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Table 2 Description on the habit, habitat, parts used, use value, frequency of citation, mode of preparations, route of delivery and human ailments treated by the THs in Megera and adjacent Kebeles of Dalle District, 2015

From: Medicinal plants used by traditional healers to treat malignancies and other human ailments in Dalle District, Sidama Zone, Ethiopia

Family Scientific name Vernacular name (Sidamu-afoo) Habitat Habit PU RA UV FC Preparation and application Illness/disease condition treated Collection no.
Acanthaceae Hypoestes forskaolii (Vahl) R. Br. Ciikkicho W Sb LRt Or 0.15 15.0 The leaf is pounded, macerated, and drunk;
The root is chewed, and the output is swallowed
Severe stomachache
Alliaceae Allium sativum L. Waajjo tuma HG H Bu Or 0.40 40.0 The garlic is peeled, chewed, and swallowed Tonsillitis
Acute severe stomachache
Aloaceae Aloe sp. Argiisa W Sb Lf Or 0.60 60.0 Fresh Aloe sp. leaf is chopped, pounded, and small quantity (about 1 teaspoon) is drunk immediately or licked and swallowed Acute febrile illness (lamootta’/‘dingetegna’) NT032
Anacardiaceae Mangifera indica L. Mango HG T Sh De 0.20 20.0 The fluid which oozes out while the shoot is cut is applied to the wounded part of the body Blood clotting and wound healing NT053
Apiaceae Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Malkata HG H LSt Or 0.05 5.0 Pounded, macerated, and are given orally Blood pressure NT015
Apocynaceae Acokanthera schimperi (A. DC.) Schweinf. Qaraaro W T Fr Or 0.20 20.0 The ripe fruit (only the sweet one) is pounded, macerated, and mixed with water, and the patient drinks about 1 and ½ cup of the preparation in the morning before breakfast A syndrome called ‘Arrisho
‘Usso/yebird beshita’ (a stabbing pain)
Asparagaceae Asparagus africanus Lam. Buticho W Sb Rt Or 0.30 30.0 The root is pounded, boiled, and drunk ‘Usso/yebird beshita’ (a stabbing pain), treated early in the morning before breakfast;
Febrile malaria (this time, but not necessarily in the morning)
Asteraceae Acmella caulirhza Del. Bexxo HG H Fl Or 0.45 45.0 Chewed and swallowed Tonsillitis NT004
Lactuca inermis Forssk. Ameessa W Cl Lf Or 0.25 25.0 The leaf is chopped, boiled, and the filtrate is drunk ‘Lagote dhibba’ (growth retardation) NT064
Vernonia amygdalina Del. Hechcho W Sb Lf Or 0.55 55.0 The leaf of Vernonia amygdalina is pounded, macerated, and 1 cup of the preparation is given orally Febrile malaria and helminthiases NT043
Vernonia auriculifera Hiern. Reejjicho W Sb Sh De 0.60 60.0 The leaf from the shoot of the plant, often with Solanum dasyphyllum, is gently rubbed and applied on the wounded surface Wound healing NT057
Boraginaceae Cordia africana L. Waaddicho W T BFr Or 0.15 15.0 The bark is pounded, boiled, and drunk; or the ripe fruits are boiled, and the sweet juice is drunk for 1 week (7 days) Gastritis NT041
Caricaceae Carica papaya L. Paappaye HG Sb LFr Or 0.30 30.0 The fresh leaf of Carica papaya is home dried, pounded, boiled, and mixed with sugar is taken orally for some time (often mixed with fresh leaves of Ajuga integrifolia);
Fruit of Carica papaya with the fruit of Zanthoxylum chalybeum are pounded, macerated, filtered, and drunk
Blood pressure
Celesteraceae Maytenus undata (Thunb.) Blakelock Kincho W Sb Br Or 0.15 15.0 The bark is pounded, boiled, and filtered, and 1 cup is drenched Stomachache in infants NT021
Clusiaceae Garcinia buchananii Baker Soloolsa HG T Br Or 0.10 10.0 The bark is peeled carefully, boiled, cooled, and drunk;
The same application in the third day from the treatment regimen by Sida ovata
Sexual impotence in male
A syndrome called ‘Arrisho
Commelinaceae Commelina benghalensis L. Laaluunxe HG Cl Lt De 0.60 60.0 The latex which oozes out is applied on the affected area ‘Baararre’ and ishiisha’ (fungal skin infections) NT047
