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Table 2. List of all emergency food species mentioned during the 78 interviews

From: Famine food of vegetal origin consumed in the Netherlands during World War II

Scientific name Vernacular names Family Citation frequency Domestication status Parts used Mode of consumption
Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris var. altissima Sugar beet (en), suikerbiet (du) Amaranthaceae 66 (85%) Cultivated Root Raw Boiled Pancakes Juice Birthday cake Bread Nasi goreng Foam
Tulipa spp. L. Tulip (en), tulp (du) Liliaceae 49 (59%) Cultivated Bulb Boiled Mash Bread Soup
Solanum tuberosum L. Potato (en), aardappel (du) Solanaceae 35 (45%) Cultivated Tuber skin Soup Dried; used as fuel
Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum a Chicory (en), cichorei (du) Asteraceae 15 (19%) Cultivatedb Root Dried and ground to coffee powder
Urtica dioica L. Common nettle (en), brandnetel (du) Urticaceae 13 (17%) Wild Leaves Soup Put in mash Sautéed
Rubus ssp. L. Blackberry (en), braam (du) Rosaceae 12 (15%) Wild Fruit Raw Jam
Fagus sylvatica L. Beech (en), beuk (du) Fagaceae 9 (12%) Wild Nut Raw Baked
Raphanus sativus L. Radish (en), radijs (du) Brassicaceae 7 (9%) Cultivated Leaves Put in mash Soup
Rosa ssp. Rose (en), roos (du) Rosaceae 7 (9%) Wild Fruit Raw Jam
Juglans regia L. English walnut (en), walnoot (du) Juglandaceae 6 (8%) Wild Seed Raw Roasted
Castanea sativa Mill. Sweet chestnut (en), tamme kastanje (du) Fagaceae 6 (8%) Wild Seed Roasted
Rumex ssp. Sorrel (en), zuring (du) Polygonaceae 6 (8%) Wild Leaves Soup Sautéed
Taraxacum officinale L. Common dandelion (en), paardenbloem (du) Asteraceae 5 (6%) Wild Leaves Raw Sautéed
Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus Carrot (en), wortel (du) Apiaceae 4 (5%) Cultivated Leaves Put in mash Sautéed
Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. crassa Fodder beet (en), voederbiet (du) Brassicaceae 4 (5%) Cultivated Root Cooking
Brassica oleracea L. convar. oleracea var. gemmifera Brussel sprouts (en), spruitkool (du) Brassicaceae 4 (5%) Cultivated Leaves and stems Boiled
Dahlia sp. Dahlia (en), dahlia (du) Asteraceae 3 (4%) Cultivated Roots Boiled
Gladiolus sp. Gladiolus (en), gladiool (du) Iridaceae 3 (4%) Cultivated Bulb Boiled
a Petasites hybridus ( L.) G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Scherb. Butterbur (en), groot hoefblad (du) Asteraceae 3 (4%) Wild Leaves Dried and smoked
a Flower bulbs (en), bloembollen (du) 3 (4%) Cultivated Bulbs Cooking
a Mushrooms (en), paddenstoelen (du) 2 (3%) Wild Fruiting body Baking
Zea mays subsp. mays L. Fodder maize (en), voedermais (du) Poaceae 2 (3%) Cultivated Kernel Boiled
Crocus ssp. Crocus (en), krokus (du) Iridaceae 2 (3%) Cultivated Bulb Boiled
Galium odoratum (L.) Scop. Sweetcented woodruff (en), lievevrouwebedstro (du) Rubiaceae 2 (3%) Wild Leaves Put in wine
Quercus robur L. English oak (en), zomereik (du) Fagaceae 2 (3%) Wild Nut Roasted
Claytonia perfoliata Donn ex Willd. Winter purslane (en), winterpostelein (du) Portulacaceae 2 (3%) Wild Leaves Vegetable
Aesculus hippocastanum L. Horse chestnut (en), witte paardenkastanje (du) Sapindaceae 2 (3%) Wild Seed Roasted and ground into coffee powder
Trifolium ssp. Clover (en), klaver (du) Fabaceae 2 (3%) Wild Leaves Soup
Aegopodium podagraria L. ground elder (en), zevenblad (du) Apiaceae 2 (3%) Wild Foliage Sautéed Soup
Cantharellus cibarius Fr. Chanterelle (en), cantharel (du) Cantharellacea 2 (3%) Wild Fruiting body
Agaricus campestris L. Field mushroom (en), gewone weidechampignon (du) Agaricaceae 2 (3%) Wild Fruiting body
Solanum tuberosum L. Potato (fodder) (en), aardappel (veevoer) (du) Solanaceae 2 (3%) Cultivated Tuber Boiled
Sambucus nigra L. Black elder (en), vlier (du) Adoxaceae 2 (3%) Wild Fruit and flowers Juice from berries Cooking berries
Iris ssp. Iris (en), iris (du) Iridaceae 1 (1%) Cultivated Rhizome
Typha latifolia L. Broadleaf cattail (en), lisdodde (du) Typhaceae 1 (1%) Wild Roots and leaves
Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. Wild apple (en), kersappel (du) Rosaceae 1 (1%) Cultivated Fruit Jam
Vaccinium myrtillus L. European blueberry (en), bosbes (du) Ericaceae 1 (1%) Wild Fruit
Boletus edulis Bull. Porcini (en), eekhoorntjesbrood (du) Boletaceae 1 (1%) Wild Fruiting body
Rubus idaeus L. Raspberry (en), framboos (du) Rosaceae 1 (1%) Wild Leaves Tea
Rosa rubiginosa L. Sweet briar (en), egelantier (du) Rosaceae 1 (1%) Wild Leaves Tea
Bellis perennis L. Common daisy (en), madeliefje (du) Asteraceae 1 (1%) Wild Leaves, flowers
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.a (NC) Commom chickweed (en), vogelmuur (du) Caryophyllaceae 1 (1%) Wild Whole plant Salad
  1. aNot included in statistical analysis
  2. bOrigin could not be determined with certainty
  3. NC Not confirmed. The species is based on the description made by the interviewed person, but the name of the plant was not mentioned
  4. en English, du Dutch