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Table 3 The list of species used for construction, furniture and other handicrafts

From: Plants as highly diverse sources of construction wood, handicrafts and fibre in the Heihe valley (Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, China): the importance of minor forest products

Latin name Local name Local name (Chines characters) No. of citations Part Use Voucher numbers, begin with WUK Kang
Pinus tabuliformis Carrière songmu 松木 37 wood house construction esp. roofs, furniture, ladders, beehives K198
Prunus stellipila Koehne kutao 苦桃 34 wood mainly furniture and chopping boards K101,103
Pinus armandii Franch. madengsong 马灯松 31 wood house construction, furniture, doors, windows, ladders K157
Betula albosinensis Burkill honghua, huamu, 红桦,桦木 30 wood and bark wood for chopping boards, stools, also rolling pins; bark for hats and steamers K164
Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. shuiquliu 水曲柳 30 wood highly valued for furniture, also window frames, handles (esp. spades), carrying sticks etc. K140
Castanea mollissima Blume maoli 毛栗 27 wood best for electricity posts and for boards in bridges, also pig troughs, roof elements, door frames k132
Cornus kousa F.Buerger ex Hance shizao 石枣子 26 wood handles (axe, hoe, sickle), also rolling pins and stone grinder axes, and firewood K155
Meliosma dilleniifolia (Wall. ex Wight & Arn.) Walp. linshu, xiangnongmu 林寿,降龙木 26 wood highly valued for handles (esp. hoe, spade and rake) - very smooth and durable K118
Populus purdomii Rehder dongguayang, baiyang, yangshu 冬瓜杨,白杨,杨树 26 wood mainly for bee-hives, also “cuopiao” grain shovels K180
Tilia olivieri Szyszył. and T. paucicostata Maxim. duanmu, duanshu 椴木(树) 26 bark and wood mainly bark for shoes, also wood for beehives, ladders, musical instruments, boxes and furniture K184, K187
Catalpa fargesii Bureau tangqiu 唐楸 23 wood mainly for barrels, also for furniture due to its attractive texture and grain K113
Phyllostachys sp. shuizhu, jinzhu, banzhu, zhuzi 水竹,金竹,斑竹,竹子 23 above ground parts mainly baskets, also basket handles, fishing rods, washing up brushes K133, K134
Quercus aliena var. acutiserrata Maxim. gangmu 杠木 23 wood construction esp. for beams, pillars, floor boards; best for firewood, also handles and “muer” mushroom cultivation K181
Tsuga chinensis (Franch.) Pritz. zaosong 枣松 22 wood mainly coffins and furniture, also construction (eg roof rafters) and barrels K148
Morus australis Poir. sangmu 桑木 21 wood carrying sticks K156
Philadelphus incanus Koehne jigutou 鸡骨头 18 wood walking sticks K163
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle baichun 白椿 17 wood furniture, esp. boards for windows and doors, also for table and chair legs and chopping boards K177
Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco baimu, xiangbai 柏木,香柏 17 wood mainly water barrels and containers, and coffins K121
Toona sinensis (Juss.) M.Roem. hongchun 红椿 17 wood mainly for furniture, windows and door planks K144
Cornus controversa Hemsl. liangzimu 梁子木 15 wood hard wood for chopping boards, furniture legs and rolling pins, also for handles K109, K128
Pyrus sp. limu 梨木 15 wood mainly chopping boards K165
Quercus variabilis Blume xiangmu, xiangshu 橡木(树) 15 wood and bark best for firewood, handles (basket, axe, plough), bark for industry and shoe soles, “muer” mushroom cultivation, furniture, boards K160
Berchemia sinica C.K.Schneid yagutiao 牙骨条 14 wood mainly for walking sticks, cattle harnesses and basket handles, also pitch-fork fingers K126
Cotinus coggygria Scop. huanglou 黄栌 14 wood mainly for roof elements supporting tiles, also for “mu” harrows and fence posts K119
Magnolia sprengeri Pamp. jiangbo, mubieshu 姜剥 14 wood mainly for high quality chopping boards K138
Paulownia tomentosa Steud. tongmu 桐木 14 wood mainly for beehives, also barrels, pot covers, ladders, coffins and low-weight boards K170
Toxicondendron vernicifluum (Stokes) F.A. Barkley qimu, qishu 漆木(树) 14 wood and secretion mainly for electricity posts, also for barrels, fences, boards under tiles, stem sap used for lacquer K152
Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa & Pradeep geteng, getiao 葛藤,葛条 13 wood fibre for shoes, ropes and baskets K143
Fargesia nitida (Mitford) Keng f. ex T.P.Yi songhuazhu, zhuzi 松花竹,竹子 12 above-ground parts brooms and baskets K188
Populus cathayana Rehder baiyang, yangmu 白杨,杨木 12 wood mainly construction material and ladders, also fence posts, troughs and shovels K127
Abies fargesii Franch. pumu, pusong 朴木,朴松 11 wood construction, coffins, ladders K125
Salix sp. liu, liumu, liutiao 柳,柳木,柳条 10 wood, year-old twigs, bark shovels, twigs for baskets, bark for shoes, also firewood K158
Cornus officinalis Siebold & Zucc. zaopi 枣皮 9 wood mainly handles (spades, axes) and firewood, also ploughs K189
