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Table 3 Medicinal uses of mammals and birds and their comparison with previous reports

From: Ethnomedicinal and cultural practices of mammals and birds in the vicinity of river Chenab, Punjab-Pakistan

S. no Scientific, common and local name Part used Application Diseases cured Previous reports Reference SI IMA FL RPL ROP
  Mammals
1. Bos taurus L. Cow, Gay Fat, milk, Flesh Topical and oral Feet wounds, body pain, fever, poison effect Fever, bone fever, memory loss, paralysis, asthma, stomach ache, gastritis, diarrhea, eye infection, tuberculosis, pesticide [46, 47, 59, 62, 65, 77, 78] 0.08 36 100 1 100
2. Bubalus bubalis L. Buffalo Mujh Fat, Milk, flesh Topical and oral Feet wound, body pain, fever, poison effect Pain, wound, jaundice, ascites, rheumatic pain, weakness, osteoporosis, thrombosis [18, 55,56,57, 59, 61, 77, 79] 0.18 16 40 1 40
3. Camelus dromedaries L.
Camel
Ount
Milk, blood Topical and oral Muscular pain, weakness, arthritis Acidity, hepatitis B and C [60, 64] 0 10 42 0.89 37
4. Canis aureus L.
Asiatic jackal
Gidar
Flesh, bones Topical Skin diseases Asthma, sciatica, arthritis, body pain, gout, skin diseases, paralysis [46, 47, 57, 70, 78] 0.14 11 65 0.63 41
5. Canis lupus familiaris L.
Dog
Kuta
Fat, flesh Topical Sexual power Weakness, poison, fever [77] 0 8 42 0.7 30
6. Capra aegagrus hircus L.
Goat
Bakri
Milk Oral Increase sexual efficiency Fever, eye tonic, tonsillitis, asthma, tuberculosis, menstrual disorder, toothache, anemia, dysentery, bronchitis, jaundice, diarrhea, blindness [55, 58,59,60,61,62, 64] 0 13 41 1 41
7. Equus africanus von Heuglin & Fitzinger
Donkey
Gadha
Milk, blood Topical Abdominal dropsy, arthritis Arthritis, madness, abdominal dropsy, tuberculosis [55, 58, 70] 0.5 9 41 0.81 33
8. Equus caballus L.
Horse
Kurrah
Fat Topical Skin infection Rabies, skin diseases, burn, allergy, arthritis, body pain, neuralgia, osteoporosis [50, 55, 56] 0.13 11 39 1 39
9. Felis chaus Schreber
Jungle cat
Jungli billi
Fat Topical Joint Pain Leucoderma [55] 0 10 67 0.56 37
10. Felis domesticus L.
Cat
Billi
Fat Topical Rheumatic pain, skin infections Fever, arthritis [57, 58] 0 46 100 1 100
11. Funnambulus pennanti Wroughton
Northern palm squirrel
Gulahri
Flesh Topical and oral Epilepsy Epilepsy [59] 1 4 57 0.26 15
12. Hemiechinus collaris Gray
Long eared desert hedgehog
Chotay kanday ali say, Kandyari Choha
Fat Topical Rheumatic pain, body ache    0 7 64 0.41 26
13. Herpestes javanicus E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilarie
Small Indian mongoose
Neola
Fat Topical Sexual power    0 8 67 0.44 30
14. Homo sapiens L.
Human
Insan
Saliva, urine Topical Herpes, ear pain Eye infections, wound, hiccup [49,50,51, 58, 70, 77, 80] 0 6 67 0.33 22
15. Hystrix indica Kerr
Indian crested porcupine
Kanday wali say
Fat Topical Skin infection, Rheumatic pain    0 26 50 1 50
16. Lepus nigricollis dayanus F. Cuvier
Desert hare
Jungli saya, Jungli khargush
Flesh, liver, blood Topical and oral Asthma, burning sensation, paralysis Tonic, chicken pox, wheezing, stomach and joint pain, high blood pressure, asthma [46, 47, 55, 56, 59, 70, 77, 78] 0.13 27 50 1 50
17. Manis crassicaudata E. Geoffroy
Indian Pangolin
Pangolin, Sipple
Scale, flesh Topical Feet swelling, Sexual power Feet swelling, piles, blood pressure, head ach, asthma, anti-haemorrhoidal, warts, ear pain, angina [55, 56, 59, 65, 66, 70] 0.1 3 38 0.3 11
