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Table 1 Wild and non-cultivated edible plants identified in Khar VDC, Kailash Sacred Landscape, Nepal

From: Diversity and use of wild and non-cultivated edible plants in the Western Himalaya

  Family Botanical name Englishname Nepali name Localname Usea Parts usedb Remarks Specimen number
1 Acoraceae Acorus calamus L. Flag root, myrtle flag Bojho Bojho M R Dried rhizome used to treat sore throat, coughs and colds D142
2 Adoxaceae Viburnum erubescens Wall.   Bajrang Ganaule F F Fruit eaten D305
3 Adoxaceae Viburnum mullaha Buch.-Ham.ex D. Don   Kavase Titmelau F F Fruit sour but eaten D278
4 Amaranthaceae Amaranthus lividus L. Amaranth Marshi Latte V L, Sh Leaves and young shoots eaten as a green vegetable D500
5 Amaranthaceae Amaranthus spinosus L. Amaranth Marshi Kanya marshi/chuwa V L, Sh Young leaves and shoots eaten as agreen vegetable D283
6 Amaranthaceae Amaranthus viridis L. Amaranth Marshi Ghiya marshi V, O L, Sh, Se Young shoots and leaves eaten as a green vegetable; seeds ground to flour and used to make chapattis; seeds fried in ghee and honey and made into round balls to be eaten (ladoo/geda) D316
7 Amaryllidaceae Allium spp.    Dhunu S L Dried plant leaves used in curries D160
8 Amaryllidaceae Allium wallichii Kunth Jimbur or Himalayan onion Jimbu Jhar Sekkwa/sekuwa S W Dried plant used in dal and curries D50
9 Anacardiaceae Pistacia chinensis subsp. integerrima (J.L. Stewart ex Brandis) Rech.f. Insect gall in Pistacia Kakarsingee Kakarsingee M Gall Gall used to treat snake and scorpion bites D294
10 Apiaceae Angelica archangelica L.    Ganano S, M R, Se Root ground and made into soup to treat stomach pain. Seeds ground to flour and used as spice in curry D101
11 Araceae Arisaema flavum (Forssk.) Schott   Bako Bako V T Corms (tubers) boiled in ash and salt to remove toxic elements, cleaned, made into a paste and mixed with buckwheat flour to prepare curry D196
12 Araceae Arisaema tortuosum(Wall.) Schott Whipcord cobra lily Bako Bako V T Boiled tubers eaten as vegetable D412
13 Araceae Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. Taro Pidaalu Pidaalu V R, S, L Rhizome boiled and eaten as a vegetable; young stem and leaves used as a vegetable and in pickle D119
14 Arecaceae Phoenix humilis Royle   Thakal Thakil/thakilo F, O F, S Fruit eaten; pith from stem eaten; stem used to make thatched roofs D284
15 Asparagaceae Asparagus racemosus Willd. Asaparagus, wild Asparagus Kurilo Jhijhirkani V, M R, Sh Shoots and leaves eaten as a vegetable; roots used to treat urinary and liver problems D140
16 Asteraceae Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M. King & H. Rob. Crofton weed Banmara Banmara M L Juice from crushed leaves used to treat wounds and cuts  
17 Asteraceae Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L. Billygoat-weed Gandhe Gandhe M L Leaves crushed and juice used to treat cuts and wounds D73
18 Asteraceae Artemisia indica Willd. Mug-wort, Indian worm wood fleabane Titepati Kuljo R, M L Leaves used in death ceremonies; leaves crushed and juice used to treat skin problems (irritation) D506
19 Berberidaceae Berberis aristata DC. Barberry/Nepal Barberry/common Barberry Chutro Chutro F, O, M F, Ba Fruit eaten; bark used as a dye and to treat diarrhoea, piles and malaria D190
20 Berberidaceae Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC. Barberry/Nepal Barberry Kirmando Kirmada F, O F, Ba Fruit eaten; bark used as a dye D116
21 Bombacaceae Bombax ceiba L. Silk cotton tree, Simal tree Simal Simal V Fl Flowers used in a vegetable curry D230
22 Cannabaceae Cannabis sativa L. True hemp, Indian hemp, marijuana Bhang Bhango O, M Se, L Roasted seeds used to make pickle or eaten raw; green leaves occasionally used to make snacks (pakauda); green leaves made into a paste and applied to the forehead to treat high fever D402
