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Table 2 Useful plant species recorded in in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa

From: Diversity of use and local knowledge of wild and cultivated plants in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa

Species name and voucher number Family Vernacular name (isiXhosa) Growth form Wild/cultivated Frequency (%)b Main use Parts used Cured diseases Other uses
a Acacia baileyana F. Muell.; AM 1421 Fabaceae Iwatlisi Tree W 2.9 T Stems   
Acacia caffra (Thunb.) Wild.; AM 1504 Fabaceae Umthole Tree W 3.6 T Stems   
aAcacia dealbata Link.; AM 1422 Fabaceae Idywabasi Tree W 4.3 T Stems   Fi
Acacia karroo Hayne; AM 1423 Fabaceae Umnga Tree W 21.7 Fi Bark, leaves, stems Boils, diarrhoea, haemorrhage, ringworm, thrush, tuberculosis (TB) B, EVM, M
aAcacia mearnsii De Wild.; AM 1424 Fabaceae Idywabasi Tree W 7.2 T Bark, leaves, stems Diarrhoea Fi, M
Acokanthera oblongifolia (Hochst.) Codd; AM 1451 Apocynaceae Inxinebe Tree W 8.7 M Leaves Headache, snakebite EVM
Agapanthus africanus Hoffmanns; AM 1432 Alliaceae Isicakathi Herb W 5.1 M Leaves Antiseptic, rash, stomach problems  
a Agave americana L.; AM 1452 Asparagaceae Ikhamanga Shrub WC 5.8 O Leaf sap, whole plant High blood pressure M
Alepidea amatymbica Eckl. & Zeyh.; AM 1494 Apiaceae Iqwili Herb W 25.4 M Roots Abdominal pains, fever, pimples, wounds  
Alepidea serrata Eckl. & Zeyh.; AM 1505 Apiaceae Ubulawa Herb W 1.4 M Roots Cough  
a Allium cepa L.; AM 1507 Alliaceae Itswele Herb C 40.6 F Bulb   
a Allium sativum L.; AM 1508 Alliaceae Ivimbampunzi Herb C 11.6 F Bulb Cough M
Aloe arborescens Mill.; AM 1493 Asphodelaceae Ingcelwane Shrub W 12.3 M Leaf gel Constipation, dry skin, wounds EVM
Aloe ciliaris Haw.; AM 1506 Asphodelaceae Intelezi Shrub W 1.4 M Leaf gel Wounds  
Aloe ferox Mill.; AM 1409 Asphodelaceae iKhala Shrub W 38.4 M Leaf gel Boils, dry skin, immune booster, stomachache, TB, wounds EVM
Aloe marlothii A. Berger; AM 1514 Asphodelaceae Imvomvo Tree W 2.9 EVM Leaf gel   
a Amaranthus hybridus L.; AM 1515 Amaranthaceae Nomdlomboyi Herb W 4.3 F Leaves   
Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd.; AM 1516 Asteraceae Umhlonyane Shrub W 24.6 M Leaves, roots Cough, diabetes, loss of appetite, TB  
Asparagus africanus L.; AM 1495 Asparagaceae Umathunga Climber W 13.8 M Leaves, roots Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), to speed up labour, wounds  
Asparagus asparagoides (L.) Druce; AM 1433 Asparagaceae Imvane Climber W 1.4 M Roots STIs  
Asparagus laricinus Burch. Asparagaceae Inqatha Shrub W 1.4 EVM Roots   
a Beta vulgaris L.; AM 1489 Chenopodiaceae   Herb C 10.9 F Leaves   
a Bidens pilosa L.; AM 1536 Asteraceae Umhlabangulo Herb W 3.6 F Leaves TB M
Boophone disticha (L. f.) Herb.; AM 1496 Amaryllidaceae Ishwadi Herb W 13.0 M Bulb Boils, circumcision wounds EVM
Bowiea volubilis Harv. ex Hook. f. ssp. volubilis; AM 1490 Hyacinthaceae Umagaqana Herb W 13.0 M Bulb Headache, inflammations, impotence  
a Brassica oleracea L.; AM 1535 Brassicaceae Ikhaphetshu Herb C 63.8 F Leaves   
aBrassica rapa L.; AM 1534 Brassicaceae   Herb C 2.9 F Leaves   
Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lam.; AM 1533 Rhizophoraceae Isiqungati Tree W 4.3 T Stems   
Bulbine abyssinica A. Rich.; AM 1492 Asphodelaceae Uyakayakana Herb W 5.1 M Leaves, roots Diarrhoea, menstrual pain EVM
