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Table 1 Ethnobotanical usages of the plants in the study area

From: An ethnobotanical study in Midyat (Turkey), a city on the silk road where cultures meet

Botanical name, specimen number Family Local name Plant part used Preparation Use UV Reported literature uses
Alcea setosa (Boiss.) Alef. A-183 Malvaceae Hıtmıye (A), hiro (K) Flower, fruit, root Infusion, decoction, fruit and root crushed Cough and flu cure, hair dye, wound healing, labor pain 0.21 Expectorant, diuretic, emollient, edible [31, 35]
Alcea striata subsp. striata (DC.) Alef. A-50 Malvaceae Hıtmıye (A) Flower, fruit, root Root applied to the skin, infusion Cough and flu cure, wound healing 0.14 Respiratory disease [15, 54]
Alkanna trichophila var. mardinensis Hub.-Mor. a A-91 Boraginaceae Dıbbeyk (A), Mısmısa (K) Flower Latex Food 0.04 Food [55]
Allium cepa L. A-295 Amaryllidaceae Basal (A) Leaf Decoction Dye for Easter egg 0.13 Dental infections, dye [31, 56, 57]
Anchusa azurea Mill. A-85 Boraginaceae Ivveyne (K), hımhım (A) Root, aerial parts Decoction, root crushed for wound Baskets, wound healing, cancer cure 0.09 Antitumoral, anti-inflammatory, burns and wounds, fresh eaten antihypertensive, carminative, diabetes disease, digestive, rheumatism, wound healing, cold, flu, stomach [11, 46, 54, 58, 59]
Anchusa azurea var. kurdica (Guşul) D.F.Chamb. A-13 Boraginaceae Gurız (K), hımhım (A) Aerial part Fresh eaten Antidote for animals 0.02 Diaphoretic, diuretic, stomachache, rheumatism, wound healing [45, 47, 60]
Anchusa strigosa Labill. A-177 Boraginaceae Hımhım (A) Aerial part Decoction Cancer treatment 0.02 Wound healing [31]
Anthemis cotula L. A-88 Compositae Kahven (A-K-S) Aerial part Decoction, infusion Herbal tea, treatment for stomach aches and flu 0.12 Cold, hair loss, digestive, laxative, bronchitis [1, 36]
Aristolochia bottae Jaub. & Spach A-34 Aristolochiaceae Gayekakahve (K) Aerial part Decoction Haemorrhoid cure 0.02 Diabetic foot syndrome, wound healing [15, 54]
Astragalus christianus L. A-146 Leguminosae Ğısavitılsağlep (A) Aerial part Fresh, dried Fodder 0.03 Not reported
Astragalus hamosus L. A-53 Leguminosae Kopalehalo (K) Fruit Fresh eaten Food 0.02 Fruit decoction, demulcent and laxative, irritation [61, 62]
Ballota saxatilis Sieber ex C.Presl. A-164 Lamiaceae Rihen (A), tamtam (K) Aerial part Hangs on the door Fragrance 0.02 Antimicrobial, antispasmodic and vermifuge [63, 64]
Capparis spinosa L. A-167 Capparaceae Gayakamber (A) Aerial part Infusion Diabetes treatment 0.02 Pickle, food, fodder, infertility rheumatoid arthritis [15, 16, 40]
Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. A-38 Brassicaceae Piçok (K) Fruit Fresh eaten Food 0.02 Expectorant, headache, astringent, emmenagogue, hemorrhoids, wounds, diabetes, spice [29, 38, 46, 47, 65, 66]
Lepidium draba L. A-55 Brassicaceae Kınebıne (K), kırmlıbre (A) Aerial part Infusion, cooked by boiling Food, wound healing 0.09 Eczema, sleep disorder, sedative, anorexia, edible as vegetable [11, 30, 38, 67]
Centaurea regia Boiss. subsp. cynarocephala (Wagenitz) Wagenitz A-133 Compositae Hıvhıvok (K) Root Fresh root eaten Food 0.02 Not reported
