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Table 1 The list of wild vegetable plants used in the study area

From: The wild taxa utilized as vegetables in Sicily (Italy): a traditional component of the Mediterranean diet

  Taxa Family Life form Chorotype Habitat and distribution frequency Vernacular names Edible partsa Food useb Frequency of citationsc
* Agave americana L. Agavaceae P caesp C-America Uncultivated land, road edges both cultivated and spontaneous—C Zabbara, Zamara t-s Co R
  Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande Brassicaceae H scap Paleotemp. Nitrophilous woods—C Agghialòra, Pedi d’asinu bu, le Ra/Co R
  Allium ampeloprasum L. Amaryllidaceae G bulb Eurimedit. Dry uncultivated land, edges of gardens—C Purrièttu, Puorru sarvaggiu bu, le, t-s Ra/Co VVC
* Allium nigrum L. Amaryllidaceae G bulb Stenomedit. Fields, vineyards and olive-groves—C Agghiu d’i siminati, Porra bu Ra/Co VC
* Allium pendulinum Ten. Amaryllidaceae G bulb W-Stenomedit. Woods, wet and shady ground—C Agghiu sarvaggiu le Ra/Co VC
  Allium roseum L. Amaryllidaceae G bulb Stenomedit. Garigue, dry meadows—VC Agghiu sarvaggiu, Porru bu Ra/Co C
  Allium subhirsutum L. Amaryllidaceae G bulb Stenomedit. Dry meadows, uncultivaded ground, and garigue—VC Agghiu sarvaggiu bu Ra/Co C
  Allium triquetrum L. Amaryllidaceae G bulb W-Stenomedit. Shady ground—C Agliotta, Porrua bu, le Ra/Co C
  Allium ursinum subsp. ucrainicum Kleopow & Oxner [100, 106] Amaryllidaceae G bulb Eurasiat. Beech-woods—NC Agghiu ursinu, Cipudda di serpi bu, le Ra/Co R
  Amaranthus retroflexus L. Amaranthaceae T scap America Trop. Ruins, debris, a weed in summer crops in dry and soft ground—C Lippia t-s Co R
  Ammi majus L. Apiaceae T scap Eurimedit. Uncultivated land, ruins, hoed fields—C Ènniri, Sberra le Ra/Co R
  Anacyclus clavatus (Desf.) Pers. Asteraceae T scap Stenomedit. Dry meadows, uncultivated land—VC Panipanuzzu t-s Co R
  Anthemis arvensis L. subsp. arvensis Asteraceae T scap Stenomedit. Cereal fields, pastures and uncultivated land—VC Cacumidda fitenti, Calumidda sarvaggia le Co R
  Apium graveolens L. Apiaceae H scap Paleotemp. Cultivated and wet uncultivated land—NC Accia sarvaggia, Accia le, t-s Ra/Co C
  Apium nodiflorum (L.) Lag. Apiaceae H scap Eurimedit. Ditches, ponds—C Scavùni, Crisciùni le, t-s Ra/Co C
* Arabis collina Ten. Brassicaceae H scap Medit.-Mont. Grazing lands, cliffs, walls—C Razzi sarvaggi t-s Co R
* Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. Brassicaceae H bienn Europ. Dry meadows, bushes, grazing lands, cliffs, road edges, walls—C Razzi t-s Co R
* Arabis turrita L. Brassicaceae H bienn S-Europ.-Sudsib. Grazing land, deciduous, stony slopes and cliffs—R Mazarèddra duci, Cavulèdda le, t-s Co R
  Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh. Asteraceae H bienn Eurimedit. Uncultivated land, hedges, road edges, banks—NC Bardana le, t-s Co R
  Asparagus acutifolius L. Asparagaceae NP Stenomedit. Scrubland, holm oak, hedges Scrubland, holm oak, hedges—VC Spàracë di rizzògna, Sparacògna t-s Ra/Co VVC
  Asparagus albus L. Asparagaceae NP W-Stenomedit. Dry slopes, particularly in clayey ground and limestone—VC Sparaciu jancu, Spàraciu spinosu t-s Ra/Co VC