Bulbine frutescens (L.) Willd.; AM 1532 Asphodelaceae Ibhucu Herb W 8.7 M Leaf sap Diabetes, ringworm, wounds EVM
Bulbine latifolia (L. f.) Roem. & Schult.; AM 1531 Asphodelaceae Incelwane Herb W 15.2 M Roots Diarrhoea, speed up labour EVM
Capparis tomentosa Lam.; AM 1410 Capparaceae Umpasimani Tree W 5.8 M Roots Pneumonia, snakebite, sore throat  
a Capsicum annuum L.; AM 1447 Solanaceae Itshilisi Herb C 34.8 F Fruits Fever M
Carissa bispinosa (L.) Desf. ex Brenan; AM 1448 Apocynaceae Beta-umtumzi Shrub W 4.3 F Fruits   
Carpobrotus edulis (L.) L. Bolus; AM 1449 Mesembryanthemaceae Igcukuma Shrub W 7.9 M Leaves Ringworm, sore throat, TB, wounds  
a Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don; AM 1450 Apocynaceae   Herb WC 9.4 O Leaves, whole plant Cancer, diabetes M
Centella coriacea Nannf.; AM 1453 Apiaceae Unongotyozana Herb W 10.1 F Leaves STIs, TB, wounds M, EVM
a Chenopodium album L.; AM 1454 Chenopodiaceae Iphunga Herb W 10.9 F Leaves   
Cheilanthes hirta Sw.; AM 1455 Pteridaceae Ifense Pteridophyte W 1.4 M Leaves Wounds  
a Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.; AM 1530 Rutaceae Lamuni Tree C 18.8 F Fruits, leaves Skin rash M
aCitrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck; AM 1529 Rutaceae Iorenji Tree C 20.3 F Fruits   
Clivia miniata Regel; AM 1434 Amaryllidaceae Umayime Herb W 4.3 M Leaves Stomach problems  
Combretum erythrophyllum (Burch.) Sond.; AM 1528 Combretaceae Umdubu Tree W 2.2 B Leaves   
Convolvulus sagittatus Thumb; AM 1497 Convolvulaceae Uboqo Herb W 1.4 M Roots Headache  
a Cucurbita maxima Duchesne; AM 1517 Cucurbitaceae Ithanga Climber C 23.9 F Fruits   
a Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poir.; AM 1498 Cucurbitaceae Ithanga Climber C 29.7 F Fruits   
Cussonia paniculata Eckl. & Zeyh.; AM 1518 Araliaceae Umsenge Tree W 5.8 M Bark, leaves Immune booster, skin diseases  
Cussonia spicata Thunb.; AM 1488 Araliaceae Umgezisa Tree W 7.2 M Leaves Immune booster, stomach problems EVM
Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle; AM 1426 Poaceae Umqungu Grass W 1.4 T Leaves   
a Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; AM 1509 Poaceae Uqaqaqa Grass W 4.3 B Leaves   
aDatura stramonium L.; AM 1510 Solanaceae Uvumbangwe Herb W 6.5 M Leaves Asthma, boils, wounds  
aDaucas carota L.; AM 1487 Apiaceae umnqathi Herb C 26.8 F Roots   
Diospyros lycioides Desf.; AM 1427 Ebenaceae Umbhongisa Shrub W 2.2 B Leaves   
Dovyalis caffra (Hook. f. & Harv.) Hook. f.; AM 1486 Flacourtiaceae Incagolo Shrub W 4.3 F Fruits   
Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels; AM 1425 Fabaceae Intolwane Shrub W 17.4 M Rhizomes High blood pressure, haemorrhoids, rashes, purify blood EVM
a Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.; AM 1485 Myrtaceae   Tree WC 5.1 T Stems, leaves Cough, TB Fi, M
aEucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden; AM 1519 Myrtaceae   Tree WC 2.9 T Stems   Fi
Euphorbia ingens E. Mey. ex Boiss; AM 1520 Euphorbiaceae Intsema Shrub W 4.3 M Latex Cancer, skin rash  
a Ficus carica L.; AM 1484 Moraceae ikwiwane Tree C 5.1 F Fruits   
Gnidia capitata L. f.; AM 1527 Thymelaeaceae Isidikili Shrub W 3.6 M Roots Ringworm, wounds  
Grewia occidentalis L.f.; AM 1526 Malvaceae Umvilani Shrub W 1.4 EVM Roots   