Centaurea kurdica Reichardt a A-174 Compositae Cızarılcebel (A) Flower Infusion Kidney ailment cure 0.02 Headache, kidney, rheumatism, sedative [38, 46, 60, 68]
Centaurea rigida Banks & Sol. A-162 Compositae Tahliye (A) Leaf Infusion Antidote 0.03 Not reported
Centaurea stapfiana (Hand.-Mazz.) Wagenitz a -161 Compositae Tumıke (A) Aerial part Fresh or dried used Fodder 0.08 Not reported
Prunus mahaleb L. A-93 Rosaceae Mahlep (A-K-T) Fruit, leaf, aerial part Fresh eaten, leaves used on wound Diabetes treatment, sugar syrup, amulets 0.06 Fruit, cough, strengthening, expectorate, diuretic, inflammation and respiratory system [38, 41]
Chondrilla juncea L. A-190 Compositae Ğılke (A) Root Saps of root collected Chewing gum 0.03 As a broom, kidney stone, abdominal ache, hemorrhaging [34, 38, 45, 69]
Cichorium intybus L. A-180 Compositae Hındıble (K) Aerial part Infusion Food, cooking 0.03 Burn, stomachache, epilepsy, antihypertensive, prostate, kidney stone, abdominal ache, cardiac disease, blood purifier, uterine disease, emollient, diabetes, depurative [15, 16, 26, 29, 38, 41, 64, 70,71,72,73]
Convolvulus arvensis L. A-114 Convolvulaceae Lavlavk (K) Aerial part Fresh or dried Fodder 0.03 Food, constipation, laxative, rope [74,75,76,77,85]
Crataegus azarolus var. aronia L. A-53 Rosaceae Alıç (T), ğızran (A-K) Fruit Fresh eaten Food 0.05 Not reported
Crupina crupinastrum (Moris) Vis. A-212 Compositae Maknese ahzar (A) Aerial part Aerial parts and branches Broom 0.12 Infection, antiseptic [86, 106]
Cyclotrichium leucotrichum (Stept.) Leblebici A-189 Lamiaceae Hınne (A) Aerial part Hung on the door Fragrance 0.03 Herbal tea [15]
Cydonia oblonga Mill. A-70 Rosaceae Verekılfercel (A) Leaf Infusion Sore throat cure 0.03 Cardiovascular disease, skin, sensory, diarrhea, beauty, constipation [38, 47]
Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich A-51 Cucurbitaceae Tirozia kera (K), terğuzılıhmar (A) Fruit 1–2 drops of fruit juice Sinusitis cure 0.06 Sinusitis, spleen disorder [28, 65]
Echium italicum L. A-184 Boraginaceae Hımhım (A) Aerial part Fresh or dried Fodder 0.02 Wound healing, diaphoretic, emollient, diuretic, ulcer treatment, rheumatoid arthritis [4, 80,81,82]
Erodium cicutarium (L.) L’Hér. A-188 Geraniaceae Derzikpire (K) Fruit Fresh eaten Food 0.05 Hemorrhoids, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, for constipation, haemostatic, urinary and genital disorders [70, 73, 83]
Eryngium campestre L. A-67 Apiaceae Harşef (A-K) Aerial part Stem peeled eaten fresh Food 0.08 Food, intestinal, hepatitis, digestion, muscle pain [16, 28, 34, 41, 84, 85]
Euphorbia craspedia Boiss. A-187 Euphorbiaceae Lığde (A) Aerial part Cover grape molasses Grape molasses 0.07 Not reported
Galium aparine L. A-43 Rubiaceae Ziven (A-K) Aerial part Fresh or dried Fodder 0.04 Not reported
Geranium tuberosum L. A-40 Geraniaceae Cezuğaraban (A) Aerial part Fresh or dried Fodder 0.03 Eaten fresh [15, 86]
Gladiolus atroviolaceus Boiss. A-75 Iridaceae Cezuğarab (A) Flower Fresh eaten Food 0.03 Eaten fresh, stomachache, colds and flu [15, 64, 87]
Gundelia tournefortii L. A-136 Compositae Kerenk (K), arkue (A) Aerial part Stem peeled and eaten fresh Food 0.04 Vitiligo bronchitis, catarrh, cold, diarrhea, gastric pain, kidney stone, mumps, diabetes [32, 35, 45, 60, 64, 88]
