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Table 3 Medicinal uses of mammals and birds and their comparison with previous reports

From: Ethnomedicinal and cultural practices of mammals and birds in the vicinity of river Chenab, Punjab-Pakistan

S. no Scientific, common and local name Part used Application Diseases cured Previous reports Reference SI IMA FL RPL ROP
  Mammals
1. Bos taurus L. Cow, Gay Fat, milk, Flesh Topical and oral Feet wounds, body pain, fever, poison effect Fever, bone fever, memory loss, paralysis, asthma, stomach ache, gastritis, diarrhea, eye infection, tuberculosis, pesticide [46, 47, 59, 62, 65, 77, 78] 0.08 36 100 1 100
2. Bubalus bubalis L. Buffalo Mujh Fat, Milk, flesh Topical and oral Feet wound, body pain, fever, poison effect Pain, wound, jaundice, ascites, rheumatic pain, weakness, osteoporosis, thrombosis [18, 55,56,57, 59, 61, 77, 79] 0.18 16 40 1 40
3. Camelus dromedaries L. Camel Ount Milk, blood Topical and oral Muscular pain, weakness, arthritis Acidity, hepatitis B and C [60, 64] 0 10 42 0.89 37
4. Canis aureus L. Asiatic jackal Gidar Flesh, bones Topical Skin diseases Asthma, sciatica, arthritis, body pain, gout, skin diseases, paralysis [46, 47, 57, 70, 78] 0.14 11 65 0.63 41
5. Canis lupus familiaris L. Dog Kuta Fat, flesh Topical Sexual power Weakness, poison, fever [77] 0 8 42 0.7 30
6. Capra aegagrus hircus L. Goat Bakri Milk Oral Increase sexual efficiency Fever, eye tonic, tonsillitis, asthma, tuberculosis, menstrual disorder, toothache, anemia, dysentery, bronchitis, jaundice, diarrhea, blindness [55, 58,59,60,61,62, 64] 0 13 41 1 41
7. Equus africanus von Heuglin & Fitzinger Donkey Gadha Milk, blood Topical Abdominal dropsy, arthritis Arthritis, madness, abdominal dropsy, tuberculosis [55, 58, 70] 0.5 9 41 0.81 33
8. Equus caballus L. Horse Kurrah Fat Topical Skin infection Rabies, skin diseases, burn, allergy, arthritis, body pain, neuralgia, osteoporosis [50, 55, 56] 0.13 11 39 1 39
9. Felis chaus Schreber Jungle cat Jungli billi Fat Topical Joint Pain Leucoderma [55] 0 10 67 0.56 37
10. Felis domesticus L. Cat Billi Fat Topical Rheumatic pain, skin infections Fever, arthritis [57, 58] 0 46 100 1 100
11. Funnambulus pennanti Wroughton Northern palm squirrel Gulahri Flesh Topical and oral Epilepsy Epilepsy [59] 1 4 57 0.26 15
12. Hemiechinus collaris Gray Long eared desert hedgehog Chotay kanday ali say, Kandyari Choha Fat Topical Rheumatic pain, body ache    0 7 64 0.41 26
13. Herpestes javanicus E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilarie Small Indian mongoose Neola Fat Topical Sexual power    0 8 67 0.44 30
14. Homo sapiens L. Human Insan Saliva, urine Topical Herpes, ear pain Eye infections, wound, hiccup [49,50,51, 58, 70, 77, 80] 0 6 67 0.33 22
15. Hystrix indica Kerr Indian crested porcupine Kanday wali say Fat Topical Skin infection, Rheumatic pain    0 26 50 1 50
16. Lepus nigricollis dayanus F. Cuvier Desert hare Jungli saya, Jungli khargush Flesh, liver, blood Topical and oral Asthma, burning sensation, paralysis Tonic, chicken pox, wheezing, stomach and joint pain, high blood pressure, asthma [46, 47, 55, 56, 59, 70, 77, 78] 0.13 27 50 1 50
