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Table 4 Aspects of the complex Kosmos-corpus-praxis of wild and weedy resources interchanged in traditional markets of the Phurépecha region

From: Ethnoecology of the interchange of wild and weedy plants and mushrooms in Phurépecha markets of Mexico: economic motives of biotic resources management

Group of resources Scientific name Common name Aspects of the complex Kosmos-corpus-praxis of wild and weedy resources interchanged in traditional Phurépecha markets
Quelites and opuntia cladodes Amaranthus hybridus L. Quelite de trigo, quintonil For Phurépecha people, this group of plants represents food of good quality, clean, free of agrochemical products, and nutritious. Considered of great importance in people’s life since become basic food in particular seasons of the year. Plants appreciated as traditional Phurépecha food, providing notion of belonging to the Phurépecha culture, remaining in the memory as food consumed by ancient people and those participating in the markets since they were children.
Valued as indispensable in household subsistence, food, and interchange value.
There are traditional ecological knowledge generated and transmitted about seasonality, distribution forms of propagation, among the most relevant, in addition to gastronomic knowledge about preparation, consumption and nutritious qualities. Management practices are simple gathering of juvenile plants in forests and agricultural areas; tolerance (let standing during perturbation) and enhancing through propagating seeds and seedlings.
Brassica rapa L. Mostaza
Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. Quelite cenizo
Opuntia atropes Rose Nopales
Portulaca oleracea L. Verdolaga
Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek Berro
Rumex obtusifolius L. Juan primero
Fruits and stems Agave inaequidens Jiote These are food of excellent quality, clean because they are wild. Considered as fruit belonging to Phurépecha people.
Resources of high importance in people’s life, as complementary food in particular seasons. Highly appreciated as traditional food of the Phurépecha culture, found in the memory of food consumed by ancient people.
Valued since they complement household’s subsistence, have commercial value for obtaining other products through interchange. Local people appreciate these fruits as part of the Phurépecha diet, good flavor, and high nutritious and medicinal properties.
Traditional ecological knowledge about life cycle, distribution, seasonality, sexual and asexual propagation, and transplanting success has been generated and transmitted. In addition, knowledge about forms of preparation, nutritious and medicinal properties was recorded.
Management practices are used, among them are simple and selective gathering in wild populations, identifying and differentiating varieties of fruits in some species, tolerance, transplanting and propagation in agricultural areas and homegardens.
Crataegus mexicana Moc. & Sessé ex DC Tejocote
Opuntia sp. Xoconostle
Prunus serotina subsp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng.) McVaugh Capulines
Rubus Liebmannii Focke Fruto de zarzamora
Solanum lycopersicum L. Jitomate silvestre
Flavorings Tagetes micrantha Cav. Anís This group of plants is highly appreciated since improve flavor of food and because has medicinal properties. These plants are considered part of the Phurépecha communities. These species are part of Phurépecha people’s life providing flavoring for food and traditional beverages consumed in the daily life and ceremonies; these are also appreciated as providing feeling of belonging to the Phurépecha culture. These plants are valued as supporters of the households’ subsistence because of their interchange value since they are highly required for preparing food.
Traditional ecological knowledge was documented about morphology, seasonality, distribution, mechanisms of propagation, as well as traditional gastronomic recipes, nutritious qualities and medicinal properties.
Management practices on these plants include simple gathering from wild populations, tolerance, transplanting of juvenile plants, propagating them in agricultural areas and homegardens. Their management is considered an activity conducted by women.
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Epazote
Medicinal Acalypha phleoides Cav. Hierba del cáncer People confer to these plants the meaning of natural medicine, and are highly appreciated as part of the Phurépecha medicine. Contribute to alleviate physic and spiritual pains, and are part of the religious ceremonies, Phurépecha rituals and customs. These plants are considered as heritage of their ancient Phurépecha relatives, having edible and commercial value.
