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Table 2 Medicinal plants used by the indigenous communities in the study area

From: Traditional uses of medicinal plants practiced by the indigenous communities at Mohmand Agency, FATA, Pakistan

Family name Plant name/voucher number Local names Habit Part (s) used Therapeutic uses URs
Aizoaceae Portulaca oleracea L./KOH-0057 Warkhari Herb Aerial parts Decoction is made from the aerial part of the plant and is used as demulcent diuretic, vormifuge, laxative and refrigerant. 27
Alliaceae Allium cepa L./KOH-0060 Pyaz Herb Bulb Juice is extracted from the bulb of the herb and is useful in gastric disorders. Also used as diuretic and expectorant. 22
Apocynaceae Nerium oleander L./KOH-0067 Gandiarai Shrub Leaves Leaves decoction is used traditionally for skin diseases and piles. The prepared paste from its root and bark is applied topically after snake bite and scorpion sting. It is given orally for abortion. Leprosy is treated with dermal application of its bark paste. 15
Arecaceae Nannorrhops ritchieana (Griff.) Aitch./KOH-0061 Maizary Shrub Leaves Its leaves decoction is very useful for stomach problems. 41
Apocynaceae Caralluma tuberculata N.E. Br./KOH-0074 Pamankay Herb Whole plant Powder is prepared from the whole plant and given for the treatment of dysentery, jaundice, stomachache, hepatitis (B & C), diabetes and high blood pressure. Also used as carminative. 49
Apocynaceae Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand./KOH-0064 Spalmay Shrub Leaves Fever is treated with its leaves’ decoction. Powdered leaves are a useful remedy for wounds, chronic sores and ulcers. Leaves paste is topically applied on inflammation areas (swellings) and rheumatism. 33
Apocynaceae Periploca aphylla Decne./KOH-0087 Barrara Herb White latex The white milk is cure for skin ulcer and wounds. The powder of the plant is used as stomachic and tonic. Also used to treat diarrhea, enlargement of spleen and as diuretic and laxative. Rheumatism is treated with its ash. Whole plant is useful for constipation. 44
Asteraceae Xanthium spinosum L./KOH-0080 Spina ghana Herb Leaves, fruits Leaves and fruits are diaphoretic, diuretic, sedative and used for hydrophobia. Infusion of root is emetic. 14
Asteraceae Xanthium strumarium L./KOH-0059 Mordar botay Herb Roots, fruit, seeds Roots and fruits of the plant are demulcent, stomachic and used in smallpox. 10
Asteraceae Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kitam./KOH-0072 Tarkha Herb Whole plant Whole plant infusion is used as purgative. 25
Asteraceae Aster trinervius Roxb. ex Roxb./KOH-0062 Herb Root Extract of its root is used for cough, cold, fever, pulmonary infections, malaria and hemorrhages. 21
Asteraceae Cichorium intybus L./KOH-0075 Tareezax Herb Whole plant The plant juice is used against jaundice, hepatitis, enlarged spleen and diarrhea. Root decoction has diuretic effect. Decoction obtained from the grinded seed is used against obstructed menstruation and for checking bilious vomiting. 23
Asteraceae Erigeron canadensis L./KOH-0051 Sugar botay Herb Whole plant Plants’ extract is used as diuretic and stimulant. 13
Asteraceae Launea nudicaulis Hook. f./KOH-0066 Shodapai Herb Leaves Poultice of its leaves is topically used for fever. 11
Berberidaceae Berberis lyceum Royle/KOH-0114 Kwary Shrub Leaves Powder of its leaves is used against jaundice. The decoction of its root and bark is used as purgative, blood purifier, febrifuge, and as anti-pyretic. Fruit is eaten for kidney problems. 24
Brassicaceae Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl/KOH-0105 Khashir Herb Whole plant Used for fever. 17
Brassicaceae Lepidium draba L./KOH-0098 Bashka Herb Whole plant Used as stomachic and tonic. 13
Brassicaceae Raphanus sativus L./KOH-0108 Molai Herb Leaves Its leaves are used as diuretic and laxative. Powder of its root is used for jaundice, liver ailment, urinary complaints and for the treatment of piles. 39
Brassicaceae Sisymbrium irio L./KOH-0095 Kharkasai Herb Seeds Powder obtained from its seeds is used as expectorant, febrifuge and stimulant. Seed poultice is used for dermal problems. 23