17. Manis crassicaudata E. Geoffroy Indian Pangolin Pangolin, Sipple Scale, flesh Topical Feet swelling, Sexual power Feet swelling, piles, blood pressure, head ach, asthma, anti-haemorrhoidal, warts, ear pain, angina [55, 56, 59, 65, 66, 70] 0.1 3 38 0.3 11
18. Millardia meltada Gray Soft-furred field rat Fasli Choha Fat Topical Joint pain    0 3 50 0.22 11
19. Mus musculus L. House mouse Chota Choha Fat Topical Enhancement of semen Arthritis, analgesic [60, 80] 0 2 50 0.15 7
20. Nesokia indica Gray Short tailed mole rat Chhoti push wala choha Fat Topical Joint pain    0 2 67 0.11 7
21. Oryctolagus cuniculusL. Domestic rabbit Khargush, Saya Tail, blood Topical Burning sensation, weakness Bronchial diseases, stomachache [63, 64] 0 14 100 0.52 52
22. Ovis aries L. Sheep Bairh Fat, milk, flesh Topical and oral Skin burn and crack, weakness, joint pain Edema, fractures, joint pain, sterility, flu, skin burn and crack, muscular pain, swellings, weakness, [20, 45, 47, 52, 56, 80,81,82] 0.2 23 100 0.85 85
23. Pteropus giganteus Brunnich Indian flying fox bat Chamgadar Fat Topical Body and backbone pain, sexual power Asthma, bronchitis [55, 56, 61, 77] 0 5 50 0.37 19
24. Rattus rattus L. House rat Wada Choha Fat Topical Joint pain Convulsions, semen enhancement, wounds healing, [56, 57, 61, 69] 0 3 60 0.19 11
25. Suncus etruscus Savi Mediterranean pygmy shrew Choti chachondar Fat Topical Scrotal swelling    0 1 50 0.07 4
26. Suncus murinus L. House shrew Waddi chachondar Fat Topical Scrotal swelling Snake bite, scrotal swelling [56, 61] 0.5 1 50 0.07 4
27. Sus scrofa L. Indian wild boar Baarla, Soor Fat Topical Paralysis, burn Inflammatory, joint pain, fracture, paralysis, burn, snake bite, fever, piles, cough, cold, anti-haemorrhoidal, warts, earache, angina [46, 47, 50, 55, 56, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 70, 77, 80] 0.17 10 50 0.74 37
28. Tatera indica Hardwicke Indian gerbil Jungli Choha Fat Topical Lumbago    0 1 33 0.11 4
29. Ursus thibetanus G. Cuvier Bear Richh Fat Topical Sexual power    0 7 27 0.96 26
30. Vulpes bengalensis Shaw Indian/Bengal fox Lomri Fat Topical Epilepsy    0 9 69 0.48 33
  Birds
31. Acridotheres tristis L. Common Myna, Lali Flesh Oral Whooping cough, weakness    0 15 71.43 0.66 47
32. Anas platyrhynchos domesticus L. Domestic Duck, Batakh Egg Oral Weak eye-side, weakness, low blood pressure   [20, 55, 56, 69] 0 55 100. 1.00 100
33. Anas platyrhynchos L. Mallard, Nilsir Flesh, egg Oral Paralysis, weakness Erectile dysfunction, scarlet fever, body strength, weakness   0.2 10 90.91 0.34 31
34. Aquila rapax Temminck Tawny Eagle, Chhota baaz Fat Topical Breast swelling Chest pain [45] 0 4 44.44 0.28 13
35. Ara macao L. Macaw, Macaw Fat Topical Pneumonia    0 9 37.50 0.75 28
36. Athene brama Temminck Spotted Little Owlet, Ullo Blood Topical Sexual weakness Rickets, cough [55] 0 18 58.06 0.97 56
37. Bubulcus ibis L. Cattle Egret, Badami bagla Blood, Flesh Topical and oral Dysentery    0 1 16.67 0.19 3
38. Centropus sinensis Stephens Common Crow Pheasant, Jal Kukar Flesh Oral Body-ache, weakness    0 5 27.78 0.56 16
39. Charadrius alexandrinus L. Snowy Plover, Kalarwala marwa Egg Oral Typhoid   [47, 55,56,57, 60, 63, 64, 69] 0 6 35.29 0.53 19