  Asparagus aphyllus L. Asparagaceae Ch frut S-Stenomedit. Dry and sunny slopes, hedges—VC Spàraciu nìuru t-s Ra/Co C
  Asparagus horridus L. Asparagaceae NP S-Stenomedit. Walls, hedges, garigue—NC Spàriciu marinu, Sparacògna sarvaggia t-s Ra/Co C
  Asparagus officinalis L. Asparagaceae G rhiz Eurimedit. Meadows and marshes—NC Sparaciu manzu, Sparaciu ‘mpiriali t-s Ra/Co C
  Asphodeline lutea (L.) Rchb. Xanthorrhoeaceae G rhiz E-Eurimedit. Dry meadows—VC Garùfi, Puddicìnu t-s Co C
  Asphodelus ramosus L. subsp. ramosus var. ramosus [100] Xanthorrhoeaceae G rhiz Stenomedit. Uncultivated dry ground, meadows—VC Purrazzu, Arvùzzi ramùsi ro Co R
* Asphodelus ramosus subsp. ramosus var. africanus Z. Díaz & Valdés [100] Xanthorrhoeaceae G rhiz Stenomedit. Uncultivated clayey land—VC Agghiu porru, Purrazzu ro Co R
  Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Brassicaceae H scap Cosmop. Wet muds, brook’s banks—R Caulicèddi di crapa, Lassana t-s Co C
* Bellis annua L. Asteraceae T scap Stenomedit. Meadows, uncultivated land—C Erva di primu xiuri, Jancuzzu b-r Ra/Co C
. Bellis perennis L. var. perennis [100] Asteraceae H ros Europ.-Caucas. Uncultivated land, meadows, disturbed sinantropic localites—C Erva di primu xiuri, Jancuzzu b-r Ra/Co C
* Bellis perennis var. hybrida (Ten.) Fiori [100] Asteraceae H ros Europ.-Caucas. Meadows—R Erva di primu xiuri, Jancuzzu b-r Ra/Co R
* Bellis perennis var. strobliana Bég. [100] Asteraceae H ros Endem. Sic. Mountain meadows—R Erva di primu xiuri, Jancuzzu b-r Ra/Co R
* Bellis sylvestris Cirillo Asteraceae H ros Stenomedit. Uncultivated land, pastures, olive-grove—C Primu xiuri di voscu b-r Ra/Co R
  Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris Chenopodiaceae H scap Eurimedit. Wild on the coasts and commonly cultivated—VC Giri, Salachi le Co VVC
  Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang. [100, 106] Chenopodiaceae H scap Eurimedit. Along the coasts—VC Giri, Zarchi le Co VVC
* Biscutella maritima Ten. Brassicaceae T scap Endem. Uncultivated dry ground—VC Cassatèddi, Ucchialèddi di Santa Lucia t-s Co R
  Borago officinalis L. Boraginaceae T scap Eurimedit. Uncultivated land, ruins—VC Vurrania, Bburraina fl/infl, le, t-s Co VVC
  Brassica fruticulosa Cirillo Brassicaceae H scap W-Stenomedit. Uncultivated land, walls, debris—VC Caulicèddu, Qualicèddu b-r, fl/infl Co VC
  Brassica incana Ten. Brassicaceae Ch suffr Subendem. Limestone cliffs, generally near the sea—NC Amarèddi fl/infl, t-s Ra/Co R
  Brassica nigra (L.) W. D. J. Koch Brassicaceae T scap Eurimedit. Cereal fields, uncultivated land, threshing-floors—C Cavulicèddu niuru, Mazzarèdda amara b-r, fl/infl, t-s Co C
  Brassica rapa subsp. campestris (L.) A. R. Clapham Brassicaceae T scap Medit. Fields, uncultivated land, road edges—VC Sinapë, Qualazzi b-r, fl/infl, t-s Co VVC
* Brassica rupestris Raf. subsp. rupestris Brassicaceae Ch suffr Endem. Limestone cliffs—NC Cavulazzu, Càulu di rocca fl/infl, t-s Ra/Co R
* Brassica rupestris subsp. hispida Raimondo & Mazzola [100, 106] Brassicaceae Ch suffr Endem. Sic. Limestone cliffs—NC Càulu sarvaggiu le Ra/Co VR
  Brassica tournefortii Gouan Brassicaceae T scap Saharo-Sind. Uncultivated dry ground, particularly maritime sands—NC Musulùchi le, t-s Ra/Co R