18. Millardia meltada Gray
Soft-furred field rat
Fasli Choha
Fat Topical Joint pain    0 3 50 0.22 11
19. Mus musculus L.
House mouse
Chota Choha
Fat Topical Enhancement of semen Arthritis, analgesic [60, 80] 0 2 50 0.15 7
20. Nesokia indica Gray
Short tailed mole rat
Chhoti push wala choha
Fat Topical Joint pain    0 2 67 0.11 7
21. Oryctolagus cuniculusL.
Domestic rabbit
Khargush, Saya
Tail, blood Topical Burning sensation, weakness Bronchial diseases, stomachache [63, 64] 0 14 100 0.52 52
22. Ovis aries L.
Sheep
Bairh
Fat, milk, flesh Topical and oral Skin burn and crack, weakness, joint pain Edema, fractures, joint pain, sterility, flu, skin burn and crack, muscular pain, swellings, weakness, [20, 45, 47, 52, 56, 80,81,82] 0.2 23 100 0.85 85
23. Pteropus giganteus Brunnich
Indian flying fox bat
Chamgadar
Fat Topical Body and backbone pain, sexual power Asthma, bronchitis [55, 56, 61, 77] 0 5 50 0.37 19
24. Rattus rattus L.
House rat
Wada Choha
Fat Topical Joint pain Convulsions, semen enhancement, wounds healing, [56, 57, 61, 69] 0 3 60 0.19 11
25. Suncus etruscus Savi
Mediterranean pygmy shrew
Choti chachondar
Fat Topical Scrotal swelling    0 1 50 0.07 4
26. Suncus murinus L.
House shrew
Waddi chachondar
Fat Topical Scrotal swelling Snake bite, scrotal swelling [56, 61] 0.5 1 50 0.07 4
27. Sus scrofa L.
Indian wild boar
Baarla, Soor
Fat Topical Paralysis, burn Inflammatory, joint pain, fracture, paralysis, burn, snake bite, fever, piles, cough, cold, anti-haemorrhoidal, warts, earache, angina [46, 47, 50, 55, 56, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 70, 77, 80] 0.17 10 50 0.74 37
28. Tatera indica Hardwicke
Indian gerbil
Jungli Choha
Fat Topical Lumbago    0 1 33 0.11 4
29. Ursus thibetanus G. Cuvier
Bear
Richh
Fat Topical Sexual power    0 7 27 0.96 26
30. Vulpes bengalensis Shaw
Indian/Bengal fox
Lomri
Fat Topical Epilepsy    0 9 69 0.48 33
  Birds
31. Acridotheres tristis L.
Common Myna, Lali
Flesh Oral Whooping cough, weakness    0 15 71.43 0.66 47
32. Anas platyrhynchos domesticus L.
Domestic Duck, Batakh
Egg Oral Weak eye-side, weakness, low blood pressure   [20, 55, 56, 69] 0 55 100. 1.00 100
33. Anas platyrhynchos L.
Mallard, Nilsir
Flesh, egg Oral Paralysis, weakness Erectile dysfunction, scarlet fever, body strength, weakness   0.2 10 90.91 0.34 31
