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Table 1 Wild and feral species traditionally used for food and medicine in the study area

From: Using Ellenberg-Pignatti values to estimate habitat preferences of wild food and medicinal plants: an example from northeastern Istria (Croatia)

Scientific name UR Local names Preparation method Medicinal use Parts Used Purpose Voucher no.
Achillea millefolium L. 26 milefiori, milefolium, stolisnik, tausendrož dried for tea against amenorrhea, digestive, to strengthen the body, to improve appetite, to treat women’s menopausal symptoms, for the bladder, for the stomach L, F Md 40115
Alcea rosea L. 1 slez crveni dried for tea diuretic F Md -
Allium ampeloprasum L. 11 čebula, čebüv, dibji česan, diblji česon, diblji luk, divlji luk, divlji lük, luk, poriluk diblji, purić fried with eggs, raw as salad, raw for livestock   L, R Fd -
Allium ursinum L. 5 medvedka, medvjeđi luk boiled, raw or dried as spice, fried with eggs, raw as salad   L Fd -
Allium sp. 4 česan, česän, divlji česan raw, cooked   L, R Fd -
Althaea officinalis L. 10 beli slez, kapitvanjica, sirići, slez dried for tea to clean the sinuses, to calm coughing F, R, L Md -
Amaranthus retroflexus L. 7 diblja blitva, divlji šćir, šćir boiled, boiled with fennel, dried for tea, soaked in water veterinary: against diarrhea S, L Md & Fd 41804
Arctium lappa L. 2 čičak dried for tea, macerated for detoxification, for better hair growth R, FR Md -
Armoracia rusticana P. Gaertn., B. Mey. et Scherb. 1 hren raw as salad   R Fd -
Artemisia absinthium L. a 15 pelen, pelin boiled, dried for tea, raw in liqueur against gastritis, against pneumonia, to treat women’s problems, liver cleaning L Md 40142
Arum maculatum L. 1 kozlac dried for tea or ointment against haemorrhoids, to treat laryngitis and bronchitis, anti-ulcer, anti-psoriatic L Md 41792
Asparagus acutifolius L. 39 diblje šparge, šparge, šparoge, šparuge, šparüge, šporge boiled with rice, cooked in pasta sauce, dried for tea, fried with eggs, raw or dried as spice kidney stone relief W Md & Fd -
Bellis perennis L. 2 margaretice, tratinčica fried in pancakes   F Fd 41803
Calendula officinalis L. 1 neven raw in ointment astringent, for healing the skin F Md -
Carlina acaulis L. 2 beli trn, kravljak, vilino sito against ageing spots on the skin, for decoration against age spots F, L, R Md -
Carum carvi L. a 9 crni kimelj, divlji kimelj, divlji kimen, kimel, kimel divlji, kimen dried as spice, dried for tea, raw digestive, anti-flatulence, intestinal colic relief in children S Md & Fd -
Castanea sativa Mill. 3 divlji kostanj, kostanj, kostanji diblji raw anti-rheumatic FR Md -
Centaurium erythraea Rafn 2 kičica, taušendroža dried for tea, raw in liqueur digestive W Md 36736
Chelidonium majus L. a 4 mlič, rosopas dried for tea, raw- cellular juice anti-warts, against dizziness, against skin cancer W, L Md 41799
Chenopodium album L. 29 loboda, lobodà, lübüdá boiled, boiled with vegetables, fried, fried with eggs, raw as salad, raw for livestock, raw or dried as spice   L, W Fd 40132, 40037
Cichorium intybus L. 34 cikorija, diblji radić, diblji redić, divlji radić, konjski radić, radić, vodopija, zajka, ženotrga, žutenka boiled, boiled with vegetables, fried, as a warm drink, fried with eggs, raw as salad   R, L Fd 40033
Clematis vitalba L. 20 ruj, sarabot, škrebut, tartor, trator, trtor dried for weaving and making a kind of string for tying vineyards, fried with eggs, raw, raw for livestock, raw for weaving   L, W Fd 40134
Clinopodium nepeta (L.) Kuntze (syn. Calamintha nepetoides Jord.) 6 dibja menta, divlja metica, metica, metvica divlja, divlji bosiljak dried as spice, dried for tea sedative, good for stomach L Md & Fd 41807