  Bunias erucago L. Brassicaceae T scap N-Eurimedit. Ruins, uncultivated grassy ground, hoed cultivations—C Ciconia di vigna, Spinacia sarvaggia le Co C
* Cakile maritima Scop. Brassicaceae T scap Eurosib. Pioneer on costal sands and salty ruins—VC Arùca marina, Arùcula di mari t-s Co R
  Calendula arvensis (Vaill.) L. subsp. arvensis Asteraceae T scap SW-Stenomedit. Uncultivated land, road edges, fields and vineyards—VC Ciuri aranciu, Margherita russa b-r, t-s Co R
  Capparis spinosa L. subsp. spinosa var. spinosa Capparidaceae NP Medit. Gypsum cliffs, calanque—VC Chiappara, Chiàpparu manzu fl-b, t-s, fr Ra/Co VC
* Capparis spinosa subsp. rupestris var. rupestris Capparidaceae NP Medit. Limestone cliffs and stony ground—VC Ciapparèdda, Ciàppiru fl-b, fr Ra/Co VC
* Capparis spinosa subsp. spinosa var. canescens Cosson Capparidaceae NP Medit.-Turan. Gypsum and sulphur cliffs, calanque—VC Chiàpparu sarbaggiu, Chiàppara fl-b, fr Ra/Co VC
  Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. Brassicaceae H bienn Eurimedit. Uncultivated land—VC Bbursa di picuràru, Mastròzzu sarvaggiu le Co R
  Cardamine hirsuta L. Brassicaceae T scap Endem. Cultivations, uncultivated land, grassland—VC Aruculicèdda sarvaggia, Crisciuneddu d’i mura t-s Co R
  Carduus argyroa Biv. Asteraceae T scap Endem. Uncultivated land, pastures, roadsides—VC Cacasagna, Napordi d’acqua t-s Co R
  Carduus corymbosus Ten. Asteraceae T scap Endem. Uncultivated dry ground, debris, roadsides—NC Carduneddu sarvaggiu t-s Co R
  Carduus pycnocephalus L. subsp. pycnocephalus Asteraceae H bienn Eurimedit.-Turan. Uncultivated land, road edges—VC Scoddi le Co R
  Carlina gummifera (L.) Less. Asteraceae H ros S-Stenomedit. Garigue, dry meadows—VC Masticògna, Cacucciulìdda fl/infl Ra/Co R
* Carlina hispanica subsp. globosa (Arcang.) Meusel & Kästner Asteraceae H scap Stenomedit. Dry and stony meadows—C Mazzacugghiuna, Mazzacani t-s Co R
* Carlina sicula Ten. Asteraceae H scap Endem. Sic. Uncultivated land, dry meadows, roadsides—C Carlina siciliana, Panicàudu t-s Co R
* Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. Brassicaceae T scap Stenomedit.-Turan. Uncultivated dry ground—R Mastruzzu sarvaggiu t-s Co R
  Carthamus lanatus L. subsp. lanatus Asteraceae H scap Eurimedit. Clay-limestone ground—VC Vavanazzi, Carduni ‘nfiliniatu o ri spina t-s Ra R
  Carthamus pinnatus Desf. Asteraceae H ros SW-Eurimedit. Uncultivated land, pastures, garigue—C Carduncèllu b-r Co R
  Centaurea calcitrapa L. Asteraceae H bienn Eurimedit. Uncultivated dry ground, vineyards, roadsides—VC Apròcchi ri picucara, Sciaccablisci b-r Co C
* Centaurea napifolia L. Asteraceae T scap SW-Stenomedit. Fields, uncultivated land, pastures hedges—VC Lucia b-r Co C
  Centaurea sicula L. Asteraceae H bienn SW-Stenomedit. Uncultivated land, roadsides—C Appròcchiu, Buttùni d’oru b-r, le Co R
  Centaurea solstitialis subsp. schowii (DC.) Dostál Asteraceae H bienn Subendem. Uncultivated land, vineyards, roadsides—C Apròcchiu fimminedda, Gattaredda le Co R
  Centranthus ruber (L.) DC. Valerianaceae Ch suffr Stenomedit. Cliffs, old walls—VC Baddariàna russa, Giummu di carrabbinera le Ra/Co R