40. Columba livia Gmelin Blue Rock Pigeon, Jangli kabotar Flesh, Feather Oral Paralysis Menorrhagia, Bronchitis, puberty in young girls, paralysis, epilepsy, anemia, infertility [55, 83] 0.17 53 88.33 1.00 88
41. Corvus splendens Vieillot House Crow, Kaan Bone Topical For ear infection Lethargy, aphrodisiac, anemia, body aches, stomach disorder   0 4 14.29 0.88 13
42. Coturnix coturnix L. Common Quail, Batera Head of the bird, flesh Oral Enhance memory, improve sexual power Skin diseases, anemia, body weakness, enhance memory power [47, 55, 56] 0.25 30 51.72 1.00 52
43. Egretta alba L. Large Egret, Wadda bagla Blood, Flesh Topical and oral Dysentery    0 5 50.00 0.31 16
44. Egretta garzetta L. Little Egret, Bauna bagla Blood, Flesh Topical and oral Dysentery Asthma, body strength, breathing trouble, immune enhancer [55, 56] 0 2 25.00 0.25 6
45. Egretta intermedia Wagler Intermediate Egret, Gabhla bagla Blood, Flesh Topical and oral Dysentery    0 7 58.33 0.38 22
46. Francolinus francolinus L. Black partridge, Kala tittar Flesh and Bone soup Oral Bronchitis, weakness Bronchitis [64] 0.5 24 42.86 1.00 43
47. Gallus gallus L. Domestic Chicken, Murghi Egg, flesh Oral Fever, weakness, low blood pressure Sprains, strains, nourishing food, eye-each, bronchitis, diabetes, burst furuncles, asthma, Indigestion, sinusitis, shortness of breath, bronchitis, nervous problems, rheumatism, stuffy nose, weak bones, flu, weakness, sore throat, furuncle, burns, night blindness, eye infection, evil eye [20, 47, 49, 50, 58, 61,62,63, 78, 82, 84] 0 62 100 1.00 100
48. Hieraaetus fasciatus Sibley & Monroe Bonnelli’s Eagle, Baaz Fat Topical Breast swelling Breast swelling [58] 1 3 21.43 0.44 9
49. Meleagris gallopavo L. Turkey, Turkey Flesh Oral Asthma    0 10 33.33 0.94 31
50. Oenanthe isabellina Temminck, Isabelline Wheatear, Kali akha wheater Fat Topical Gastric problems in infants    0 8 53.33 0.47 25
51. Oenanthe picata Blyth Eastern Wheatear, Kali cheeti wheatear Fat Topical Gastric problems in infants    0 2 10 0.63 6
52. Passer domesticus L. House Sparrow, Chiri Flesh Oral Weakness, fever Increase sexual desire, aphrodisiac, allergy, paralysis, impotency, gas trouble, constipation, Chickenpox, [47, 56, 62, 64, 84] 0 64 100 1.00 100
53. Pavo cristatus L. Peacock, Moor Bone Topical Wound, pus Blurred vision, anemia, Abscess, eye diseases, body strength, ear infection, hiccup, asthma [55, 56, 62, 65] 0 7 28.00 0.78 22
54. Streptopelia decaocto Frivaldszky Indian Ring Dove, Kogi, Ghogi Flesh Oral Maturity in girls Early maturity in girls [64] 1 13 28.89 1.00 29
55. Streptopelia orientalis Latham Oriental turtle Dove, Totru Flesh Oral Maturity in girls    0 13 29.55 1.00 30
56. Streptopelia senegalensis L. Little Brown Dove, Chhoti tutru, Chhoti kogi Flesh Oral Maturity in girls    0 13 36.11 1.00 36
57. Streptopelia tranquebarica Hermann, Red Turtle Dove, Lal totru Flesh Oral Maturity in girls    0 13 27.66 1.00 28
58. Upupa epops L. Common Hoopoe, Hud-hud Flesh Oral Kidney problems Gall bladder stone [84] 0 1 25.00 0.13 3
  1. SI (Similarity Index), IMA (Informants of Major Ailment), FL (Fidelity Level), RPL (Relative Popularity Level), ROP (Rank order priority)