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Table 1 Therapeutic uses of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and their body parts or derivative products in contemporary Spanish ethnomedicine

From: The therapeutic use of the dog in Spain: a review from a historical and cross-cultural perspective of a change in the human-dog relationship

Part or product used ICD-10
chaptera
Diseases or ailments treatedb Preparation (administration route)c Remedy typed Geographical location Ref. No.
Whole animal I Pulmonary tuberculosis (•) Cooked (IN) EMP-CUR Alto Aragón (Huesca) [42]
    Slit open from one end to the other (EX) MAG-CUR San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa) and Extremadura [43,44,45]
  I Tuberculous meningitis (•) Cooked (IN) EMP-CUR San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa) [43, 46]
  I Whooping cough Without prepraration (TR) MAG-CUR Extremadura [45]
  I Warts Without prepraration (TR) MAG-CUR Extremadura [56]
  I Tertian and quartan fever Without prepraration (TR) MAG-CUR Guijo de Granadilla (Cáceres), Fuenteliante (Salamanca) and Reus (Tarragona) [57,58,59]
  III Anaemia (•) Cooked (IN) EMP-CUR Doñana (Andalusia) [62]
  IV Rickets (•) Cooked (IN) EMP-CUR Asturias and provinces of Tarragona, Badajoz and Murcia [57, 59, 63,64,65,66]
  X Pneumonia (•) Slit open from one end to the other (EX) MAG-CUR San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa) [43, 44]
  X Asthma (•) Cooked (IN) EMP-CUR Fuerteventura (Canary Islands) [69]
  XI Stomatitis Without prepraration (TR) MAG-CUR Asturias [64, 65, 70,71,72]
  XI Hernias in children (umbilical and inguinal) Without prepraration (TR) MAG-CUR Aldeanueva del Camino (Cáceres) [73]
  XII Hangnails Without prepraration (TR) MAG-CUR San Vicente de Alcántara (Badajoz) [56]
  XII Painful spots in breastfeds (•) Cooked (IN) EMP-CUR Madroñera (Cáceres) [76]
  XV To obtain the correct shape of the nipples (•) Without prepraration (EX) EMP-PRE Doñana (Andalusia) and the Basque Country [44, 46, 62, 78]
  XV Mastitis (•) Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Province of Soria and Extremadura [40, 74, 80]
  XV Milk stasis (•) Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Provinces of Navarra, Segovia and Soria, Treviño (Burgos), Cerdanya (Catalonia), La Alcarria (Guadalajara) and the Basque Country [44, 74, 81,82,83,84,85]
  XV Excess of milk (•) Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Basque Country and Navarra [44, 78, 86, 87]
  XVIII Jaundice Without prepraration (TR) MAG-CUR Provinces of Alicante, Valencia and Murcia [66, 88]
  XIX Infected wounds (•) Fried in olive oil (EX) EMP-CUR Ubierna (Burgos) [89]
Saliva I Warts Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Lanzarote (Canary Islands) [52]
  IX Haemorrhoids Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Valencia del Ventoso (Badajoz) [68]
  XII Chapped lips Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Holguera (Cáceres), Zafra and Peloche (Badajoz) [51]
  XII Urticaria Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Santa Cruz de Paniagua, El Bronco and Palomero (Cáceres) [75]
  XV Fissures, sores and excoriations on the breasts Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Moraleja and Casas de Don Gómez (Cáceres) [79]
  XIX Superficial wounds (and cuts and sores) Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Provinces of Navarra, Salamanca and Soria, and Extremadura and the Basque Country [41, 44, 57, 60, 68, 74, 79, 80]
  XIX Chilblains Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Aldeanueva de Figueroa (Salamanca) [41]
  XX Insect bites and stings Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Morasverdes (Salamanca) [41]
  XX Viper bites Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Guijuelo (Salamanca) [41]