  Cerinthe major L. subsp. major Boraginaceae T scap Stenomedit. Uncultivated land, vineyards edges and olive-grove, roadsides—VC Sucameli, Vrischi di api le Ra/Co C
  Chamaemelum fuscatum (Brot.) Vasc. Asteraceae T scap W-Medit.-Mont. Meadows and uncultivated wet ground—C Cacumidda, Pan’i cavaddu t-s Ra/Co R
  Chamaerops humilis L. Arecaceae P scap W-Stenomedit. Limestone cliffs and slopes on garigue Coastal belt—VC Giummarra, Scupazzu t-s Ra R
  Chenopodium album L. Chenopodiaceae T scap Europa E-Asia Uncultivated ground, ruins, a weed of cultivations—VC Erva fitenti, Inìsca le, t-s Co R
  Chondrilla juncea L. Asteraceae H scap S-Europ.-Sudsib. Uncultivated land and dry meadows—VC Curi î suggi, Cutulidda le, t-s Co C
  Cichorium intybus L. var. intybus [100, 106] Asteraceae H scap Paleotemp. Roadsides, in uncultivated land and ruins, a weed also in gardens—VC Cicòria,Cicoira b-r, le Ra/Co VVC
* Cichorium intybus var. glabratum (C. Presl) Fiori [100, 106] Asteraceae H scap Medit. Mountain grasslands—NC Cicòria,Cicoira b-r, le Ra/Co C
* Cichorium pumilum Jacq. Asteraceae T scap Stenomedit. Ruins, uncultivated land—C Nirvia sarvaggia b-r, le Ra/Co C
  Clematis vitalba L. Ranunculaceae P lian Europ.-Caucas. Sub-Mediterranean deciduous woods, hedges—VC Liàra, Mutarva t-s Co C
  Clinopodium nepeta (L.) Kuntze subsp. nepeta Lamiaceae H scap Orof. S-Europ. Dry meadows, uncultivated land, walls—VC Nipitedda, Niputeddra le Ra/Co C
  Crepis bursifolia L. Asteraceae H scap Subendem. Uncultivated land, dry meadows—VC Ricuttedda, Rizzaredda b-r, le Co C
  Crepis leontodontoides All. Asteraceae H ros W-Medit.-Mont. Forests, bushes, glads—C Rizzaredda b-r Co C
  Crepis neglecta subsp. corymbosa (Ten.) Nyman Asteraceae T scap Subendem. Uncultivated land, vineyards, roadsides—R Radicchiedda b-r Co R
* Crepis sprengelii Nicotra Asteraceae H ros Endem. Sic. Fields, meadows and hedges—R Radicchiedda siciliana b-r Co R
  Crepis vesicaria L. subsp. vesicaria Asteraceae T scap Eurimedit.-Subatl. Uncultivated land, vineyards, roadsides Cicoria missinìsa, Cicoria vessicaria b-r, le Co VC
* Crepis vesicaria subsp. bivonana (Soldano & Conti) Giardina & Raimondo Asteraceae T scap Endem. Sic. Uncultivated land and roadsides—VC Cicòria vessicaria,Cicuriuni b-r Co C
  Crepis vesicaria subsp. hyemalis (Biv.) Babc. Asteraceae T scap Endem. Sic. Uncultivated land, vineyards, roadsides—C Luciazzi b-r, le Co VC
  Crepis vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill.) Thell. Asteraceae T scap W-Medit. Uncultivated land and roadsides—C Cicoria amara, Lattuchedda di lu Signuri b-r, le Co C
  Crithmum maritimum L. Apiaceae Ch suffr Eurimedit. Maritime cliffs and reefs—VC Erva di lu pitittu, Finocchiu marinu le, t-s Ra R
  Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. cardunculus Asteraceae H scap Stenomedit. Pastures, uncultivated land—VC Cardùn’i spini, Cacòcciuliddu spinusu fl/infl, t-s Ra/Co VC
  Cyperus esculentus L. Cyperaceae He Subcosmop. Cultivated in marshes on the coast—C Cabbasìsi di Trapani, Nziparèddu ro Co C
  Daucus carota L. subsp. carota Apiaceae H bienn Paleotemp. Uncultivated land, roadsides, dry meadows—VC Vastunàca sarvaggia, Pedi di gaddu b-r, le Ra/Co R