23 Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium album L. Lamb’s quarter Bethe sag Betu/charchare V L Leaves and young shoots eaten as a green vegetable D229
24 Combretaceae Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Belleric myrobalan Barro Barado F, M Se, F Ripe fruit eaten; seeds used to treat coughs and colds D100
25 Combretaceae Terminalia chebula Retz. Chebulie myrobalan, yellow myrobalan Harro Harado F, M Se, F Fruit eaten; fruit and seeds used to treat coughs and colds D154
26 Commelinaceae Commelina benghalensis L. Day flower Kane Sag Kanya sag V L, Sh Young leaves and shoots eaten as a green vegetable D131
27 Convolvulaceae Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Dodder Aakas beli Megh M W Whole plant used to prepare medicine to treat livestock with cough and throat allergy D300
28 Cucurbitaceae Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt Ivy gourd, Kavai fruit Golkakri Golyakakadi V F Fruits eaten asa vegetable D280
29 Cucurbitaceae Momordica dioica Roxb. ex Willd.   Bankarela Bankarela V F Immature fruit eaten as a green vegetable D205
30 Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea bulbifera L. Palmate leaved yam Githi Githo V T Tubers boiled and eaten as a vegetable D429
31 Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. ex Griseb. Cush-cush yam Bhyakur Bhyakur V, B, T Bulbil and tubers boiled and eatenas a vegetable D432
32 Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea hamiltonii Hook.f. Air potato, potato yam Ban tarul Ban taud V, R B, T Tubers and bulbils cooked and eaten. Boiled tubers are used during religious event first day of Nepali Month Magh (January) D438
33 Dryopteridaceae Dryopteris cochleata (D. Don) C. Chr. Edible fern shoot Niuro Liundo V, O L, Sh Young coiled fronds and shoots cooked and eaten as a vegetable; sold in urban markets (high demand) D113
34 Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus parvifolia Wall. ex Royle Oleaster Kankoli Guyaalo F F Fruit eaten D266
35 Ericaceae Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron Laligurans Gurauns M, O Fl Flowers eaten; nectar used to treat diarrhoea and dysentery D218
36 Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus emblica L. Indian gooseberry Amala Aaula F, M F Fruit eaten raw and dried; fruit used in preparation of some Ayurvedic medicines for treating indigestion D307
37 Fabaceae Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth. White siris Siris Siris (not edible) O L Leaves used to cover bananas to ripen them D85
38 Fabaceae Bauhinia variegata L. Mountain ebony, White bauli Koiralo Koiral V, M Bu, Fl Buds and flowers used as a vegetable and in pickle; flowers used to make soup to treat bacillary dysentery D236
39 Fagaceae Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm.) A.DC. Chestnut Katus Katauj F, R F Fruit eaten and offered to gods during rituals D145
40 Fagaceae Quercus lanata Sm. Woolly-leaved oak Baanjha Baanjha F F Fruit (lekaal) eaten D480
41 Gentianaceae Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) Karsten Chiretta Chiraita Chiraito M W Whole plant used to treat fever, diabetes, and skin diseases D299
42 Hippocastanaceae Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Cambess.) Hook. Indian horse chestnut Pangar Pangar M, O F Roasted fruit eaten to kill stomach worms; fruit used for washing clothes D214
43 Juglandaceae Juglans regia L. Walnut Okhar Okhad F, R F Fruit eaten and offered to gods during festivals D233
44 Lamiaceae Mentha arvensis L. Mint Pudina Padamchal S, M L Leaves used in pickle; juice from leaves used for cooling in summer D110
45 Lamiaceae Mentha spicata L. Mint Pudina Padamchal S, M L Leaves used as spice in pickle; leaves used as medicine to reduce ‘body heat’ D248