Cornus mas L.a 46 dren, drenići, drenjula, drenjule, drenjüle, drenjuli, drenjulve, drijen, drnjići, drnjole, drnjule, drnjüle, drnjuli, drünjule cooked as compote or jam, distilled for brandy, dried for tea, fermented as vinegar, processed in wine, raw, raw in liqueur, raw in oil, raw in syrup   FR Fd 41788-
Corylus avellana L. 5 divlji lešnjaki, lješnjaki raw   S Fd 40125
Crataegus monogyna Jacq. 14 beli gloh, bijeli gloh, bijeli trn, bijeli trnj, brombulje, crveni glog, crveni gloh, divlji glog, glog, glog crni, glog crveni, gloh, košići cooked as jam, dried for tea, pressed for juice drops, raw in liqueur, raw in ointment cardiac insufficiency treatment, blood pressure remedy L, F, FR Md & Fd 40113
Daucus carota L. 8 divlji merlin, merlin, mrkva cooked healing “because of carotene” R Md & Fd 41792
Dioscoraea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin (syn. Tamus communis L.) 40 blušć, blüšć, blušt, bljušć, bljušt, bljüšt fried with eggs, raw as salad, raw for livestock, raw in liqueur, raw or dried as spice anti-rheumatic W, R Md & Fd 40040
Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC. 19 dibja rokula, diblja rokula, divlja riga, divlja rokola, divlja rokula, riga, rikula, rohuljica, rokola, rokula, rokulja, rukola boiled with vegetables, raw   L Fd 40041
Elymus repens (L.) Gould 2 pernica, pirika dried for tea pain relief, to treat internal diseases R Md 36691
Equisetum arvense L. 3 poljska preslica, preslica dried for tea, raw in bath diuretic (urine excretor) L Md -
Euphorbia cyparissias L. 2 mličika, mličina dried for tea, raw for disinfection (of water), untreated serious disease, veterinary: wound healing for sheep L Md 41801
Fagus sylvatica L. 1 bukva boiled and mixed with sheep tallow   L Fd 41789
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. 31 dibji koromač, komorač, komorač diblji, koromač, kurumač, pitomi koromač boiled, boiled with vegetables, dried for tea, fried with eggs, raw in liqueur, raw or dried as spice for digestion L Md & Fd 40032
Fragaria vesca L. 16 dibja jagoda, diblja jagoda, divlja jagoda, fragola, fragole, preskavčići, šumska jagoda, treskavac, triskovac raw, marmelade   FR Fd 36787
Gentiana lutea L. ssp. symphyandra (Murb.) Hayek 11 čemerika, encian, lincura, srčanik, šulijan dissolved in water, raw in liqueur anti-gout, anti-rheumatic, anti-arthritis R Md 40028
Helianthus tuberosus L. 1 čičoka raw (ground for salad) anti-diabetes R Md -
Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G.Don 2 smilje in olive oil, for skin for the skin F, L Md 34732
Humulus lupulus L. 18 bruškandol, dibji hmelj, divlji hmelj, hmej, hmelj, hmëlj, hmilj, kmiej boiled with rice, cooked in pasta sauce, raw or dried for soup seasoning, dried for tea, fried with eggs sedative L Md & Fd 40056
Hypericum perforatum L. 25 gospina trava, ivanjska trava, ivanjsko cvijeće, kantariol, kantarion, rože sv. Ivana, rožice sv. Ivana, trava sv. Ivana, trava sv. Marije dried for tea, macerated, raw in liqueur, raw in oil, raw in ointment against haemorrhoids, anti-arthritis, to treat burns, sedative, liver cleaning, for the skin, for wounds, for veins, for stomach F, L Md 40140, 40141
Ilex aquifolium L. 1 božikovina dried for tea to treat the flu, digestive   L Md -
Iris germanica L. 2 špada dried for tea   R Md 41800
Iris illyrica Tomm. 2 lelije, perunika dried, raw, mixed with other feed to strengthen the organism of lactating livestock (cows, sheep) R Md 36804
Juglans regia L. a 16 orah, oreh, orih baked in cakes, boiled, raw in liqueur digestive, appetite stimulant, strengthening organism L, FR Md & Fd 40035
Juniperus communis L. a 28 brinj, cupin, smreka, smrekva, smrekva plava, smrika, smrika crna, smrika plava, smrikva, smrikva plava, šmrikva črna, šmrikva plava chopped raw, cooked in pasta sauce, dried for tea, raw, raw in cream, raw in liqueur, raw in oil, raw or dried as spice, bundled for use as a broom cold remedy, digestive, anti-diarrheal, anti-rheumatic, vermifuge FR Md & Fd -
