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Table 5 Comparison of traditional uses of plant species in the study area with other regions of Pakistan and neighboring country

From: An ethnopharmacological evaluation of Navapind and Shahpur Virkanin district Sheikupura, Pakistan for their herbal medicines

Sr. No. Plant species Uses reported in study area Uses reported in previous study References
1 Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees Cough, influenza, diarrhea, blood purifier Liver complaints, malaria [47, 48]
2 Amaranthus spinosus L. Diarrhea, antidote, fever, fodder Eye vision, skin tonic [48, 68]
3 Amaranthus viridis L. Constipation, skin tonic, antidote, diuretic, cooking Joints pain, burning of feet [35, 45]
4 Chenopodium album L. Laxative, diuretic, cough, cooking Throat trouble, paralysis, rheumatism, jaundice [45, 49, 66]
5 Chenopodium murale L. Laxative, vegetable, Fodder, dye Anthelmintic [72]
6 Achyranthes aspera (L.) Hill Cough, laxative, stomach complains, fodder, fuel Skin tonic, blood purifier, malaria fever [3, 45, 90]
7 Coriandrum sativum L. Joint pain, stomach complaints, cooking Sexual disease [100]
8 Calotropis procera R. Br. Asthma, skin tonic, fever, fodder Hair tonic, hepatitis, antidote, tooth tonic [3, 48, 49, 53, 66]
9 Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kitt. Diuretic, stomach complains, fodder Antidote, fever, skin infection [101]
10 Conyza bonariensis L. Asthma, diarrhea, ulcer, fodder Diuretic, blood purifier [102, 103]
11 Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. Liver tonic, hair tonic, antidote of scorpio, fodder GIT disorders [48, 104]
12 Parthenium hysterophorus L. blood purifier, back pain, fodder, Decoration, grow in crop Fever [45]
13 Silybum marianum L. Anticancer, liver tonic, wound healing, fodder Tuberculosis [97]
14 Sonchus arvensis L. Anti-kidney stone, asthma, cough, fodder Wound healing [45]
15 Xanthium strumarium L. Fever, mother postnatal care, fodder Toothache [72]
16 Brassica campestris L. Skin tonic, hair tonic, anti-cancerous Headache, animal fever [52, 95]
17 Brassica nigra L. Diuretic, respiratory problems, fodder GIT disease, toothache [55, 105]
18 Capsella bursapastoris L. Fodder, internal and external bleeding, diarrhea Respiratory disease, sexual disease [51]
19 Coronopus didymus (L.) Sm. Asthma, Blood purifier Insect repellent, joints disorder [13, 85]
20 Sisymbrium irio L. Fodder, asthma Fever, skin tonic, cough [35, 46, 72]
21 Cannabis sativa L. Stomach complaints, Relaxant, Severe pains repellent Male disease [97]
22 Convolvulus arvensis L. Fodder, animal fever, grow in crop Skin tonic, liver tonic, GIT disorder [3, 53]
23 Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Wound healing, Hair tonic Blood purifier, relaxant, fever [46, 97, 106]
24 Poranopsis paniculata (Roxb.) Roberty Decoration, stomach pain, diarrhea, wound healing Body pain [50]
25 Cucurbita pepo L. Skin tonic, cardiac problem, stomach disorder, Cooking, Jaundice [53]
26 Euphorbia helioscopia L. Anticancerous, cholera Skin tonic, GIT disorder, wound healing [35, 46, 53]
27 Euphorbia hirta L. Fodder Skin tonic, sexual disorder, relaxant, GIT disorder, respiratory disorder [3, 90, 97, 106]
28 Euphorbia thymifolia L. Fodder Blood pressure [3]
29 Ricinus communis L. Wound healing, fuel, hair tonic GIT disorder, postnatal care, headache, hepatitis [45, 48, 53, 98]
30 Sapium sebiferum L. Antidote, Fodder, fuel, furniture GIT disorder [107]
31 Acacia.nilotica Fodder GIT disorder, sexual disorder wound healing, skin tonic [3, 46, 98, 106, 108]
32 Acacia arabica Willd. Diarrhea, Skin tonic, roof, fuel, fodder, exported Respiratory disorder [106]
33 Acacia farnesiana L. Diarrhea, perfume, fuel, furniture, exported Toothache, sexual disorder [49]
34 Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. Fuel, wound healing, Cough, burning, postnatal care Skin tonic [48, 49]
35 Cassia angustifolia L. Purgative, hair tonic, teeth tonic Blood purifier, sexual disorder, rheumatism [3, 47]
36 Cassia fistula L. Laxative, constipation, fodder, cough, stomach pain Hepatitis [48, 90, 106]
37 Cassia occidentalis L. Fuel, roof, bitter taste, stomach disorder, laxative Respiratory disorder [48]
38 Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC. Fodder, fuel, furniture, wound healing, hair tonic Sexual disease, GIT disease, fever, diuretic [48, 49]
39 Indigofera linifolia (L.f) Retz. Fodder, obtain dye, Stomach complaints, blood purifier, for liver Sexual disease [67, 85]