Hypericum triquetrifolium Willd. A-201 Hypericaceae Aran (K), ğırsile (A) Aerial part Infusion Diabetes, cardialgia 0.04 Skin, diabetes, diuretic, sedative, healing injures, antiseptic, diuretic [28, 29, 41, 54]
Iris reticulata M.Bieb. A-202 Iridaceae Bırğızzeyl (A) Flower Infusion Food 0.06 Tonsillitis, herbal tea [50]
Ixiolirion tataricum (Pall.) Schult. & Schult.f. A-31 Ixioliriaceae Terğuzılcebel (A), Hıyar (T-K) Flower Latex of flower Food 0.03 Ornament, sucking [15, 35]
Juniperus oxycedrus L. A-178 Cupressaceae Dıfran (K) Galbula Infusion Cough 0.03 Skin disease, eczema, cholesterol, diabetes, kidney stone, wound, body resistance booster, MS disease, cold, cardiac deficiency, analgesic [84, 8991]
Lathyrus inconspicuus L. A-151 Leguminosae Şokılgalem (A) Fruit Fresh eaten Food 0.02 Not reported
Buglossoides purpurocaerulea (L.) I.M.Johnst A-118 Boraginaceae Mıjmıjok (A) Aerial part Fresh or dried Fodder 0.02 Not reported
Malva neglecta Wallr. A-28 Malvaceae Toluk (T), hıbbes, tıbbayka (A), tabaknunu (K) Flower, leaf, aerial part Crushed flower, root and fruit, flower infusion Sarma as food, stomachache cure, toys, weight loss, labor pain, kidney diseases, diuretic 0.21 Gastric pain, wound healing, food, skin treatment, against kidney disease and abscesses [1, 15, 18, 26, 34, 35, 46, 60, 68, 92]
Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch.Bip. A-32 Compositae Beybunıc (A), gayeka seva, gihake seva (K) Flower, leaf, aerial part Infusion, fresh eaten, hung on the wall Cough and flu cure, stomach ache cure, bronchial cure, fragrance, soda, cardialgia 0.26 Antispasmodic, analgesic, antipyretic, anticough, antinfluenza, antiasthmatic, antiflatulence, stomachache, cold, throat, back pain, sedative, anti-inflammatory [28, 31, 40, 93]
Medicago radiata L. A-207 Leguminosae Nefel (A) Aerial part Fresh or dried Fodder 0.02 Fodder [94]
Medicago rigidula var. submitis (Boiss.) Ponert A-208 Leguminosae Nefel (A) Aerial part Fresh or dried Fodder 0.02 Not reported
Onopordum carduchorum Bornm. & Beauverd A-144 Compositae Kifar (A-K) Aerial part Stem peeled, fresh eaten Food 0.02 Hemorrhoids, food, [15, 88]
Onosma roussaei DC. A-155 Boraginaceae Mısmısılhacel (A) basımbar ılğalem (K) Flower Latex of flower Food 0.03 Not reported
Paliurus spina-christi Mill. A-285 Rhamnaceae Mağaylun (K) Leaf, flower Wood Agricultural tool, headache cure 0.04 Diabetes, nephroplegia, kidney stone, diuretic, fuel [9, 50]
Papaver rhoeas L. A-112 Papaveraceae Ceybuhaten (A), şişık (K) Aerial part Boiled, fried eaten Food, fodder 0.13 Sedative, soporific, coughing, antihemorrhagic [66, 74, 89, 95]
Parietaria judaica L. A-170 Urticaceae Rihen (A-K) Aerial part Hung in houses Fragrance   Hemorrhoids, wound [96, 97]
Paronychia kurdica Boiss A-159 Caryophyllaceae Haşişılselulet (A) Aerial part Infusion Wound and gall bladder treatment 0.04 Antiviral, wound [15, 98]
Peganum harmala L. A-293 Nitrariaceae Harmal (A-K) Flower, seed Dried seeds hung on the wall Amulets and ornaments 0.08 Hemorrhoids, prostatitis, birth, stomachache, snake replant, cardiac pain, muscle spasm, food poisoning, rabies, mental-nervous, digestive, respiratory, skin healing, wound, sedative, palpitation, anti-inflammatory [15, 28,29,30,31,32, 35, 44, 99]
