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Table 2 Medicinal uses of local flora for ethnoveterinary uses

From: Traditional uses of medicinal plants used by Indigenous communities for veterinary practices at Bajaur Agency, Pakistan

Family Botanical name “voucher no.” Plant local name Parts used URs Medicinal value
Amaranthaceae Beta vulgaris L.
Choqandar Whole plant 6 A whole plant is subjected to powder and is combined with flour and black tea to treat digestive problems especially in cow and buffalo.
Amaryllidaceae Allium cepa L.
Piaz Bulb 14 Bulb of the herb is crushed and added milk for orally given to animals (6–8 days) for curing digestive complaints.
Allium sativum L.
Oga Bulb 13 Bulb is crushed and mixed with way to administered orally for several days in order to rate of fertility in domestic animals.
Narcissus tazetta L.
Gul-E-Nargas Leaves 10 Along with gurr and flour, fresh leaves (¼ kg) are boiled and orally given to livestock for the retained placental removal.
Apiaceae Carum carvi L.
Zeera Fruit 14 Tea is prepared from its fruit (¼ kg), and then, it is combined with flour and given to cattle for 3 days in order to treat gastric problems.
Cuminum cyminum L.
Zankai Fruit 12 Half kilogram of fruit is boiled in black tea and orally given for 15–20 days on daily basis for the expulsion of intestinal worms and treated gastric problems.
Eryngium biehersteinianum (M. Bieb.) Nevski
Yakandaz Stem and leaves and stem 23 Powder of its stem and leaves is orally given for the treatment of liver problems up to the duration of 8–12 days.
Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Kagelani Fruit, leaves 47 Decoction is made from it fresh leaves and fruit (150–200 g), and then, it is combined with gurr, given orally to livestock for appetite and as sedative for the duration of 5 to 6 days.
Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC.
Skhwara Roots 13 Fresh root of the plant (200 g) is combined with wheat flour and made to paste which is orally given to goat, cow, and sheep as sexual tonic and to enhance the rate of fertility up to 3 days.
Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague
Ajwain Fruit 19 Seeds (¼ kg) of the plant, Allium cepa, wheat flour, and Foeniculum vulgare are thoroughly mixed. The resultant blend is then orally given (15 days) and is considered as good appetizer.
Visnaga daucoides Gaertn.
Sparkai Fruit 49 Tea is made from its fruit and given orally to sheep, goat, cow, and buffalo while treating diarrhea, abdominal pain, and retained placenta. The remedy is constantly utilized for the duration of 3 days.
Apocynaceae Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand.
Spalmai Leaves 21 Plants’ fresh leaves are taken and decoction is made, and after that, the decoction is combined with “Ajuga integrifolia” and is used for dermal parasites for 3 to 5 days.
Nerium oleander L.
Gandiaray Leaves 19 To relieve the external parasite, the decoction of its leaves is used for animal bathing especially goat and cow.
Asteraceae Artemisia absinthium L.
Spara Botay Whole plant 5 Whole is subjected to powder and mixed with gurr and wheat and is used as anthelmintic.
Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit.
Spara Botay Leaves 13 Decoction is made by taking ½ kg of leaves which is mixed with gurr and administered orally daily (for 2 to 3 days) about 1 to 2 glasses for the treatment of gastric complexities, blood purification, and skin problems in goat, sheep, and cow.
Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Ramayya & Rajagopal
Shodapai Whole plant 9 Fresh plant is fed to animals, i.e., goat, sheep, and cow as tonic and galactagogue.
Berberidaceae Berberis lycium Royle
Koowary Root 24 Decoction is made from its root (about ¼ kg) and is orally administered to cattle (10 days) for the treatment digestive tract infections, mouth infections, refrigerant, and healing.
Brassicaceae Brassica rapa L.
Sharsham Oil 28 Mustard oil (75 ml) and whey are mixed together and orally taken to relieve abdominal pain. This is remedy applied to cow and buffalo for the duration of 3 days.
Cactaceae Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.) Cockerell
Zoqam Whole plant 16 Powder is made from whole plant and applied topically to all domestic animals treat dermal problems, as anti-inflammatory.
Cannabaceae Cannabis sativa L.
Bang Leaves, stem 22 Leaves (½ kg) together with black tea are boiled and then mixed with wheat flour. This remedy is given to domestic animals as refrigerant and also given to the cattle suffering from genital prolapsed.
Celtis australis L.
Tagha Bark 8 Plants powder, ghee, and gurr are combined together and given to cattle twice a day (up to 3 days) for treating digestive disorders.
Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium album L.
Sarmy Whole plant 17 About ½ kg leaves are taken and boiled in mustard oil along with gurr, orally taken by goat, sheep, cow, buffalo, and donkey. This remedy is used as stomachic.
Convolvulaceae Convolvulus arvensis L.
Perawaty Whole plant 13 Fresh leaves (1 kg) and gurr are boiled in combination with black tea. This remedy is given orally (5–10 days) for milk production.
Cupressaceae Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl.