40 Lathyrus aphaca L. Fodder Cough [45]
41 Melilotus indica L. Laxative, diarrhea, cooking, fodder, bitter taste, skin tonic Respiratory disorder, sexual disease [54, 109]
42 Mimosa pudica L. Fuel, fodder, antidote, wound healing, diarrhea Menstrual disorder, respiratory disease [86, 92]
43 Tamarindus indica L. Malaria, fever, bitter taste, Laxative, burning Jaundice [48]
44 Vicia faba L. Diuretic, fodder, food, soap Eye infection [68]
45 Ocimum basilicum L. Scent, flavoring, cough, headache, diarrhea Influenza, cardiac problem, antidote [53, 104]
46 Ocimum sanctum L. Appetizer, mosquito repellent, fodder, fever, cough Liver tonic [47, 106, 110]
47 Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. Skin tonic, cough, hair tonic, fever Liver tonic [48, 108]
48 Lawsonia inermis L. Wound healing, hair tonic Diuretic, jaundice [46, 48]
49 Malvastrum coromandelianum L. Fodder, wound healing Fever, GIT disorders [49]
50 Azadirachta indica A. Juss Fodder, skin tonic, fuel Hair tonic, sexual disorders, eye infection, GIT disorders, liver tonic [3, 48, 106, 108]
51 Melia azadirachta L. Wound healing, shade, cough, fuel, furniture, fodder Skin tonic, hair tonic [93]
52 Ficus sarmentosa Bush: Ham. ex J.E. Smith Fuel, fodder Respiratory disease, GIT disorder [111]
53 Ficus benghalensis L. Influenza, shade, diarrhea, fuel, decoction Asthma, liver tonic [45, 47, 49]
54 Ficus religiosa L. Asthma, diarrhea Shade, fuel, fodder, ulcer, molar pain, cardiac problem Wound healing [49]
55 Morus alba L. Cough, fodder, respiratory disorders GIT disorder [11]
56 Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Influenza, skin tonic, Fuel, furniture, stomach disorder Liver tonic [48]
57 Syzygium cumini L. Fruit, fuel, fodder, cancer, heart problem, diarrhea Nervous disorder, fever [45, 108]
58 Oxalis corniculata L. Antidote, stomach disorder, vegetable, fodder Liver tonic, diuretic, joints problem [46, 88]
59 Fumaria indica Linn. Laxative, fodder GIT disorder, liver tonic, diuretic, skin tonic [45, 53, 93]
60 Acrachne racemosa (Roem & schult) Fodder General debility [48]
61 Avena sativa L. Postnatal care Nervous disorder, GIT disorders [53, 97]
62 Cenchrus setigerus Vahl. Fodder Fever, skin tonic, GIT disorder [66]
63 Chloris barbata Sw. Fodder, skin disorder Respiratory disease [112]
64 Chrysopogon aucheri Bioss Fodder, fuel GIT disorder [54]
65 Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Stomach complaint, constipation, antidote for snake and dogs, fodder Diuretic, wound healing, fever [3, 48, 49, 108]
66 Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Fodder Diuretic, GIT disorder [96]
67 Pennisetum divisum (Fosslk. ex J. F. Gmel) Fodder GIT disorder [66]
68 Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud. Cardiac problem, fuel Respiratory disorder [16]
69 Saccharum bengalensis L. Roof, fuel, pre/post natal care, animal disease Diuretic [91]
70 Triticum aestivum L. Fodder, anticancerous, gastrointestinal disease Postnatal care, backache [45]
71 Rumex chalepensis Mill. Fodder Insect repellent [113]
72 Anagallis arvensis L. Fodder, skin tonic, Diuretic, hair tonic Nervous disorder [90, 104]
73 Ranunculus muricatus L. Fodder, fever, asthma, Fodder Wound healing, skin tonic [45, 46]
74 Ranunculus repens L. Fodder Nervous disorder, blood purification [84]
75 Zizyphus jujuba (L.) Lam. Fruit, furniture, skin tonic, joints pain, hair tonic, backache, burning Liver tonic, GIT disorder [45, 48]
76 Murraya koenigii L. Stomach diseases, wound healing, vomiting, scent, decoration Blood purification [86]
77 Salix lanata L. Fever, reduce internal pain, fodder, bitter taste Respiratory disorder [3]
78 Verbascum thapsus L. Male disease, internal bleeding Wound healing, nervous disorder, respiratory disorder [11, 49]
79 Lycium barbarum L. Anticancerous, asthma, scent, fodder Diuretic, skin tonic [89, 114]
80 Solanum americanum Mill. Joints pain, cooking, Perfume, vegetable, fodder GIT disorders. fever [48]
81 Withania somnifera L. Lung disorder, animal disease, asthma, male disease Fever, joint pain, liver tonic, sexual disorder, eye infection [4547, 53, 66, 108]
82 Urtica dioica L. Joints pain, cold and flu, liver disease Skin tonic, GIT disorder, fever [91, 115]
83 Lantana camara L. Fodder, snake bite, cold and flu Malaria fever [49]
84 Phyla nodiflora L. Fodder GIT disorder, diuretic, blood purifier, wound healing, hair tonic [45, 46, 49, 104]
  1. Fl value is calculated for Bold diseases