Caesalpinaceae Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker/KOH-0115 Ghuger Shrub Leaves, seeds Powder of its leaves and seeds are used as anthelmintic. 32
Cannabinaceae Cannabis sativa L./KOH-0109 Bhang Herb Aerial parts Ariel parts’ decoction is used as sedative, analgesic and antispasmodic. Also used for insomnia, depression, neuralgia, asthma and glaucoma. It works also as cooling agent, stimulant, tonic and for the treatment of urinogenital diseases 41
Capparidaceae Cleome brachycarpa (Forssk.) Vahl ex DC./KOH-0103 Zachawa Herb Leaves Its leaves’ paste is used topically against fever. 13
Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium album L./KOH-0112 Sarmy Herb Whole plant Powder made from whole plant is used as/for anthelmintic, jaundice, liver diseases, appetite, diuretic, aphrodisiac, tonic and abdominal pain. Whole plant extract is used for the removal of kidney stone. 31
Convolvulaceae Convolvulus arvensis L./KOH-0100 Parwathiay Herb Whole plant Plant powder is best remedy for skin diseases. Root powder is purgative. Decoction of leaves is used for abnormal menstrual flow. Poultice of leaves is used as antiseptic. 42
Cucurbitaceae Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad./KOH-0113 Marrkonday Herb Fruit Juice of its fruit is used in dropsy. The juice of its fruit is applied to skin problems such as leukoderma. Its oil is best remedy for snake bite. Fruit is purgative and used for cattle intestinal disorder. 44
Cupressaceae Cupressus sempervirens L./KOH-0096 Sabar dana Tree Fruit Its fruits produce cooling effect in cattle. 21
Ephedraceae Ephedra intermedia Schrenk & C.A.Mey./KOH-0106 Mowa Shrub Stem The decoction of stem is used as/for rheumatism, syphilis nasal congestion, bronchial congestion colds cough, flu and asthma. 32
Fabaceae Alhagi maurorum Medik./KOH-0111 Sar azghi Shrub Aerial parts Powder of the plant is used as diaphoretic, expectorant, laxative, anti-diarrheal and antiseptic agent. Root is used in kidney problems. 31
Fabaceae Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC./KOH-0071 Kikrye Shrub Leaves Leaves decoction is used for lactation and as expectorant. 19
Fumariaceae Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley/KOH-0081 Paparie Herb Whole plant Whole plant powder is diuretic, diaphoretic, aperients and is used for cooling purpose. 28
Fumariaceae Fumaria officinalis L./KOH-0084 Herb Aerial part It is use in/as blood purification, laxative and skin anti allergy. 18
Geraniaceae Geranium wallichianum D.Don ex Sweet/KOH-0070 Ranjot Herb Rhizome Powder of its rhizome is used against high blood pressure, leucorrhea, as tonic and in rheumatic pain. 13
Juglandaceae Juglans regia L./KOH-0110 Ghoz Tree Kernels Kernel is considered as source of tonic. 36
Lamiaceae Mentha spicata L./KOH-0099 Podina Herb Whole plant Decoction of whole plant is used for cough, flatulence and digestive disorders. Whole plant powder is used as stimulant and carminative. Leaves powder is used as anti-pyretic and for bronchitis. 35
Lamiaceae Mentha longifolia (L.) L./KOH-0056 Ilanai Herb Leaves Leaves’ powder, decoction and extract are considered as carminative, astringent and anti-rheumatic. It is also used for nausea, diarrhea and dysentery. 43
Lamiaceae Nepeta cataria L./KOH-0080 Chemjanbetai Herb Leaves Leaves’ powder is used as carminative, diaphoretic, refrigerant and stimulant. Infusion of its leaves is best for cold and cough. It has also sedative properties. 31
Lamiaceae Perowskia atriplicifolia Benth/KOH-0107 Sansube Herb Whole plant Whole plant produces cooling effect. Extracts of its flower is used against fever. 18
Lamiaceae Salvia nubicola Wall. ex Sweet/KOH-0091 Khaner Herb Whole plant Poultice of the plant part is used topically for the treatment of Gangrene. 17
Lamiaceae Stachy parviflora benth./KOH-0104 Sperghunai Herb Stem, leaves Powder of stem and leaves are used as anthelmintic. 21
Lamiaceae Teucrium stocksianum Boiss./KOH-0055 Kastorai Herb Whole plant Plant extract is used for heart pain. 22