46 Lamiaceae Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton Perilla Silame Bhangiro S Se Seeds roasted and ground to use in pickle D387
47 Lardizabalaceae Holboellia latifolia Wall.    Ghopala F F Ripe fruit eaten D493
48 Lauraceae Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall.) Meisn. Nepal camphor tree Sunghandhaakokila Sunghandhaakokila M, R Ba, F Bark and fruit used to treat coughs and colds, toothache, and swelling of muscles; leaves and fruit offered to gods during rituals D96
49 Lauraceae Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T.Nees & Eberm. Bay leaf Tejpaat Tejpaat/dalchini S L Dried leaves used as spice for curries to add flavour and smell D82
50 Loranthaceae Loranthus odoratus Wall.   Ajeru Anjedu F F Fruit very tasty D178
51 Moraceae Ficus auriculata Lour. Eye’s apron, Moretan-bay fig Timilo Timlo F F Fruit eaten D352
52 Moraceae Ficus hispida L.f.   Khasreto Khasattya F F Fruit eaten D132
53 Moraceae Ficus lacor Buch.-Ham   Kabhro Kapado V Bu, Fl Buds and flowers boiled and eaten as a vegetable and pickle D100
54 Moraceae Ficus neriifolia Sm.   Dudhilo Dudilo V, F Sh, F Young shoots eaten as a vegetable; fruit eaten D328
55 Moraceae Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. Nepal fodder fig Khaniyo Khannyo/khinne F F Fruit eaten D211
56 Moraceae Ficus subincisa Buch.-Ham. ex Sm.   Berlo Belto/beldo F F Ripe fruit eaten D48
57 Moraceae Morus serrata Roxb. Mulberry Kimbu Kimu F, O F, L Fruit eaten, very popular among children; leaves used as fodder, preferred by goats D333
58 Musaceae Musa balbisiana Colla Banana Bankera Bankela F, R F Ripe fruit eaten and offered to gods during rituals D127
59 Myricaceae Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham.ex D. Don Box byrtle Kafal Kafal F F Fruit tasty and popular D318
60 Myrtaceae Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Black plum, Java plum, Indian black berry Jamun Jamno F F Fruit eaten D246
61 Myrtaceae Syzygium spp.    Phalda F F Fruit eaten D329
62 Nephrolepidaceae Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl Sword fern Pani amala Rasmada M T Tubers eaten to treat worms D72
63 Oxalidaceae Oxalis corniculata L. Indian sorrel, creeping sorrel Chari amilo Chalmado S L Leaves used in preparing pickle D99
64 Paeoniaceae Paeonia emodi Royle    Hetto V L, Sh Young shoots and leaves eaten as a green vegetable, fresh or sundried, rehydrated, and cooked (in winter) D32
65 Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.   Jarko Jarak/jarka V, M L, R Young leaves and shoots eaten as a green vegetable; root used to treat sickness after eating buckwheat leaves D4001
66 Pinaceae Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Chir pine, Himalayan long-leaved pine Salla Sallo khote M La Resin used to clear blood clots D70
67 Poaceae Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Neer & Arn. ex Munro Tufted bamboo Bans Bans V Sh Young shoots (tama) eaten as a vegetable D174
68 Poaceae Drepanostachyum falcatum (Munro) Keng f. Himalayan Bamboo Nigaalo Nigaalo V, O S, Sh Stem used to make mats;young shoots eaten as a vegetable D290
69 Polygonaceae Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Buckwheat Phapar Phanpar V L, Sh Young shoots and leaves eaten as a vegetable D443
70 Polygonaceae Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaertn. Buckwheat Phapar Phanpar V L Young shoots and leaves eaten as a vegetable D205
71 Polygonaceae Polygonum spp.    Halaudo S L Young leaves used to make pickle D8
72 Polygonaceae Polygonum verticillatum Birolli ex Colla   Nigali sag Khinaudo V L Young leaves eaten as a vegetable D112
73 Ranunculaceae Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle Aconite Atis Atis M W, R Whole plant and roots used to treat high fever and abdominal pain D260