Juniperus oxycedrus L. 4 smrikva crvena, šmrikva crvena, šmrikva krvava raw in liqueur digestive, astringent (for digestion) FR Md -
Lamium orvala L. 2 mrtva kopriva boiled   W Fd 41798
Laurus nobilis L. 15 lavrika, lovor dried for tea, raw in syrup, raw or dried as spice cold remedy L Md & Fd 40036
Lavandula angustifolia Mill. 1 lavanda raw in oil calms irritated skin L, F Md 40039
Linum usitattisimum L. 1 lan dried for tea anti-stomach problems S Md 36792
Loranthus europaeus Jacq. 1 imela žuta raw in liqueur panacea W Md -
Malus domestica Borkh. 10 jaboka, jabučići, jabuka baked in cakes, fermented as vinegar, raw in syrup cholesterol reduction FR Md & Fd -
Malus sylvestris Mill. a 24 dibje jaboke, diblji jabučići, diblji jabuki, divlja jabuka, divljake, divlje jaboke, divlje jabučice, divlji jabučići, lesnauke, lesnjake, lesnjauke, lisnjake, rušvići cooked as compote, cooked as jam, fermented as vinegar, processed in fruit wine, raw as snack, raw for livestock, raw in liqueur blood pressure and cholesterol reduction FR Md & Fd 40029
Malva cf. neglecta L.b 1 sljez dried for tea, raw in liqueur anti-rheumatic R Md 40137
Matricaria chamomilla L. (syn. Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert)a 8 kamamila, kamilica, kamomila dried for tea sedative, digestive F, L Md -
Melissa officinalis L.a 10 matičnjak, melisa dried as spice, dried for tea, fried with eggs, raw in syrup sedative L Md & Fd -
Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. 19 menta, metica, metvica dried for tea, raw in syrup, raw with cheese for digestion L Md & Fd 40051
Mentha spicata L.c 4 kudrava metvica, metvica dried for tea, raw in syrup anti-stomach problems L Md 40052
Morus alba L. 20 bijela mürva, mrva bela, mrve, murva, mürva, murva bila, mürve bele, mürvice bele baked in cakes, cooked as jam, raw, raw in liqueur, raw in syrup as a laxative FR Md & Fd 40129
Morus nigra L. 10 črna mürva, mrva črna, murva črna, mürve črne, mürvice črne raw, raw for livestock   FR, L Fd -
Nasturtium officinale R. Br. 2 bijela potočarka, potočarka dried for tea, raw liver cleansing L, F Md -
Neottia nidus-avis (L.) Rich. 1 vuk dried for tea veterinary: for sheep to remain pregnant L, F Md -
Nymphaea alba L. 1 lokvanj raw, on the skin ulcer extractor L Md -
Olea europaea L. a 2 maslina dried for tea, pressed for oil, raw for general health L, FR Md -
Ononis spinosa L. 5 budiš, gladeš, gladiš, gladuš, trnjić, zečji trn dried for tea diuretic (urine excretor) R, FR Md 35855
Origanum majorana L. 3 mažorana, mažurana dried for tea sedative L Md -
Origanum vulgare L. 2 mravinac, oregano, origano chopped raw, dried, dried for tea sedative L Md 35619
Paliurus spina-christi Mill. 2 drača fried in fritters   F Fd -
Papaver rhoeas L. 1 divlji mak for colouring food   F Fd 41797
Parietaria officinalis L. 3 cerkvina, crkvina, šćirica, šćirika dried for tea for urinary tract, kidney cleansing, for suppression of bacteria in the urine L Md 40136
Physallis alkekengi L. 1 čileanska, peruanska jagoda raw   FR Fd -
Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold 8 bor, borić, crni bor infused in honey, raw in liqueur, raw in syrup anti-bronchitis, anti-cough, anti-catarrh in the throat, to treat colds and the flu L, FR Md 40112
Plantago lanceolata L. 13 bokvica, terputac, traputac, trputac, trputac uskokolisni dried for tea, raw, raw as salad, raw in syrup anti-cough, antiseptic, for healing wounds, for toothache, healing wounds, ulcer extractor, for the bronchi R, L Md 41806
Plantago major L.a 3 karegica, trputac, trputac širokolisni raw, raw in syrup anti-cough, antiseptic, cicatrising (for healing wounds), calms irritated skin L Md 41805
Plantago media L. 1 trputac raw antiseptic, for healing wounds L Md 40054
Polygala nicaeensis Risso ex Koch 1 krestušac dried anti-cough, for the bronchi W Md 39189
Portulaca oleracea L. 6 portulac, tušć, tušt raw, raw as salad, raw or dried as spice   L, W Fd -