Crassulaceae Kalanchoe petitiana A. Rich Hanculuulle W H Lf Oc 0.05 5.0 Oozing fluid of the leaf is spilled into the eyes Inflammation of an eye due to poisonous plant materials NT042
Cucurbitaceae Cyclantheropsis parviflora (Cogn.) Harms Basu baaqula HG Cl FrS Or 0.10 10.0 The fleshy fruit is boiled and eaten
The seeds are roasted and eaten
GIT (gastrointestinal tract) discomforts
Peponium vogelii (Hook.f.) Engl. Surupha W Cl Fr Or 0.35 35.0 The juicy ripe fruit (about 2 or 3) are eaten for few days Febrile malaria, gonorrhea, and magarto’ (jaundice) NT010
Cuppressaceae Juniperus procera Hochst ex. Engl. Hoomme W T LSh Or 0.30 30.0 The leaf is pounded, and the juice is given orally
The shoot is pounded, decocted, and drunk
Liver disease
‘Buutaame’ (painful swelling)
Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea alata L. Bohe HG Cl LTb De
0.30 30.0 The leaf is rubbed gently and applied on the affected part of the skin;
The tuber is boiled and eaten for a certain amount of time
Dioscorea bulbifera L. Kotte Bohe HG Cl Tb Or 0.05 5.0 Boiled and eaten regularly in small amounts every day; or prepared in the form of soup and drunk Diabetes NT035
Euphorbiaceae Clutia abyssinica (Jaub. & Spach.) Maalaasincho W Sb Lf Or 0.05 5.0 The leaf of the plant and fresh Aloe sp. are mixed, pounded, cold macerated, and given orally Meningitis NT007
Croton macrostachyus Del. Masincho W T Sh Or 0.70 70.0 The shoot part is boiled and drunk Febrile malaria, (especially P. vivax) NT011
Euphorbia schimperiana Hochst Ex, A. Rich Binjille W H Lf De 0.05 5.0 Mixed with the leaf of Gouania longispicata is pounded and creamed on the affected part of the skin ‘Dhiiga’ (leprosy) NT025
Ricinus communis L. Qombo”o W Sb Rt Or 0.20 20.0 Fresh root is chewed and swallowed Breast cancer NT071
Fabaceae Millettia ferruginea (Hochst.) Bak. Hengeddicho W Sb Br Or 0.30 30.0 The bark is washed, pounded, filtered, and given orally Cancer NT069
Flacourtiaceae Dovyalis abyssinica (A. Rich.) Warb. Shiilo W Sb Br Or 0.65 65.0 The raw bark is chewed and swallowed ‘Muje’ (a tumor) NT017
Icacinaceae Apodytes dimidiata E. Mey. ex Arn. Doongicho W Sb Br Or 0.25 25.0 The bark of the plant is boiled, and about 1 cup is given orally Stomachache
‘Lagote dhibba’ (retarded growth)
Lamiaceae Ajuga integrifolia Buch.-Ham. (bugleweed) Anamuro HG H Lf Or 0.15 15.0 Fresh leaf is pounded, decocted, and drunk with tea or coffee Blood pressure NT046
Clerodendrum myricoides (Hochst.) Vatke Ma’niisa W H LfR Or 0.20 20.0 The leaf part is pounded, mixed with honey, and drunk; or its root is boiled, often mixed with the shoot of Zanthoxylum chalybeum, is given orally ‘Naqarsu dhibba’ (leukemia) NT006
Ocimum lamiifolium Hochst. ex Benth. Michete dhagicho W Sb Lf Na
1.00 100.0 The soft leaves are rubbed gently to squeeze a characteristically reddish fluid, collect on a cup, and taken through nostrils very carefully;
It may also be drunk with coffee
‘Miche’ (an acute viral infection) NT048
Plectranthus garckeanus (Vatke) J.K. Morton Toontoona W H Lf Or
0.25 25.0 The leaf is boiled, filtered, and the liquid is given orally
Raw leaf is put between the fingers of legs
Athletes’ foot (antifungal)
Plectranthus punctatus (L. f.) L’Hér. Hellee HG H LSh De 0.75 75.0 The leaf and shoot are gently rubbed and creamed on the wound Wound healing NT031
Salvia nilotica Juss. ex Jacq. Michete dhagicho (Damakase) W Sb Lf Na 1.00 100.0 The soft leaves are rubbed gently to squeeze a characteristically reddish fluid, collect on a cup and taken through nostrils very carefully; it may also be drunk with coffee ‘Miche NT070
Loganiaceae Buddleja polystachya Fresen. Bullaancho W Sb Lf Or 0.15 15.0 The leaves are pounded, macerated, and given orally Cancer NT013