Saber Dana Fruit 9 Powder is made from its seeds and makes black tea and then utilized to heat the animals. This remedy is used for buffalos and cows for 3 days.
Cuscutaceae Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.
Mecha Whole plant 8 First make a paste of leaves and then combine with wheat flour. This remedy is then given to goats and sheep (5–10 days) as antispasmodic.
Euphorbiaceae Ricinus communis L.
Aranda Oil 15 Oil of its seed (½ cup) is administered orally for the duration of 1 week. This remedy is used as laxative and for the treatment of diarrhea.
Fabaceae Acacia modesta Wall.
Palusa Bark 11 The decoction obtained from its bark and is combined with butter which is administered orally to all type of domestic animals to treat skin problems and as blood purifier.
Cassia fistula L.
Amaltas Fruit 13 Fruit of the plant is subjected to boiling along with milk and administered orally up to 3 days to all sort of domestic cattle to relieve fever and gastric complexities.
Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Khwaga Waly Roots 33 Root (¼ kg) is subjected to paste which is mixed with flour and oil and then is given to goat, sheep, cow, and buffalo to increase milk production and enhance the rate of fertility. The remedy is used for the duration of 5 to 7 days.
Lotus corniculatus L.
FatiKhany Stem and leaves, 19 Stem and leaves are crushed in weight of ¼ kg and orally given to cattle along with bread or dough for 7 to 10 days as sexual tonic and for urinary tract infections (UTI).
Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
Malkhoozi Seeds 9 Seeds (150 g) are crushed and given in dough to animals (5–6 days) against gastric disorders.
Fagaceae Quercus oblongata D. Don
Tor batangar Fruit 22 Kernels of this plant are given to animal for the entire cold season to keep the animals energized. Skeletal problems and internal infection are also treated by utilizing the kernels.
Juglandaceae Juglans regia L.
Ghuz Leaves 18 Fresh leaves powder (¼ kg) and gurr are thoroughly mixed. This remedy is orally taken and effective in gastric disorders.
Lamiaceae Ajuga integrifolia Buch. Ham. ex D. Don
Gutee Leaves 16 Decoction is made from the leaves and then gurr is added. This remedy is given orally to cattle for blood purification and as vormifuge. The water is applied topically to treat skin ailments.
Mentha spicata L
Podina Leaves and stem 22 Powder is made and decoction is made and then mixed with gurr and taken by animals to cure digestive problems.
Ocimum basilicum L.
Kashmaly Leaves seed 11 Plant leaves and seeds are subjected to decoction and used topically for skin problems.
Salvia moorcroftiana Wall. ex Benth.
Kharghwag Leaves 9 Decoction of its leaves is given orally daily for the treatment of digestive problems.
Malvaceae Gossypium arboreum L.
Pomba Kal 11 About ¼ kg of its powder is mixed with gurr and used for 10 to 12 days. This remedy is administered orally on daily basis as galactagogue.
Grewia optiva J.R.Drumm. ex Burret
Pastawony Whole plant 6 Dried plant powder is subjected to oil (250 ml), administered orally and topically twice a day for 5 to 7 days for wound healing process.
Meliaceae Melia azedarach L.
Tora Bokana Leaves 15 Plant leaves (200 g) are powdered and then combined with sugar. This remedy is orally given to cattle (2–3 days) against gastric disorders. Diarrhea is also treated by mixing the powder with flour cakes of maize.
Moraceae Ficus carica L.
Inzar Fruit and leaves, fruit 16 Fresh leaves (about ½ kg) are fed to animals for digestive ailments and disturbances. Fruit (¼ kg) is given two times per day for placental removal.
Streblus asper Lour.
Tor tooth Fruit 12 Fruits (2 kg) are crushed by addition of little quantity of water. This remedy is given orally to livestock for producing cooling effect.
Myrtaceae Eucalyptus canaldulensis Dehnh.
Lachi Leaves 17 Leaves decoction and gurr are thoroughly mixed and orally given to cattle (6–8 days) against digestive disorders and as appetizer.
Myrtus communis L.
Mano Leaves 18 Powder is made from it, and then, the ground leaves are mixed with whey or milk to treat digestive tract problems.
Nyctaginaceae Boerhavia erecta L.
Insut Whole plant 7 Gurr is mixed with the powder of the plant which is locally known as “Paa” and is topically applied to skin infections.
Oleaceae Olea europaea L.
Zytoon Oil 18 Oil is applied externally and emulsified to inflamed areas and broken bones. The oil is orally given for general body improvement.
Paeoniaceae Paeonia emodi Royle
Mamekh Fruit and rhizome 18 Powder is made and combined with flour which is used as tonic and for the treatment of cough in goat and cow.
Papaveraceae Papaver somniferum L.
Koknar Latex 8 Latex is dried (10 g) and boiled in black tea, which is an effective analgesic remedy. Little dried latex is combined with saliva and placed on wound for blood clotting.
Pedaliaceae Sesamum indicum L.
Konzaly Oil 8 Oil of the plant is combined with whey or milk and then given to buffalo and cow for vaginal thrush.