Pterocarya macroptera Batalin maliu 麻柳 9 wood and bark wood, mainly shovels and dustpans, bark for making shoes K147
Ulmus macrocarpa Hance yumu 榆木 9 wood a variety of small objects: “ciba” hammers, “mu” harrows, ladders, basket handles, ploughs, furniture K174
Amelanchier sinica (C.K.Schneid.) Chun hongshenzi, hongshunzi 红绳子,红顺子 8 wood mainly handles (for hoe, axe, rake), baskets K106
Juglans regia L. hetao 核桃 8 wood furniture, feet of door frames K137
Quercus spinosa David tiejiamu 铁匠木 8 wood mainly for handles (hoe, axe), wooden hammers, rolling pins, axes of stone grinders, firewood K159
Symplocos paniculata (Thunb.) Miq. baihuacha 百花茶 8 wood handles (sickle, hoe, axe, spade) K131
Buxus sinica (Rehder & E.H.Wilson) M.Cheng huangyang 黄杨 7 wood very hard wood, the best material for rolling pins and carving elements of Chinese board games “xianqi” and “majiang” K167
Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. duzhong 杜仲 6 wood a very good handle for hoes, material for “ciba” hammers K190
Fraxinus platypoda Oliv. baixingmu 白芯木 6 wood handles (axe, spade), also furniture esp. legs K117
Sorbus folgneri (C.K.Schneid.) Rehder baishenzi 白绳子 6 wood handles (hoe, axe, spade) K108
Acer stachyophyllum Hiern (syn. Acer tetramerum Pax) hongliu 红柳 5 wood handles, esp. hoe, spade and pick-axe K175
Juglans mandshurica Maxim. mahetao 麻核桃 5 bark bark for shoes and ropes K191
Picea wilsonii Mast. zimu 紫木 5 wood construction and coffin boards K124
Stachyurus chinensis Franch. tonghuagan 通花杆 5 wood mainly rolling pins, also arms of scales, walking sticks, instruments for blowing fire K149
Cannabis sativa L. huoma 火麻 4 annual above ground parts fibre for shoes and ropes K192
Prunus tomentosa Thunb. chuantao 川桃 4 wood “lianjia” flails, basket handles, firewood K161
Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J.Scott saozhoucai 扫帚菜 3 above-ground parts brooms  
Betula luminifera H.J.P.Winkl. miaoyumu 描榆木 3 wood carrying sticks, firewood K120
Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L’Hér. ex Vent. goushu 构树 3 bark bark for shoes and ropes K176
Juniperus chinensis L. baishu, yabei 柏树,崖柏 3 wood decorative roots (“gendiao”), body ornaments due to pleasant smell, furniture K129
Lonicera standishii Jacques jigutou, paoer, yangnaishu 鸡骨头,泡儿,羊奶树 3 wood walking sticks, handles (sickle, axe), rolling pins K145
Maackia hupehensis Takeda chouhuai, honghuai 臭槐,红槐 3 wood ladders, stools, handles (wheel barrows) K182
Prunus davidiana (Carriere) Franch. shantao 山桃 3 wood chopping boards, rolling pins, branches to drive ghosts away K169
Viburnum betulifolium Batalin cusuantiao, nuomitiao 苦酸条,糯米条 3 wood axe handles, rolling pins, rakes, “mu” harrows K142
Corylus heterophylla Fisch. ex Trautv. zhenzi 榛子 2 wood handles (hoe, axe), frames for garden climbers K171
Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Siebold bashu 巴树(木) 2 wood “mu” harrows K193
Kalopanax septemlobus (Thunb.) Koidz. ciqiu 刺楸 2 wood furniture K122
Paederia foetida L. hongteng, jishiteng 红藤,鸡屎藤 2 wood baskets, ropes K194
Rhododendron sp. doujuan, pipa 杜鹃,枇杷 2 wood rolling pins, “xiba” washing sticks K173
Rhus potaninii Maxim. wubeizi 五倍子 2 wood electricity posts, barrels K151
Sophora japonica L. huaimu, huaishu 槐木(树) 2 wood furniture, chopping boards K183
Taxus wallichiana var. chinensis (Pilg.) Florin hongdoushan 红豆杉 2 wood barrels and containers for water K123
Viburnum schensianum Maxim. heichagun 黑茶棍 2 wood mainly wooden fork fingers, also basket handles, “mu” harrows, “lianjia” flails K179
Akebia trifoliata (Thunb.) Koidz. mutong 木通 1 wood ropes  
Betula platyphylla Sukachev huashu 桦树 1 wood firewood K153
Caragana arborescens Lam. yangqiuhua 洋秋花 1 wood brushes for cleaning kitchen pots, “mu” harrow teeth K186
Cephalotaxus sinensis (Rehder & E.H.Wilson) H.L.Li shubai 水柏 1 wood basket handles K195
Chaenomeles sinensis (Dum.Cours.) Koehne muguahaitang 木瓜海棠 1 wood walking sticks k196
Crataegus cuneata Siebold & Zucc. yeshanza 野山楂 1 wood chopping boards, table legs K197
Dipteronia sinensis Oliv. shanmagan 山麻杆 1 wood big barrels for water and alcohol fermentation K116
Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. jianzici 剪枝刺 1 wood pitch-forks K136
Juniperus squamata Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don yabei 崖柏 1 wood big barrels for water or spirits K199
Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii (Mayr) Pilg. luoyesong 落叶松 1 wood boards K135
Ligustrum sp. duijetiao 对节条 1 wood fork fingers K162
Malus pumila Mill. pingguoshu 苹果树 1 wood “ciba” hammers K166
Miscanthus sinensis Andersson maocao 茅草 1 wood roof thatching K141
Prunus sp. choutao 臭桃 1 wood chopping boards K102
Rhus chinensis Mill. fulianzi 伏莲子 1 wood charcoal for fireworks K172
Sorbaria kirilowii (Regel & Tiling) Maxim. gaolianggan 高粱杆 1 wood rolling pins K185
Vitex negundo L. huangjintiao 黄荆条 1 wood basket handles k178