Malvaceae Sida ovata Forssk. Qirqixxe W Sb Lf Or 0.05 5.0 The leaf of Sida ovate, often mixed with the root of go’ra (Rubus apetalus) is boiled at night, and the cooled preparation is drunk in the morning ‘A rrisho NT060
Meliaceae Ekebergia capensis Sparrm. Goddiicho W Sb Fr Or 0.25 25.0 The fruits are pounded, filtered, and drunk
Few fruits are chewed and swallowed
Melianthaceae Bersama abyssinica Fresen. Xeweerrakko W T Br Or 0.45 45.0 The bark is pounded, boiled, and a small amount of the preparation is drunk ‘Naqarsu dhibba’ (cancer) NT063
Menispermaceae Stephania abyssinica Dillon and A.Rich. Kalaala W Cl Lf Or 0.25 25.0 The leaf part is boiled, and about 1 cup is drunk Jaundice (liver disease) NT050
Musaceae Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman) Weese HG H RSt Or
0.15 15.0 Unfermented newly processed “kocho” is baked and eaten
The dry “xusho” (thread) is burned to give “diqillo” (soot), mixed with any kind of body lotion or butter is creamed on the body
‘Bijaajo’/ikek’ (bacterial skin infection)
Musa x paradisiaca L. Muuze HG H St De 0.20 20.0 The oozing fluid from the stem is applied on a fresh wound Coagulation and protecting a secondary infection NT065
Myrsinaceae Myrsine melanophloeos (L.) R. Br. Morocho W Sb Lf Or 0.20 20.0 The leaf (often mixed with Olea capensis) is pounded, cold macerated, and drunk Cancer (leukemia) NT020
Myrtaceae Syzygium guineense (Wild.) DC. Duuwancho W T BFr Or 0.15 15.0 The bark is pounded, macerated, and drunk
The ripe fruits of the plant are eaten in small amounts for some time
‘Arrisho’ (it cures after inducing diarrhea
Oleaceae Olea capensis L. f. Seettaame W T Sh Or 0.55 55.0 The shoot (often with shoot of Zanthoxylum chalybeum and Clerodendrum myricoides) is boiled, mixed with honey, and drunk Cancer NT022
Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Cif. Ejersa W T Sh Oc 0.10 10.0 The soft shoot of the plant is pounded with the addition of small amount of water, filtered, and the pure drop is added at the margins of the cornea ‘Burdicho’ (an early stage trachoma) NT066
Oliniaceae Olinia rochetiana A. Juss. Noole W T Lf Na 0.30 30.0 The leaf is heated slightly, rubbed by the hands, and then inhaled through nostrils Viral common cold NT009
Passifloraceae Passiflora edulis Sims Hoophe HG Cl Fr Or 0.05 5.0 Two ripe fruits are eaten every morning for about 6 months Blood pressure NT029
Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca dodecandra L’Herit. Haraanjicha W Sb Lf Or 0.25 25.0 Pounded, boiled, and taken orally early in the morning Helminthiases; as a laxative NT059
Poaceae Cymbopogon citratus (Hook. & Arn.) Stapf. Hixicho HG H Lf Or 0.40 40.0 The grassy leaf is boiled, macerated, cooled, and given to infants orally (esp. drenching) GIT disorder
Boost immunity of breastfeeding infants
Podocarpaceae Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb.) Mirb. Dagucho W T SLt Or 0.65 65.0 The shoot is boiled, and 1 cup is drunk;
Oozing liquid from the stem is mixed with cold water and is drunk
magarto’ (jaundice)
Gastritis and amoeba
Polygonaceae Rumex abyssinicus Jacq. Shiishoone W H Rt Or 0.85 85.0 Fresh roots are pounded, boiled, and about 1 cup is given orally magarto’ (jaundice) NT001
Rumex nervosus Vahl Taare HG H Rt Or 0.25 25.0 The root is washed and eaten raw
The root is pounded, boiled, and given orally
Intestinal parasites
‘Lammootta’ (acute febrile illness)
Ranunculaceae Clematis simensis Fresen. Fiide W Cl LSt Or 0.35 35.0 The thread is chewed, and the small amount is swallowed;
Leaf of the plant is macerated and drunk
Rhamnaceae Gouania longispicata Engl. Daanikuukke W Sb Lf De 0.10 10.0 Used often mixed with the leaves of Euphorbia schimperiana, are pounded and creamed on the affected part ‘Dhiiga’ (leprosy and leukoderma) NT024
Rhamnus prinoides L’Herit. Xaddo W Sb Lf Or 0.05 5.0 The leaf, often with the root of Rubus apetalus, is boiled, decocted, and drunk before meal Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) NT027