Pinaceae Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D. Don) G. Don
Nanzra Oil 19 10–15 plant oil drops are water mixed for oral administration to goats, cows, buffaloes, and sheep. This is the best remedy for the removal of bad smell of milk. The same recipe is also utilized for gastric complexities and as cooling agent. To depress the sexual ability of the animals, oil in large quantity is combined with water.
Pinus roxburghii Sarg.
Nakhtar Latex 13 Gums are water mixed and given to buffaloes, cows, and sheep against skin infections/allergies.
Platanaceae Platanus orientalis L.
Chinar Bark 14 Bark’s powder, ghee, and milk are mixed together and boiled. This remedy is orally given to cattle against gastric infections.
Poaceae Oryza sativa L.
Chawal Seed 17 Seeds (1 kg) are water boiled with yoghurt. The remedy is orally given to cattle (20–25 days) as galactagogue.
Triticum aestivum L.
Ghanam Seeds 13 Gurr is boiled with flour (¼ kg) and then given to animals to enhance rate of fertility (10–12 days).
Polygonaceae Rumex hastatus D. Don
Tarukay Whole plant 17 Root (1 kg) are taken and mixed with the powder of bark of Quercus incana and then boiled along with sugar and flour which is traditionally recommended for the treatment of UTI, digestive problems, and wound healing. This remedy is used for the duration of 10 to 15 days.
Primulaceae Primula denticulata Sm.
Mamera Stem 7 Stems’ decoction is topically used against eye infections.
Ranunculaceae Nigella sativa L.
Kalonji Seed 16 Decoction is made from its seeds (100 g) and given to cattle and buffaloes as sexual tonic and general body tonic.
Rhamnaceae Zizyphus jujuba Mill.
Baira Fruit and leaves, 17 Fresh leaves (100 g) decoction is orally given (2–3 days) for the removal worms. It is also used for gastric troubles and as diuretic.
Ziziphus oxyphylla Edgew.
Elanai Root 15 Decoction (fresh roots) is useful against liver infections in all types of domesticated animals.
Rosaceae Prunus armeniaca L.
Khobanaiy Gum 9 Gums are boiled with ghee and then powdered upon drying. Later on milk is added for oral administration to cattle for treating abdominal pain, for flatulence, and as appetizer.
Rosa moschata Herrm.
Gulab Flower 12 Flowers (100 g) are taken in water, and later, sugar milk are mixed into it. This remedy is orally given to livestock to produce anti-inflammation and anti-congestion effect.
Rutaceae Zanthoxylum armatum DC.
Dambara Fruit 19 Fruits powder and wheat flour are mixed and are used as antipyretic and killing mouth germs. Fruits are also considered as a good tonic for animals. This plant is also feed to the animals being suffered due to cold fever “local name Charmakh.”
Salicaceae Salix tetrasperma Roxb.
Wala Bark 16 Bark is crushed and cooked in ghee then mixing it with flour of maize which is given to all type of cattle to treat cough and internal body infections.
Simaroubaceae Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle
Speena Bokana Leaves 13 The leaves of the plant are used as galactagogue.
Solanaceae Nicotiana tabacum L.
Tambacoo Leaves 20 Decoction is made from its leaves, and then, it applied externally on animal’s body and then rubbed for external parasites. Infusion of its leaves is drenched via nostrils against leech infestation in cows.
Solanum virginianum L.
Maraghuny Roots, leaves, fruit 43 Various parts of the plant are taken (½ kg), and then, decoction is made by adding salt and yoghurt. This remedy is orally given to cattle (15–20 days) against cough, fever, and pain and for milk production.
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal
Kotilal Leaves 38 Roots and leaves are cooked in ghee with gurr and then the resultant is given to sheep, cow, and buffalo for milk production. Also, it is used as antipyretic and sexual tonic.
Thymelaeaceae Daphne oleoides Schreb.
Laighona Leaves and flower 6 Fresh leaves and flowers are taken and are shaded dried for 15 days and subjected to powder which is then mixed with gurr and flour and given to for the expulsion of worms to cattle and buffalo.
Zingiberaceae Curcuma longa L.
Korkaman Rhizome 29 Rhizome is subjected to powder and boiled in ghee. It is orally and topically used 2 times per days (5–10 days) to relieve external and internal parasite. This is also used to treat genital infection and problems.
Zingiber officinale Roscoe
Adrak Root 11 Rhizome (80 g) is grinded and combined with gurr of 500 g. This mixture is then boiled in 2 l of milk. This remedy is traditionally considered useful for goats, cows, and sheep (taken up to 10 days) against digestive disorders, for flatulence and as appetizer.
Zygophyllaceae Peganum harmala L.
Spalany Seed, whole plant 21 Fresh leaves (about ½ kg) are burned, and then with this smoke, animals are fumigated to relieve external parasites.
Tribulus terrestris L.
Azghakay Leaves 17 Leaves (200 g) of the plant are dried and made powder of it and then mix with the powder of Foeniculum vulgare and administered orally to domestic animals up to 15 days to treat digestive problems.