74 Rosaceae Fragaria nubicola (Lindl.ex. Hook.f) Lacaita    Gande kafal F, R, M F, W Fruit eaten; whole plant used in death rituals; whole plant used to treat stomach disorders D68
75 Rosaceae Pyracantha crenulata (Roxb. ex D. Don) M. Roem. Fire horn Ghangyaru/kaatha gedi Ghangyar F F Ripe fruit eaten in large quantities D108
76 Rosaceae Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don.   Mayal Mel F F Fruit eaten D239
77 Rosaceae Rubus ellipticus Sm. Golden evergreen raspberry Ainselu Anselu F F Fruit very popular D348
78 Rosaceae Rubus foliolosus D. Don Rasberry Ainselu Kalo anselu F, R F, L, W Fruit eaten; leaves or whole plant used in death ceremonies D501
79 Rosaceae Rubus niveus Thunb.   Ainselu Katrya anselu F F Fruit eaten D98
80 Rubiaceae Rubia manjith Roxb. ex Fleming Indian madder Majitho Majitho M S, L Stem and leaves used to treat cuts and wounds D103
81 Rutaceae Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa Bael fruit Bel Bel F, R F, L Fruit pulp eaten; leaves used for religious purposes,especially offering to gods during rituals D187
82 Rutaceae Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Nepal pepper, prickly ash Timur Timur S, M F Fruit dried and used as a spice in pickles and curries; dried fruit used in various allopathic medicines like indigestion and nausea D234
83 Sapindaceae Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. Soap nut Reetha Reetha (not edible) O F Fruit pulp used to wash hair D431
84 Sapotaceae Diploknema butyracea (Roxb.) H.J.Lam Nepal butter fruit Phulwara Chiuri Chyuro O, F Fl, F, Se Nectar from flowers and ripened fruit (bhina) eaten; seeds used to make a butter for cooking vegetables and others D268
85 Saurauiaceae Saurauia napaulensis DC.   Gogan Gogan F F Fruit eaten D15
86 Saxifragaceae Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. Rock foil Pakhanbed Pakhanbed/simpari phool M R Rhizome used to make medicine totreat kidney stones D134
87 Schisandraceae Schisandra grandiflora (Wall.) Hook.f. & Thomson Magnolia Vine   Haliyude F F Ripe fruit eaten D245
88 Smilacaceae Smilax aspera L. Green briers Kukurdaino Kukuldaino F, V Sh, F Fruit eaten; young shoots eaten as a vegetable D218
89 Smilacaceae Smilax ovalifolia Roxb. ex D. Don Green briers Kukurdaino Kukuldaino F, V Sh, F Fruit eaten; young shoots eaten as a vegetable D68
90 Solanaceae Solanum nigrum L.   Kalokamai Ninauni F F Fruit eaten D149
91 Trilliaceae Paris polyphylla Sm.   Satuwa Satuwa V, M L, R Tender leaves eaten as a vegetable; root made into paste and applied to snake bite to control the poison D179
92 Urticaceae Boehmeria rugulosa Wedd.   Getha Githi O Ba Bark paste/powder mixed with rice flour to prepare sel roti(a form of rice doughnut); bark paste used as soda and to wash clothes D22
93 Urticaceae Debregeasia salicifolia (D. Don) Rendle   Tusaare Tusaaro F F Fruit eaten D55
94 Urticaceae Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis Himalayan Nettle Allo Sisnu Allo V, O L, Sh, S, Young leaves and shoots eaten; fibreextracted from stems used to make clothes and bags D17
95 Urticaceae Gonostegia hirta (Blume ex Hassk.) Miq.    Attinno O R Ground root used to prepare chapatti; groundroot used for washing hair D458
96 Urticaceae Urtica dioica L. Stinging nettle Sisnu Sisnu V L, Sh Young leaves and shoots used as a vegetable D16
97 Verbenaceae Callicarpa arborea Roxb. Beauty berry Guyalo Gwailo F F Tasty fruit D67
98 Violaceae Viola L.    Juke jhaar M L, R Leaves and roots used to treat worms in children D481
99 Vitaceae Tetrastigma spp.    Pudaayen F F Fruit eaten D344
  1. aUse: F fruit, V vegetable, M medicine, O other, R religious, S spice
  2. bPart of plant used: W whole plant, B bulb, Ba bark, Bu buds, F fruit, Fl flowers, La latex, L leaf, O other, R root/rhizome, S stem, Se seeds, Sh shoots, T tuber/corm