34. Aquila rapax Temminck
Tawny Eagle, Chhota baaz
Fat Topical Breast swelling Chest pain [45] 0 4 44.44 0.28 13
35. Ara macao L.
Macaw, Macaw
Fat Topical Pneumonia    0 9 37.50 0.75 28
36. Athene brama Temminck
Spotted Little Owlet, Ullo
Blood Topical Sexual weakness Rickets, cough [55] 0 18 58.06 0.97 56
37. Bubulcus ibis L.
Cattle Egret, Badami bagla
Blood, Flesh Topical and oral Dysentery    0 1 16.67 0.19 3
38. Centropus sinensis Stephens
Common Crow Pheasant, Jal Kukar
Flesh Oral Body-ache, weakness    0 5 27.78 0.56 16
39. Charadrius alexandrinus L.
Snowy Plover, Kalarwala marwa
Egg Oral Typhoid   [47, 55,56,57, 60, 63, 64, 69] 0 6 35.29 0.53 19
40. Columba livia Gmelin
Blue Rock Pigeon, Jangli kabotar
Flesh, Feather Oral Paralysis Menorrhagia, Bronchitis, puberty in young girls, paralysis, epilepsy, anemia, infertility [55, 83] 0.17 53 88.33 1.00 88
41. Corvus splendens Vieillot
House Crow, Kaan
Bone Topical For ear infection Lethargy, aphrodisiac, anemia, body aches, stomach disorder   0 4 14.29 0.88 13
42. Coturnix coturnix L.
Common Quail, Batera
Head of the bird, flesh Oral Enhance memory, improve sexual power Skin diseases, anemia, body weakness, enhance memory power [47, 55, 56] 0.25 30 51.72 1.00 52
43. Egretta alba L.
Large Egret, Wadda bagla
Blood, Flesh Topical and oral Dysentery    0 5 50.00 0.31 16
44. Egretta garzetta L.
Little Egret, Bauna bagla
Blood, Flesh Topical and oral Dysentery Asthma, body strength, breathing trouble, immune enhancer [55, 56] 0 2 25.00 0.25 6
45. Egretta intermedia Wagler Intermediate Egret, Gabhla bagla Blood, Flesh Topical and oral Dysentery    0 7 58.33 0.38 22
46. Francolinus francolinus L.
Black partridge, Kala tittar
Flesh and Bone soup Oral Bronchitis, weakness Bronchitis [64] 0.5 24 42.86 1.00 43
47. Gallus gallus L.
Domestic Chicken, Murghi
Egg, flesh Oral Fever, weakness, low blood pressure Sprains, strains, nourishing food, eye-each, bronchitis, diabetes, burst furuncles, asthma, Indigestion, sinusitis, shortness of breath, bronchitis, nervous problems, rheumatism, stuffy nose, weak bones, flu, weakness, sore throat, furuncle, burns, night blindness, eye infection, evil eye [20, 47, 49, 50, 58, 61,62,63, 78, 82, 84] 0 62 100 1.00 100
48. Hieraaetus fasciatus Sibley & Monroe
Bonnelli’s Eagle, Baaz
Fat Topical Breast swelling Breast swelling [58] 1 3 21.43 0.44 9
49. Meleagris gallopavo L.
Turkey, Turkey
Flesh Oral Asthma    0 10 33.33 0.94 31
50. Oenanthe isabellina Temminck,
Isabelline Wheatear, Kali akha wheater
Fat Topical Gastric problems in infants    0 8 53.33 0.47 25
51. Oenanthe picata Blyth
Eastern Wheatear, Kali cheeti wheatear
Fat Topical Gastric problems in infants    0 2 10 0.63 6
52. Passer domesticus L.
House Sparrow, Chiri
Flesh Oral Weakness, fever Increase sexual desire, aphrodisiac, allergy, paralysis, impotency, gas trouble, constipation, Chickenpox, [47, 56, 62, 64, 84] 0 64 100 1.00 100
53. Pavo cristatus L.
Peacock, Moor
Bone Topical Wound, pus Blurred vision, anemia, Abscess, eye diseases, body strength, ear infection, hiccup, asthma [55, 56, 62, 65] 0 7 28.00 0.78 22
54. Streptopelia decaocto Frivaldszky
Indian Ring Dove, Kogi, Ghogi
Flesh Oral Maturity in girls Early maturity in girls [64] 1 13 28.89 1.00 29
55. Streptopelia orientalis Latham
Oriental turtle Dove, Totru
Flesh Oral Maturity in girls    0 13 29.55 1.00 30
56. Streptopelia senegalensis L.
Little Brown Dove, Chhoti tutru, Chhoti kogi
Flesh Oral Maturity in girls    0 13 36.11 1.00 36
57. Streptopelia tranquebarica Hermann,
Red Turtle Dove, Lal totru
Flesh Oral Maturity in girls    0 13 27.66 1.00 28
58. Upupa epops L.
Common Hoopoe, Hud-hud
Flesh Oral Kidney problems Gall bladder stone [84] 0 1 25.00 0.13 3
  1. SI (Similarity Index), IMA (Informants of Major Ailment), FL (Fidelity Level), RPL (Relative Popularity Level), ROP (Rank order priority)