  Daucus carota subsp. maximus (Desf.) Ball Apiaceae H bienn Medit.-Asia Uncultivated land, roadsides, dry meadows—NC Cuda di gattu t-s Ra/Co R
* Descurainia sophia (L.) Prantl Brassicaceae T scap Paleotemp. Uncultivated land, ruins, often near stables—R Làssinu di sceccu, Mazzarèddri t-s Co R
  Dioscorea communis (L.) Caddick & Wilkin Dioscoraceae G rad Eurimedit. Woods, glads, hedges—VC Spàraciu arrampicusu, Spàrac’i serpi t-s Co C
  Diplotaxis erucoides (L.) DC. var. erucoides [100] Brassicaceae T scap W-Stenomedit. Fallow and uncultivated land—VC Xiuri di morti, Ruca sarvaggia le, t-s Co VC
  Diplotaxis harra subsp. crassifolia (Raf.) Maire Brassicaceae Ch suffr S-Stenomedit. Gypsum cliffs—C Erva cavulàra, Cavulicèddi le, t-s Co C
  Diplotaxis muralis (L.) DC. Brassicaceae T scap Eurimedit.-Subatl. Uncultivated land, ruins, road edges—R Erva diàvula, Erva diaulìna le, t-s Co R
  Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC. Brassicaceae H scap Subatlant. Ruins, uncultivated dry sandy ground—VC Ruca, Arùca sarvaggia le Co VC
  Echium italicum L. subsp. italicum Boraginaceae H bienn Medit. Dry mountain meadows—VR Acchiàppa muschi, Lingua di voi le Co R
* Echium italicum L. subsp. siculum (Lacaita) Greuter & Burdet Boraginaceae H bienn Endem. Sic. Uncultivated land and dry meadows—VC Acchiàppa muschi, lingua viperina le Co R
  Echium plantagineum L. Boraginaceae T scap Eurimedit. Uncultivated dry and sandy ground along the coast and roadsides—VC Lapazza, Lingua di voi le Co R
  Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa (Mill.) Thell. Brassicaceae T scap Eurimedit.-Turan. Ruins, gardens—C Arùca, Arùca sarvaggia le, t-s Ra/Co C
  Erucastrum virgatum (J. & C. Presl) C. Presl Brassicaceae H scap Subendem. Ruins and uncultivated land, pastures—R Sinapi, Càvulu sarvaggiu le, t-s Co R
  Eryngium campestre L. Apiaceae H scap Eurimedit. Dry meadows on limestone—VC Panicauru, N’zalata du diavulu, le Ra R
  Fedia graciliflora Fisch. & C. A. Mey. Valerianaceae T scap Stenomedit. Uncultivated land, roadsides and in gardens—C Peri ciocca, Lattucheddra di San Giuseppi le Ra/Co C
  Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. vulgare Apiaceae H scap S-Eurimedit. Dry uncultivated land—VC Finucchieddu sarbaggiu, Finucchieddu rizzu, le, t-s Ra/Co VVC
  Galactites elegans (All.) Soldano [100, 106] Asteraceae H bienn Stenomedit. Uncultivated land, ruins, roadsides—VC Spina janca, Cardunèddu fimminèdda t-s Co R
* Gladiolus communis L. subsp. byzantinus (Mill.) A. P. Ham. [100, 106] Iridaceae G bulb Stenomedit. Cereal fields—C Spatuliddra st-j Ra R
* Gladiolus communis L. subsp. communis Iridaceae G bulb S-Europ.-Sudsib. Dry meadows—C Spatuliddra st-j Ra R
  Gladiolus italicus Mill. Iridaceae G bulb Eurimedit. Cereal fields—VC Spatuliddra st-j Ra R
  Glebionis coronaria (L.) Spach Asteraceae T scap Stenomedit. Fields, vineyards, olive-grove, uncultivated land—VC Sciùri di maju, Ciuri di cacamaiu t-s Co R
  Hedypnois cretica (L.) Dum.-Cours. Asteraceae T scap Stenomedit. Uncultivated land garigue, dry meadows Erva cracchiola t-s Co R
  Hedypnois rhagadioloides (L.) F. W. Schmidt Asteraceae T scap Stenomedit. Uncultivated land garigue, dry meadows Erva cracchiola t-s Co R