Primula veris L. ssp. columnae (Ten.) Lüdi 2 jaglac, jaglac divlji dried for tea, fried in pancakes sedative F Md & Fd 36761
Prunus avium L. 14 crna trešnja, čerešnje, črešnje, črišnje, diblje črišnje, diva čerešnja, divlje čerešnje, divlje čerešnji, divlje črešnje, divlje črišnje, divlje trešnje, trešnja dried for tea, raw in liqueur digestive L, FR Md & Fd 40030
Prunus cerasus L. 2 višnja raw in liqueur digestive FR Md & Fd 40038
Prunus domestica L. 24 amuli, amulinčići, armulini, bila čespa, kreke, kreke bijele, kreke plave, sliva, sljive bijele, šliva, šljiva, šljive bijele, švršvići cooked as compote, cooked as jam, distilled for brandy, raw, raw in liqueur   FR Fd 40038
Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb 7 mandule, menduli, lešniki, lešnjaki, liškanji, lišnjak, dried for tea   S Fd -
Prunus mahaleb L. 3 rešeljka, rišeljka dried for tea   FR Fd 40143
Prunus persica L. var. platycarpa 4 breskve, breskvice, vinogradarska breskva, vinogradarske breskve raw in syrup   FR Fd -
Prunus spinosa L. 31 brombulići, brumbolje, brumbulje, ciborice, crni trn, crni trnj, češpa, čišpe, črni trn, črni trnj, divlji trn, drnkalići, glog, potrnki, sliva plava, trnina, trnkice cooked as compote, cooked as jam, dried for tea, raw, raw in liqueur, raw in syrup cardiac insufficiency treatment, FR, F Md & Fd 40044
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn 1 bujad, paprat boiled   L Fd 41794
Pyrus amygdaliformis Vill. 20 diblje krušviće, divlja kruška, divlje fruške, divlje fruškvići, divlje kruške, divlje kruškice, divlje krušvice, divlji krušvići, fruške, fruškići, fruškvići, früšvić, hrišvići, krüšvice divlje cooked as compote, raw in liqueur   FR Fd -
Pyrus pyraster (L.) Burgsd. 8 dibje kršve, kruške, krüšve, krušvići baked in cakes, cooked as compote, cooked as jam, raw in liqueur, raw in syrup   FR Fd -
Quercus pubescens Willd. 6 hrast, hrast dub, želod, želot, žir dried for tea, raw for livestock antidiarrhea, nutraceutical bark, FR Md & Fd 40117
Robinia pseudoacacia L. 13 akacia, bagrem, diraka, drača, kacia, kacija fried in fritters, dried for tea, fried, raw in juice, raw in syrup digestive, anti-flu F Md & Fd 40123, 40048
Rosa canina L.a 38 lužar, rožarić, ružarić, sarborić, šipak, šipok, šipók, tovarski bomboni, tovorski bomboni cooked as jam, dried for tea, raw in syrup anti-diarrhea FR Md & Fd 40126
Rosmarinus officinalis L. 14 rožmarin, ružmarin boiled, dried for tea, raw or dried as spice cold remedy, anti-dandruff, rickets treatment L Md & Fd 40034
Rubus caesius L. 43 črna jagoda, črna murga, črne maline, jagoda, kupina, kupĺna, ostruge, ribidnica, rubida, rübida, rubidnica, rübidnica cooked as jam, dried for tea, parboiled, raw, raw in liqueur, raw in syrup anti-diarrhea, ulcer treatment L, FR Md & Fd 40119
Rubus idaeus L. 20 crvene maline, divlje maline, frambe, frambova, frambugi, jagoda, maline, maline šumske, murga, ribidnica raw, raw in liqueur, raw in syrup   FR Fd 40118
Rumex acetosa L. 7 kiseljak, šćav, šćir, šćüav, velika zelena kiselica boiled, dried for tea, raw, raw for livestock anti-diarrhea W, L Md & Fd 40138
Ruscus aculeatus L. 22 kukavčići, laprinac, leprin, leprinac, leprinj, vaprin, veprin, veprina for decoration, fried with eggs, raw as salad, raw in liqueur, raw or dried as spice, carpal tunnel massage   W, R, L Md & Fd -
Ruta graveolens L.a 15 ruda, rüdā, ruta dried as spice, dried for tea, raw in liqueurs against dizziness, menstrual problems, nerve disorders, wheezing, stomach problems, rheumatism, gout, skin diseases L Md & Fd 35070
Salvia officinalis L. 30 kuš, küš, salvia, savia boiled in milk, caramelised, dried, raw or dried as spice, dried for tea, infused in honey, raw, raw in liqueur, raw in milk, raw in oil, raw in syrup anti-tussive, cold remedy, depurative, appetite stimulant L Md & Fd 40131, 40047