Lamiaceae Thymus serphyllum L./KOH-0082 Mervezei Herb Whole plant Whole plant is used as antispasmodic, carminative, stomachic and anti-diuretic. It regulates the menstrual cycle and improves poor vision. It is also used for the treatment of liver, and as tonic. Seed’s powder is vormifuge. 49
Malvaceae Hibiscus trionum L./KOH-0065 Makhey Herb Leaves Leaves paste is applied to skin eruption. Infusion obtained from its flower is effective against diuretic, itching and skin problems. Leaves powder is stomachic. 33
Malvaceae Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench/KOH-0088 Bhendai Herb Leaves Poultice of leaves is applied topically for irritating skin. The mucilage of fruit is effective in genitor-urinary system. 24
Malvaceae Malva neglecta Wallr./KOH-0102 Pandirak Herb Seeds Seed powder is used for cough and bladder ulcers. 36
Mimosaceae Acacia modesta Wall./KOH-0089 Palosa Tree Gums Gums of the plant are utilized as tonic, stimulant and as demulcent. 28
Moraceae Ficus carica L./KOH-0079 Inzar Tree Fruit The edible fruits are laxative and beneficial for small pox. 25
Moraceae Morus alba L./KOH-0092 Tooth Tree Fruit Fruits are edible and work as laxative. 28
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus globules Labill./KOH-0101 Safirdad Tree Leaves Decoction of its leaves is used for flu and as anti-diabetic. 24
Nyctaginaceae Boerhaavia elongate Brandegee/KOH-0083 Herb Root, leaves The leaves’ powder is used for swelling and external body infection. The decoction of roots is used against kidney stone. 31
Oleaceae Olea cuspidata Wall./KOH-0058 QalamiKhono Tree Leaves, fruit Leaves are considered best antiseptic while fruits as tonic. 29
Papilionaceae Medicago polymorpha L./KOH-0090 Shapeshthlary Herb Leaves, young shoots The decoction obtained from the fresh leaves and young shoots is used for the regulation of blood pressure and is carminative. 28
Plantaginaceae Plantago lanceolata L./KOH-0078 Ispaghool Herb Leaves Leaves infusion is used as expectorant, emollient, demulcent. It is also useful for cough and bronchitis. Extracts of its seeds are used as purgative and laxative. The powdered leaves are applied topically on inflamed wounds. 45
Poaceae Cymbopogan jwarancusa (jones) Schult/KOH-0053 Marghkai Herb Whole plant The decoction of the plants is used in typhoid fever. 11
Punicaceae Punica granatum L./KOH-0097 Anar Tree Fruit Its fruit is used as tonic and remove iron deficiency. Powdered bark is used in nasal congestions. 32
Rhamanaeae Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Wight & Arn./KOH-0063 Karkanra Tree Fruit Fruit is used as carminative, sedative, ulcers, tonic and anti-diabetic. 36
Rhamnaceae Zizyphus jujuba Mill./KOH-0086 Bera Tree Fruit Fruits are effective being laxative and used in constipation. 43
Rosaceae Duchesnea indica (Jacks.) Focke/KOH-0052 Balmangai Herb Leaves Powder of leaves is used as/in diuretic, diarrhea and dysentery. 13
Sapotaceae Sideroxylon mascatense (A.DC.) T.D.Penn./KOH-0094 Gurgura Tree Fruit Fruits are being used as carminative, laxative and tonic. It is also effective in treating urinary tract infections. 44
Solanaceae Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal/KOH-0076 Kotilal Herb Seed, fruit Seeds of the plant work in dyspepsia, flatulence and stomachache. 41
Thymelaeaceae Daphne mucronata Royle/KOH-0054 Barrah Shrub Bark Powder is made from its bark and is a useful remedy for toothache. 23
Umbelliferae Anethum graveolens L./KOH-0093 Zanrkay Herb Whole plant Whole plant decoction is used as stimulant and carminative. 31
Umbelliferae Coriandrum sativum L./KOH-0085 Danya Herb Fruit Its decoction is used as/in carminative, stimulant, aphrodisiac, refrigerant, colic pains and bleeding piles. 41
Zygophyllaceae Fagonia cretica L./KOH-0069 Spelaghzia Herb Whole plant Whole plant extract is used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, blood purification, inflammation and abdominal pain. Juice obtained from it leaves is useful as anthelminthic. 47
Zygophyllaceae Tribulis teristris L./KOH-0073 Azghkay Herb Seeds The powder obtained from its seeds is used against the kidney stone. 39