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss A-87 Apiaceae Maydanoz (T) Leaf Fresh Decoration material for Easter egg 0.07 Diuretic, weight loss, herbal tea [89, 100]
Pistacia terebinthus subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler A-185 Anacardiaceae Bıtım (A-K) Fruit Fresh, fruit crushed for soup Sore throat cure, as soup 0.04 Colds, flu, diuretic, ulcer, food, wound healing, blood pressure [16, 31, 34, 35, 45, 46]
Polygonum bellardii All. A-15 Polygonaceae Şıbırbat (A) Aerial part Dried and rolled Broom 0.04 Kidney stone, bronchitis, eaten fresh [8, 12, 101]
Populus euphratica Oliv. A-154 Salicaceae Kavak (T) Stem Stem cut Constructional material 0.03 Not reported
Portulaca oleracea L. A-64 Portulacaceae Pırpere (A) Leaf Fresh leaves fried Food 0.14 Fresh vegetable in salad, diuretic, gastrointestinal disorders [50, 70, 77, 91, 102]
Pterocephalus pyrethrifolius Boiss. et Hohen. A-160 Caprifoliaceae Şıttayk (A) Flower Fresh and dried Fodder 0.02 Not reported
Pyrus communis L. A-56 Rosaceae Kımmısre (A) Fruit Fresh eaten Food 0.04 Digestive, catarrh, diarrhea, tonic, food [89, 103]
Quercus brantii Lindl. A-59 Fagaceae Ballot (A-K) Fruit, bark, shoot, branch Fresh fruit eaten, dried used Diabetes, fuel, constructional material 0.05 Food and fuel [77, 104]
Rhus coriaria L. A-295 Anacardiaceae Summek (A-K-T) Fruit Fresh eaten Spice 0.05 Spice, mouth sores, diabetes, relaxation [50, 85, 105, 106]
Rosa foetida Herrm. A-81 Rosaceae Menderis (A-K) Fruit Infusion Cardialgia, cancer treatment 0.03 Not reported
Rubia tenuifolia subsp. doniettii (Griseb.) Ehrend. & Schönb.-Tem. A-113 Rubiaceae Zelliko (A-K) Fruit Fresh fruit used Toys 0.04 Diuretic, laxative, emmenagogue, abortive [64]
Rubus sanctus Schreb. A-68 Rosaceae Trureşk (A-K) Root Fresh eaten Food 0.02 Eaten fresh, kidney stone, urinary infection, diabetes, stomachache, eczema [64, 107,108,109]
Salvia multicaulis Vahl. A-142 Lamiaceae Baravine (K), ikoro (S) Aerial part Infusion, applied on wounds Fodder, wound healing, flu and cough cure, labor pain, anti-inflammatory, antidote 0.14 Inflammatory, analgesic, treatment of stomach disturbances, herbal tea [16, 38, 54, 64]
Salvia syriaca L. A-148 Lamiaceae Sımsım (A) Fruit Dried Spice 0.05 Cough, digestive, flu [22, 100]
Scabiosa argentea L. A-213 Caprifoliaceae Maknese safra (A) Aerial part Cut and combined Broom 0.08 Broom, diuretic, wound healing [15, 45, 54, 76, 110]
Scandix stellata Banks & Sol. A-44 Apiaceae Bızırbenc (A), hıfraf (A-K), ziçırk (K) Aerial part Boiled and cooked in oil Food 0.10 Not reported
Scorzonera psychrophila Boiss. & Hausskn. ex Boiss. & Hausskn. A-84 Compositae Kahfor (A-K) Root Fresh eaten Food 0.03 Not reported
Scrophularia striata Boiss. A-158 Scrophulariaceae Nıkledike (A) Aerial part Cut and combined Broom 0.03 Not reported
Sideritis libanotica subsp. linearis (Benth.) Bornm. a A-191 Lamiaceae Şıltık (K) Aerial part Decoction Herbal tea, broom 0.05 Herbal tea [8, 47, 109]