Rosaceae Hagenia abyssinica (Bruce) J.F. Gmel So”ichote dhagga (qaanqo) W Sb Fr Or 0.80 80.0 The ripe fruit is pounded, decocted, and 1 cup of the preparation is drunk in the morning before breakfast ‘Soicho’ (tapeworm) NT055
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Kooke HG T Lf Or 0.25 25.0 The leaf is pounded, macerated, and drunk ‘Lamootta’ (acute febrile illness) NT033
Rubus apetalus Poir. Go’ra HG Sb Rt Or 0.15 15.0 The root is pounded, boiled, and drunk Tuberculosis and siimmaxo’ (a disease condition characterized by painful urination like gonorrhea) NT028
Rubiaceae Coffea arabica L. Buna HG T Fr Or 0.10 10.0 The fruit is roasted, pounded, and mixed with salt and honey and is eaten Severe, frequent, and watery diarrhea NT051
Gardenia ternifolia Schumach & Thonn. Gaambeella W Sb LLt Or 0.15 15.0 The latex is creamed on the tongues of infants; or the leafs are boiled and given orally after cooling ‘Lagote dhibba’ (growth retardation) NT038
Pentas lanceolata Forssk. Baalaamu dhagga W H Rt Or
0.30 30.0 Root is pounded, mixed with water, filtered, and drunk
The root is pounded, mixed with small water, and applied on the wound
Rubia cordifolia L. Haarre HG Cl Rt De 0.25 25.0 A TM practitioner chews the root, mixed with salt, and spits on the swelling while uttering the word “fincami” or “dhoohi!” ‘Buutaame’ (painful illness with fever and swelling) NT002
Rutaceae Ruta chalepensis L. Xenaddaame HG H Sh Or 0.35 35.0 The shoot is chewed and swallowed Detoxify poison
Painkiller for various ailments including stomachache
Rutaceae Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Gadda W T LSh Or 0.50 50.0 The leaf/shoot (often with the shoot of Olea capensis and Clerodendrum myricoides) is boiled, mixed with honey, and drunk
The leaf of the plant is pounded, macerated, mixed with honey and is given orally
Sapotaceae Sideroxylon oxyacanthum Baill. Bunguude W Sb Lf Or 0.75 75.0 The leaf part, often mixed with leaf of Zanthoxylum chalybeum and honey, is macerated and given orally Cancer NT014
Solanaceae Solanum aculeatissimum Jacq. Haanja Borbodho W Sb LSh Or
0.40 40.0 The leaf is chopped with red onion, boiled, and the soup is drunk;
The shoot is rubbed gently, and the liquid output is applied on the wounded area
Wound healing
Solanum dasyphyllum Schum. & Thonn. Borbodho W Sb Sh De 0.35 35.0 The soft shoot of Solanum dasyphyllum is gently rubbed, and the liquid output is applied on a wound Wound healing NT068
Solanum nigrum L. Xu’naayye HG H WP Or 0.25 25.0 The herb is boiled and eaten regularly for about 3 days ‘Bisu shekkeere’ (P. vivax) NT005
Tiliaceae Grewia flavescens Juss. Shishsho W T Lf Or 0.05 5.0 The leaf is decocted and given orally ‘Lagote dhibba’ (growth retardation) NT019
Zingiberaceae Zingiber officinale Rosc. Jaanjiweelo HG H RRz Or
0.15 15.0 The rhizoid is pounded, dried, and mixed with feed/drink
The root of Zingiber officinale is washed well, gently rubbed with hands, mixed with small amount of water, and dropped into an eye
Pain management for cancer patients
‘Burdicho’ (early stage trachoma)
  1. Sidamu-afoo names of illnesses/disease conditions are written in small caps, italic, font 10, within single inverted commas throughout the document
  2. Abbreviations: habit (T tree, Sb shrub, H herb, and Cl climber); habitat (W wild and HG home garden), PU part used (Br bark, Bu bulb, BFr bark and fruit, Fl flower, Fr fruit, FrS fruit and seed, Lt latex, Lf leaf, LFr leaf and fruit, LLt leaf and latex, LSt leaf and stem, LRt leaf and root, LSh leaf and shoot, LTb leaf and tuber, Rt root, RSt root and stem, RRz root and rhizoid, Rz rhizoid, Sd seed, Sh shoot, SLt shoot and latex, St stem, Tb tuber, WP whole part), RA route of application (De dermal, Na nasal, Oc ocular, and Or oral), FC frequency of citation, UV use value