  XX Dog bites Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Telleriarte (Guipúzcoa) [44]
Faeces I Diphtheria Poultice (EX) EMP-CUR Ripollés (Catalonia) [48]
  IV Malnutrition Boiled (IN) EMP-CUR Sierra de Segura (Albacete) [53, 54]
  X Colds Tisane with different components (IN) EMP-CUR Sierra de Segura (Albacete) [53, 54]
  X Sore throat Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Ripollés (Catalonia) [48]
  X Pneumonia Poultice (EX) EMP-CUR Ripollés (Catalonia) [48]
  XI Diarrhoea Boiled (IN) EMP-CUR Bretún (Soria) [74]
  XV Weaning Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Basque Country [86]
  XVIII Epistaxis Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Arcos de Jalón (Soria) [74]
  XX Spider bites Powdered (IN) EMP-CUR Canary Islands [52]
Milk I Whooping cough Boiled (IN) EMP-CUR Provinces of Cáceres and Salamanca [41, 49, 50]
  IV Rickets Boiled (IN) EMP-CUR Provinces of Cáceres and Salamanca [41, 49, 63]
  V Alcoholism Boiled (IN) EMP-CUR Alburquerque (Badajoz) [57]
  VIII Earache in children Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Líjar (Almería) [67]
  X Bronchitis Boiled (IN) EMP-CUR Valencia de Alcántara (Cáceres) [50]
  X Colds Boiled (IN) EMP-CUR Valencia de Alcántara (Cáceres) [50]
  XV Low milk supply Boiled (IN) EMP-CUR Torrejoncillo (Cáceres) [76]
Skin II Skin cancer Burnt, ashes (EX) EMP-CUR Fuentes de León (Badajoz) [51]
  VII Cataracts Without prepraration (EX) MAG-CUR Dehesa de Coquilla (Salamanca) [58]
  XIII Sciatica Tanned by hand (EX) MAG-CUR Mountains of Álava province [46, 77]
  XIII Nocturnal leg cramps Tanned by hand (EX) MAG-PRE Provinces of Álava and Navarra [44, 60]
Fur I Rabies Without prepraration (EX) MAG-PRE Oliva de la Frontera (Badajoz) [51]
    Burnt, ashes (EX) MAG-PRE Canary Islands [52]
    Fried in olive oil (EX) EMP-PRE Castile-La Mancha [53, 54]
  XX Dog bites Fried in olive oil (EX) EMP-CUR Galicia, the Basque Country and Andalusia [43, 44, 46, 77, 90,91,92,93]
Meat II Cancer (•) Cooked (IN) EMP-CUR Abadiano (Vizcaya) [44]
  V Tantrum (without breathing, very red) (•) Fried (IN) EMP-CUR Galisteo (Cáceres) [58]
  VI Hemiplegia (•) Cooked (IN) EMP-CUR Villarino de los Aires (Salamanca) [41]
Head II Skin cancer Burnt, ashes (EX) EMP-CUR Galicia [61]
Teeth XI Teething Without prepraration (EX) MAG-PRE Province of Salamanca [38, 41]
Claws I Rabies Without prepraration (EX) MAG-PRE Province of Badajoz and Galicia [51, 55]
Testicles I Diphtheria Without prepraration (TR) MAG-CUR Extremadura [47]
Sperm I Warts Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR San Vicente de Alcántara (Badajoz) [56]
Blood XX Dog bites Without prepraration (EX) EMP-CUR Canary Islands [52]
  1. aICD-10 chapter: I = certain infectious and parasitic diseases; II = neoplasms; III = diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism; IV = endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases; V = mental and behavioural disorders; VI = diseases of the nervous system; VII = diseases of the eye and adnexa; VIII = diseases of the ear and mastoid process; IX = diseases of the circulatory system; X = diseases of the respiratory system; XI = diseases of the digestive system; XII = diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue; XIII = diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue; XV = pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium; XVIII = symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified; XIX = injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes; XX = external causes of morbidity and mortality
  2. b(•) folk remedies based on the use of puppies
  3. cAdministration route: EX = external use; IN = internal use; TR = transference ritual
  4. dRemedy type: EMP = empirical; MAG = magical / PRE = preventive healthcare; CUR = curative care