote for snake and dogs, fodder Non toxic 50.81 0.02 0.83 3.7
75. Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.)Koel. LCWU-15-71 Poaceae Jungle ghass Grass Wild Whole plant   Fodder, animal stomach disorder Toxic 3.29 0.0059 0.84  
76. Digitaria nodosa Parl. LCWU-15-72 Poaceae Swank Grass Wild Whole plant Fresh, dry Fodder, blood purification Toxic 3.43 0.011 0.88  
77. Eleusine indica (L.)Gaertn. LCWU-15-73 Poaceae Jungle ghaas Grass Wild Whole plant Extract Fodder Toxic/non toxic 3.04 0.0064 0.78  
78. Pennisetum divisum (Fosslk.ex.J.F.Gmel) LCWU-15-74 Poaceae Jungle ghaas Grass Wild Whole plant Extract Fodder Non toxic 3.39 0.0057 0.87  
79. Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. Ex Steud. LCWU-15-75 Poaceae Nur Grass Wild Wood/stem Extract Cardiac problem, fuel Toxic/non toxic 23.80 0.01 0.62 13
80. Saccharum bengalensis L. LCWU-15-76 Poaceae Kana Grass Wild Wood Paste, extract Animal disease roofing, fuel, pre/post natal care Toxic 35.46 0.02 0.84 17.16
81. Tetrapogon tenellus (Roxb.)Chiov. LCWU-15-77 Poaceae Dumbi seeti Grass Wild Whole plant Extract Fodder, cough Toxic 3.64 0.0053 0.935  
82. Triticum aestivum L. LCWU-15-78 Poaceae Joi Grass Wild Whole plant Extract Fodder, anticancerous, gastrointestinal disease Toxic/non toxic 3.19 0.01 0.985 8.9
83. Rumex chalepensis Mill. LCWU-15-79 Polygonaceae Boti Herbaceous Wild Whole plant Extract Fodder Toxic 2.05 0.01 0.76  
84. Anagallis arvensis L. LCWU-15-8001 Primulaceae Jungli golo/Matri Herbaceous Wild Leaves/wood (whole plant) Extract Fodder, skin tonic, Diuretic, hair tonic Toxic/non toxic 31.44 0.02 0.855 18.15
85. Ranunculus muricatus L. LCWU-15-8101 Ranunculaceae Jungli dhaniya/boti Herbaceous Wild Leaves/whole plant Crude extract Fodder, fever, asthma, Fodder Toxic 14.5 0.01 0.738 25.5
86. Ranunculus repens L. LCWU-15-82 Ranunculaceae Jungle jugnoo Herbaceous Wild Leaves/flower Extract Fodder Toxic 2.47 0.007 0.635  
87. Zizyphus jujuba (L.)Lam. LCWU-15-8301 Rhamnaceae Ber Tree Wild Leaves/gum/fruit/wood/leaves Extract, oil Fruit, furniture, digestion, skin tonic, joints pain, hair tonic, backache, burning Toxic/non toxic 51.75 0.03 0.97 30.65
88. Murraya koenigii L. LCWU-15-84 Rutaceae Marva Tree Wild Branches/stem/leaves Extract Stomach diseases, wound healing, vomiting, scent, decoration Toxic/non toxic 34.86 0.017 0.87 14.5
89. Salix lanata L. LCWU-15-85 Salicaceae Boti Shrub Wild Whole plant Extract Fever, reduce internal pain, fodder, bitter taste Toxic 14.93 0.02 0.57 26.98
90. Verbascum thapsus L. LCWU-15-86 Scrophulariaceae Geedar tabbaco Herb Wild Seeds Extract, infusion Male disease, internal bleeding Toxic to some extent 42.17 0.008 0.62 25.8
91. Lycium barbarum L. LCWU-15-87 Solanaceae Kashni Herbaceous Wild Leaves Extract Anticancerous, asthma, scent, fodder Non toxic 55.71 0.022 0.895 33.8
92. Solanum americanum Mill. LCWU-15-88 Solanaceae Peelak Herb Wild Leaves/stem Extract Joints pain, cooking, scent, vegetable, fodder Toxic in excess 66.14 0.03 0.85 10.8
93. Withania somnifera L. LCWU-15-89 Solanaceae Aak-Singh Herbaceous Wild Leaves/flower/fruit Extract Lung disorder, animal disease, asthma, male disease Toxic in excess 44.09 0.0085 0.79 42.32
94. Urtica dioca L. LCWU-15-90 Urticaceae Kharish booti Herbaceous Wild Stem/leaves Extract Joints pain, cold and flu, liver disease Toxic in excess 16.33 0.010 0.945 10.8
95. Lantana camara L. LCWU-15-9101 Verbenaceae Cingii Shrub Wild Leaves Extract Fodder, snake bite, cold and flu Toxic 48.16 0.02 0.70 50.5
96. Phyla nodiflora L. LCWU-15-92 Verbenaceae Bakan Herb Wild Branches/stem/leaves Extract, decoction Fodder Toxic 2.08 0.018 0.535  
  1. FL Fidelity Level, RFC Relative Frequency of Citation, UV Use Value, RI Relative Importance
  2. Bold Uses/Ailment treated = Main use of plant on which FL (%) is based