Gunnera perpensa L.; AM 1525 Gunneraceae Iphuzi Herb W 18.1 M Rhizomes Cancer, constipation, induce or augment labour, inflammation, menstrual pain, wounds EVM
Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh.; AM 1483 Anacardiaceae Umgwenye Tree W 12.3 F Bark, fruits Rash, wounds EVM, M
Helichrysum gymnocomum DC.; AM 1458 Asteraceae Icholachola Herb W 5.8 M Whole plant Colds, cough  
Helichrysum nudifolium (L.) Less.; AM 1457 Asteraceae Icholocholo Herb W 8.7 M Leaves Cough, diabetes, menstrual pain, wounds  
Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Sweet; AM 1456 Asteraceae Iphepho Shrub W 12.3 M Whole plant Colds, diabetes, headache, wounds  
Hermannia depressa N. E. Br.; AM 1435 Sterculiaceae Phate eangaka Shrub W 3.6 M Leaves Colds, cough  
Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf; AM 1482 Poaceae Umngcele Grass W 4.3 T Leaves   
Hypoxis argentea Harv. ex Baker; AM 1499 Hypoxidaceae Ixalanxa Herb W 5.8 M Bulb Cancer, ringworm, TB EVM
Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch. Mey. & Ave-Lall.; AM 1524 Hypoxidaceae Inongwe Herb W 24.6 M Bulb Cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, immune booster, pimples  
Ilex mitis (L.) Radlk.; AM 1480 Aquifoliaceae Isidumo Tree W 8.0 M Bark Sore throat, stomach problems  
a Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.; AM 1428 Convolvulaceae Bhatata Climber C 21.0 F Root   
aLactuca sativa L.; AM 1471 Asteraceae Ilethasi Herb C 13.8 F Leaves   
Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. Br.; AM 1523 Lamiaceae Imvovo Shrub W 8.7 M Leaves Colds, cough, diarrhoea, snakebite EVM
Lippia javanica (Burm. f.) Spreng.; AM 1479 Verbanaceae Inzinziniba Shrub W 11.6 M Leaves, roots Chicken pox, colds, cough, wounds  
Lobelia flaccida (C. Presl) A. DC.; AM 1522 Campanulaceae Itshilizi Herb W 2.2 M Leaves Abdominal pain  
a Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.; AM 1521 Solanaceae tumata Climber C 22.4 F Fruits   
aMalus domestica Borkh.; AM 1481 Rosaceae Apile Tree C 10.1 F Fruits   
Malva parviflora L.; AM 1482 Malvaceae Ujongelana Shrub W 1.4 M Leaves Wounds  
Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds.; AM 1483 Lamiaceae Inxina Herb W 5.1 M Leaves Wounds  
Miscanthus capensis (Nees) Andersson; AM 1478 Poaceae Idobo Grass W 4.3 T Leaves, roots Wounds M
aMusa X paradisiaca L.; AM1503 Musaceae   Tree C 13.0 F Fruits   
aNicotiana glauca Graham; AM 1502 Solanaceae Icubamfene Shrub W 5.1 M Leaves Headache  
a Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.; AM 1501 Cactaceae Itolofiya Tree WC 24.6 F Fruits, leaves, whole plant Wounds M, O
Pentanisia prunelloides (Klotzsch ex Eckl. & Zeyh.) Walp. ssp. prunelloides; AM 1411 Rubiaceae Irubuxa Herb W 4.3 M Roots Wounds  
a Persea americana Mill.; AM 1459 Lauraceae   Tree C 11.6 F Fruits, seed paste Ringworm M
a Phaseolus vulgaris L.; AM 1460 Fabaceae mbotyi Herb C 19.6 F Fruits   
Phoenix reclinata Jacq.; AM 1469 Arecaceae Isundu Tree W 3.6 C Leaves, whole plant   O
Phragmites australis (Cav.) Steud.; AM 1500 Poaceae Ingcongolo Grass W 4.3 T Leaves   
aPhysalis angulata L.; AM 1470 Solanaceae Iyoli Herb W 5.1 M Leaves Burns  
aPisum sativum L.; AM 1461 Fabaceae Erityisi Herb C 15.9 F Fruits   
Pittosporum viridiflorum Sims.; AM 1420 Pittosporaceae Umkhwenkwe Shrub W 12.3 M Bark, roots Abdominal pain, cancer, fever EVM