Sambucus nigra L.a 42 bask, bazak, bazg, bazga, bazgovina, bezga fried in fritters, cooked as jam, dried for tea, processed in wine, raw, raw in liqueur, raw in syrup cicatrising F, FR, L Md & Fd 40128
Sanquisorba minor Scop. 2 dinjica, krvara dried for tea, raw as salad against blood clotting L, F Md & Fd 35949
Satureja montana L. 16 bresina, mačešina, mačušina, majčešina, primorski vrijesak, vrijesak, vrisak, vrisak bijeli dried, dried as spice, dried for tea, raw as salad for better circulation W Md & Fd 36782,
36781
Satureja subspicata Vis. (agg.) 3 majčešina, vrisak crveni dried, dried for tea astringent, antiseptic W Md 35952
Sedum sexangulare L. 2 majčina dušica žuta, sedum, žednjak dried for tea, pressed for juice drops cicatrising (for healing wounds), sedative L Md -
Sempervivum tectorum L.a 16 bijeli žednik, bobojić, bobujić, čuvarkuća, čuvarkuće, kućni čuvar, netresk, pazikuća, tres pressed for juice drops, raw in ointment against earache, ulcer extractor, against haemorrhoids, against herpes zoster and warts L Md 40031
Solidago virgaurea L. 1 zlatnica raw in liqueur   W Md -
Sonchus oleraceus L. 1 grandicel boiled with vegetables   L Fd 41796
Sorbus aria (L.) Crantz 7 bukovnica, marala, mirala, mukinja raw (against diarrhea) anti-diarrhea FR Md & Fd 40139
Sorbus aucuparia L. 3 bakovnica, jarebika, makunina raw (against diarrhea) anti-diarrhea FR Md & Fd 41802
Sorbus domestica L. 31 krušvići, krüšvići, lespuje, mokovina, mokvina, oskoruša, oskorušva, oškoršva, oškorušva, skorušve, skuršve, škoršva, škurše, škuršva, uškoršva cooked as compote, cooked as jam, dried, dried for tea, raw, raw in liqueur, raw in syrup anti-diarrhea FR Md & Fd 40053
Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz 3 brekuja, brekulje dried for tea, raw anti-diarrhea FR Md & Fd -
Symphytum officinale L. 1 gavez dried for tea cicatrising (for healing wounds) R, F, L Md 40133
Taraxacum spp. sect. Ruderaliaa 40 diblji radič, divlji radić, jajčar, konjski radič, konjski radić, maslačak, pahlenica, puhlenica, pühlenica, puhljenica, zajka, želtenica, žutenica, žutenice, žutenka, žutevka, žutevnica boiled, boiled with rice, boiled with vegetables, cooked, cooked as jam, dried for tea, fried with eggs, infused in honey, pickled, raw as salad, raw in syrup, raw or dried as spice against warts, depurative, kidney stone relief W, L Md & Fd 40135
Teucrium chamaedrys L. 1 dubačac, dubica dried for tea, raw as salad toothache remedy L Md 37033
Thymus serpyllum agg. (e.g. Thymus longicaulis Presl) 21 majčina dušica, timijan, timo raw or dried as spice, dried for tea, raw as salad, raw in liqueur, raw in ointment anti-tussive, sedative, skin treatment L Md & Fd 36798, 37031
Tilia platyphyllos Scop. 26 lipa dried for tea, raw in syrup sedative, cold remedy, anti-scab, irregular heartbeat remedy L Md 40122
Tussilago farfara L. 4 lepuh, podbjel, repuh boiled for livestock, boiled with vegetables   L Fd 41790
Urtica dioica L.a 41 kopriva, kupriva, pokriva, pukriva boiled, boiled with vegetables, cooked with cream, dried for tea,fried with eggs, raw, raw in pancakes, raw in syrup, raw or dried as spice, soaked as fertiliser depurative, hair treatment, anti-dandruff L Md & Fd 40130
Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. 1 brusnice    FR Fd -
Verbascum thapsus L. 4 divizma, lopuh, margaretica dried for tea anti-tussive, anti-flatulence, menstrual pain relief, sedative F, L, F Md 41795
Viola odorata L. 1 ljubičica fried in pancakes   F Fd 41793
Viscum album L. 8 imela, imela bijela raw in liqueur, raw in syrup panacea (better than Loranthus) W Md -
  1. Parts used: F flowers, FR fruits, L leaves or other green parts, R roots, W whole plants, Fd food use, Md medicinal use
  2. ataxa which have also been recorded by Pieroni & Giusti (2006)
  3. bPieroni & Giusti recorded a similar species, Malva sylvestris
  4. cPieroni & Giusti recorded a similar species, Mentha arvensis