Sisymbrium altissimum L. A-92 Brassicaceae Şevilgavser (K), hardal (T) Aerial part Fresh eaten Food 0.07 Food, fodder [91]
Silene dichotoma Erh. A-105 Caryophyllaceae Dağnıkestırıye (K) Aerial part Fresh eaten Food 0.03 Food [91]
Teucrium polium L. A-182 Lamiaceae Cığde (A-K-S) Aerial part Infusion, decoction Stomachache cure 0.51 Antispasmodic, antiflatulence, antidiabetic, kidney stone, gastric and kidney pain, diarrhea, headache, purgative, digestive problem, stomachic, liver disorder, diabete, cold, rheumatism [4, 11, 28, 31, 32, 46, 54, 65, 68, 72]
Thymbra sintenisii Bornm. & Azn. A-176 Lamiaceae Zatar (A-K-S) Aerial part Decoction with lemon peel Stomachache cure, spice, jam, ingredient in bread 0.11 Not reported
Thymbra spicata L. A-101 Lamiaceae Catır (A-K) Aerial part Decoction Herbal tea 0.03 Antiseptic, stomach pain [15, 16, 28, 35]
Torilis tenella (Delile) Rchb.f. A-130 Apiaceae Ziçırk (A) Aerial part Fresh and decoction Food, diuretic 0.02 Diuretic [55]
Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. longirostris (Sch.Bip.) Greuter A-135 Compositae Hivhivok (K) Aerial part Fried or used fresh Fodder 0.02 Food, aphrodisiac [50]
Tribulus terrestris L. A-173 Zygophyllaceae Pıruğacuz (A) Aerial part Decoction Kidney disease cure 0.03 Kidney stone, asthma, cardiac disorder [1, 46]
Medicago monantha (C.A.Mey.) Trautv. A-120 Leguminosae Antako (K) Aerial part Hung on the wall Fragrance 0.02 Fodder [103]
Triticum aestivum L. A-294 Poaceae Hınta (A-K) Aerial part Dried used to craft Basket, table, ornament 0.09 Basket [16, 111]
Urtica dioica L. A-22 Urticaceae Gazgazok (A-K) Leaf Decoction Cancer and tuberculosis treatment, sarma as food 0.02 Cancer, cold, diabete, rheumatism, stomach ache, analgesic, arthritis, digestive, diuretic, genital disorder, hemorrhoid, hepatitis, lipsotrichia, rheumatism, anti-inflammatory, astringent, antitussive, respiratory disorder [11, 18, 46, 68, 73]
Vaccaria hispanica (Mill.) Rauschert A-121 Caryophyllaceae Ziven (A-K) Aerial part Dried or fresh Fodder 0.02 Fodder [91]
Verbascum lasianthum Boiss. ex Benth. A-05 Scrophulariaceae Tumıkıtılcereb (A-K) Root, aerial part Root ground with raisins Hemorrhoids, wound healing   Honey [112]
Vicia hybrida L. A-124 Leguminosae Şokıl, şokıla kıtık (K), çelepen (A) Aerial part Dried or fresh Fodder 0.04 Not reported
Vicia narbonensis L. A-83 Leguminosae Şokıl (K) Fruit Dried or fresh Fodder, food 0.07 Food [15]
Vicia pannonica subsp. striata (M.Bieb.) Ponert A-149 Leguminosae Çelepen, çırpenılfara (A), kelle (K) Fruit Fresh Fodder, food 0.15 Not reported
Vitex agnus-castus L. A-166 Lamiaceae Şırte (A) Aerial part Cut and combined Broom 0.05 Not reported
Vitis vinifera L. A-210 Vitaceae Tri (K), ğınıb (A) Fruit, aerial part Woods for fuel, boiled in molasses Sugar syrup, grape molasses, wine, fuel 0.09 Sarma, cough, blood forming [18, 100]
Xanthium spinosum L. A-263 Compositae Kişar (A) Aerial part Decoction Diuretic 0.02 Kidney pain, gastrointestinal disease, fodder, diaphoretic, sedative, exudative [9, 15, 95]
Xeranthemum annum L. A-1 Compositae Sirtık (K), Maknese zarke (A) Aerial part Cut and combined Broom 0.09 Toy, broom [15, 75]
  1. aEndemic, A Arabic, K Kurdish, S Syriac, T Turkish, UV Use value