Plectranthus ambiguus (Bolus) Codd; AM 1429 Lamiaceae Irhajojo Herb W 5.8 M Leaves Colds, cough EVM
Podocarpus latifolius (Thunb.) R. Br. ex Mirb.; AM 1511 Podocarpaceae Umcheya Tree W 1.4 EVM Leaves   
Prunus africana Hook.; AM 1467 Rosaceae Umkhakhazi Tree W 4.3 M Bark, leaves Cough, eye problems, TB  
aPrunus armeniaca L.; AM 1415 Rosaceae   Tree C 12.3 F Fruits   
a Prunus persica (L.) Batsch; AM 1512 Rosaceae Ipesika Tree C 13.0 F Fruits, leaves Eye problems M
a Psidium guajava L.; AM 1513 Myrtaceae Ugwava Shrub WC 18.1 F Fruits, leaves Diarrhoea M
Rhoicissus digitata (L.f.) Gilg & Brandt; AM 1468 Vitaceae Uchithibhunga Climber W 7.2 M Roots Headache, high blood pressure  
aRicinus communis L.; AM 1466 Euphorbiaceae Umkakuva Tree W 5.1 M Leaves Stomachache  
Salvia scabra L. f.; AM 1416 Lamiaceae Isicakathi Herb W 1.4 M Leaves Tonic  
Schotia latifolia Jacq.; AM 1418 Fabaceae Umaphipha Tree W 4.3 T Bark, stems Diarrhoea EVM, M
Senecio speciosus Willd.; AM 1419 Asteraceae Idambiso Herb W 5.1 M Leaves Inflammations, wounds  
Sida rhombifolia L.; AM 1465 Malvaceae Umdizawethafa Shrub W 1.4 M Leaves Wounds  
Solanum aculeastrum Dun.; AM 1417 Solanaceae Umthuma Shrub W 5.1 M Fruits Boils, cancer, dysentery, impotence  
aSolanum nigrum L.; AM 1430 Solanaceae Umsobo Herb W 6.5 M Leaves Ringworm, wounds  
a Solanum tuberosum L.; AM 1444 Solanaceae Amazambane Herb C 29.0 F Tubers   
a Sonchus asper (L.) Hill; AM 1445 Asteraceae Irwabe Herb W 4.3 F Leaves   
aSonchus oleraceus L.; AM 1446 Asteraceae Ihlaba Herb W 5.1 F Leaves   
a Spinacia oleracea L.; AM 1412 Amaranthaceae Imifuno Herb C 54.3 F Leaves   
Sporobolus africanus (Poir.) Robyns & Tournay; AM 1431 Poaceae Umtshiki Grass W 3.6 T Leaves   
Sporobolus fimbriatus (Trin.) Nees; AM 1436 Poaceae Umgigwi Grass W 2.9 T Leaves   
Syzygium cordatum Hochst. ex C. Krauss.; AM 1443 Myrtaceae Umswi Tree W 5.8 M Bark Inflammation, pimples  
a Taraxacum officinale Weber; AM 1463 Asteraceae Ikhokhoyi Herb W 5.1 F Leaves   
Trichilia emetica Vahl; AM 1437 Meliaceae Umkhulu Tree W 3.6 M Leaves Wounds  
Tulbaghia acutiloba Harv.; AM 1462 Alliaceae Isivumbampunzi Herb W 4.3 M Leaves Colic  
Tulbaghia alliacea L. f.; AM 1442 Alliaceae Umwelela Herb W 5.8 M Bulb Boils, wounds  
Tulbaghia violacea Harv.; AM 1464 Alliaceae Utswelane Herb W 7.2 M Bulb Cancer, TB  
Typha capensis (Rohrb.) N. E. Br.; AM 1438 Typhaceae Ingcongolo Herb W 6.5 C Leaves, rhizomes Dysentery, STI M
aVitis vinifer L.; AM 1440 Vitaceae Umdiliya Climber C 5.8 F Fruits   
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal; AM 1414 Solanaceae Ubuvuma Shrub W 4.3 M Leaves, roots Inflammations, TB, wounds  
Xysmalobium undulatum (L.) W.T. Aiton; AM 1442 Apocynaceae Itshongwe Herb W 5.1 M Roots STIs  
Zantedeschia aethiopica (L.) Spreng.; AM 1537 Araceae Inyiba Herb W 3.6 M Leaves Wounds  
a Zea mays L.; AM 1441 Poaceae umbone Grass C 57.2 F Seed   
Ziziphus mucronata Willd.; AM 1413 Rhamnaceae Umphafa Tree W 10.9 M Leaves Chest pains, cough, dysentery, TB EVM
  1. aplant species that are exotic to South Africa
  2. bFrequency (%) = percentage of participants mentioning plant species as useful; B = browse, C = brooms and crafts, EVM, ethnoveterinary medicine, F food plants, Fi firewood, L live fence and ornamental, M medicinal plants, T construction timber and thatching