Traditional ecological knowledge was recorded in relation to distribution, seasonality, particularly of useful parts, and this information is transmitted to new generations. In addition, people recognize their medicinal properties, pains that are alleviated, forms of use and doses, as well as forms of conserving them.
Management practices include gathering in agricultural and ruderal areas, riparian vegetation and forests. People enhance their abundance by propagating them (by women) in homegardens. In addition, people procure their availability though dehydration.
Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling Toronjil
Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt. Istafiate
Chenopodium graveolens Lag & Rodr. Epazote de perro
Clinopodium macrostemum (Moc. & Sessé ex Benth.) Kuntze (Satureja macrostema (Benth.) Briq.) Nurite
Equisetum sp. Cola de caballo
Eryngium carlinae F. Delaroche Hierba del sapo
Gnaphalium spp. Gordolobo
Heterotheca inuloides Cass. Árnica
Loeselia mexicana (Lam.) Brand Espinosilla
Marrubium vulgare L. Marubio
Ternstroemia lineata DC. Trompillo
Ceremonial-ornamental Laelia autumnalis (Lex.) Lindl. Flor de ánima o lirio For Phurépecha people, flowers represent beauty, the ornaments and luxury; represent also the link and communication with the sacred world and with dead people. In Phurépecha, these plants are grouped in the category “ambakiti”. Flowers are highly appreciated and considered indispensable as part of the ceremonial and religious life.
Ecological knowledge was recorded in relation to seasonality, distribution, abundance, interactions, their sexual and asexual propagation and responses to transplanting.
Management practices include gathering from wild populations, tolerance, and propagation in agricultural areas and homegardens. This latter is recognized as an activity practiced by women.
Bryophyta sensu lato Musgo
Calochortus purpureus (Kunth) Baker Flores moraditas
Castilleja scorzonerifolia Kunth Flor de terciopelo
Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Mirasoles
Laelia speciosa (Kunth) Schltr. Orquídea, flor de corpus
Lupinus montanus Kunth Flor morada
Stevia monardifolia Kunth Servilletilla
Tillandsia sp. Heno
Milla biflora Cav. Estrellitas
Tagetes lucida Cav. Santa María
Mushrooms Ramaria fenica (P. Karst.) Ricken Patitas de pájaro Wild edible mushrooms are considered food of high quality, flavor, clean, and nutritious (their properties considered better than cattle and pig meat). Some species are considered as luxury food.
Mushrooms are resources of great importance in people’s life, as basic food during the seasons when these are available, the rainy season. Provide the feeling of belonging to the Phurépecha culture and are part of the memory of food consumed by ancient people. Are highly valued in the interchange and, therefore, highly valued by people as the means for obtaining other products.
Mushrooms are part of a wide variety of traditional food, particularly the scarce species are considered as luxury food.
Traditional ecological knowledge is particularly important for recognizing the edible and non-edible species. People know about their properties, their seasonality, areas of distribution, forms of preparation, and consumption.
Mushrooms are gathered mainly in areas of pine-oak and oak forests and in grasslands, mainly, by men and, occasionally, by women.
Ramaria flavigelatinosa Marr & D.E. Stuntz Patitas de pájaro
Ramaria araiospora Marr & D.E. Stuntz Patitas de pájaro
Ramaria botrytis (Pers.) Ricken Patitas de pájaro
Ramaria flava (Schaeff.) Quél. Patitas de pájaro
Lyophyllum connatum (Schumach.) Singer Guachitas, pashacuas
Lyophyllum decastes (Fr.) Singer Guachitas, pashacuas
Agaricus campestris L. Hongo llanero
Amanita caesarea (Scop.) Pers. Hongo amarillo
Hypomyces lactifluorum (Schwein.) Tul. & C. Tul. Hongo trompa de puerco
Calvatia cytahiformis (Bosc) Morgan Hongo globoso
Helvella crispa (Scop.) Fr. Oreja de ratón blanca
Laccaria laccata (Scop.) Cooke Moradito
Ustilago maydis (DC.) Corda Huitlacoche