  Helminthotheca echioides (L.) Holub Asteraceae T scap Eurimedit. Hedges, road sides, dry meadows, ruins—VC Spirèdda, Asparèdda le Co R
  Himantoglossum robertianum (Loisel.) P. Delforge Orchidaceae G bulb Stenomedit. Dry meadows, garigue and small bushes—VC Patatara, Gaddùzzi bu, ro Co R
  Hirschfeldia incana (L.) Lagr.-Foss. Brassicaceae H scap Eurimedit. Ruins, uncultivated land, along the roads—VC Làssimi, Mazzareddi fl/infl, le, t-s Co VC
  Hyoseris radiata L. Asteraceae T ros Stenomedit. Uncultivated grassy ground, walls, slopes, stony paths—VC Occhi di pirnici, Cicuriuni b-r Co VC
* Hyoseris scabra L. Asteraceae T ros Stenomedit. Uncultivated dry ground, near the coast—NC Cicuriuni, Erba duci b-r Co C
  Hypochaeris achyrophorus L. Asteraceae T scap Stenomedit. Uncultivated land and dry meadows—VC Costa ri vecchia, Cicoria lingua di jatta b-r, le Co VC
  Hypochaeris cretensis (L.) Bory & Chaub. Asteraceae H scap NE-Medit.-Mont. Dry and stony slopes, mountain pastures—C Cìtula duci b-r, le Co C
  Hypochaeris glabra L. Asteraceae T scap Eurimedit. Uncultivated dry ground, pastures—C Costi vecchia b-r, le Co VC
  Hypochaeris laevigata (L.) Ces. Asteraceae H ros SW-Medit.-Mont. Cliffs, stony pastures—C Razza b-r, le Co VC
  Hypochaeris radicata L. Asteraceae H ros Europ.-Caucas. Sands, dry meadows, uncultivated land—C Cicoria furfuciata, Sgàrri b-r, le Co VC
* Iris tuberosa L. Iridaceae G rhiz N-Stenomedit. Uncultivated land, hedges, and olive groves—VC Buttùni di jaddu, Castagnotto ro Co C
  Isatis tinctoria subsp. canescens (DC.) Arcang. [100] Brassicaceae H bienn SE-Asia Uncultivated land, along the roads—VC Cavulu di carammu, Guàdu fl/infl Co R
* Jacobaea erratica (Bertol.) Fourr. Asteraceae H bienn C-Europ. Wet and shady localities—C Erva rapudda, Erva di San Giacumu le Co R
* Juncus acutus L. Juncaceae H caesp Eurimedit. Wet salt sandy ground, embankments, clayey ground—VC Juncu, Junci di liari t-s Co R
* Kundmannia sicula (L.) DC. Apiaceae H scap Stenomedit. Dry uncultivated land, pastures—C Pedi di nigli, Pitrusinu sarvaggiu le Co VR
  Lactuca muralis (L.) Gaertn. Asteraceae H scap Europ.-Caucas. Woods—C Cardedda di muru le Ra/Co C
  Lactuca serriola L. Asteraceae H bienn S-Europ.-Sudsib. Uncultivated land, vineyards, roadsides—VC Lattuca sarbaggia, Lattùca spinusa le Ra/Co C
  Lactuca viminea (L.) J. & C. Presl Asteraceae H bienn Europ.-Caucas. Dry and stony slopes—VC Lattughèdda du Signuri, Evva di scussuni le Ra/Co C
* Lamium flexuosum Ten. Lamiaceae H scap NW-Medit.-Mont. Stony ground, wet cliffs, scrubland—R Nzinzili st-j Ra R
  Lapsana communis L. Asteraceae T scap Paleotemp. Broadleaf woods and fresh disturbed localities—C Lassani ruci, Erva pi li minni t-s Ra/Co R
  Lathyrus annuus L. Fabaceae T scap Eurimedit. Fields, pastures, uncultivated land—C Fasuolu sarvaggiu t-s Co R
  Lathyrus sylvestris L. Fabaceae H scand Europ.-Caucas. Dry meadows, hedges—C Cessavuoi, Fasòla sarvaggia fl/infl, t-s Co R
* Leontodon cichoraceus (Ten.) Sanguin. Asteraceae H ros Orof. SE-Europ. Uncultivated dry ground, pastures, hedges—R Cicuriedda b-r Co VC
* Leontodon intermedius Huter, Porta & Rigo Asteraceae H ros Endem. Limestone cliffs—C Cicuriedda b-r Co C
* Leontodon muelleri (Sch. Bip.) Fiori Asteraceae T scap S-Stenomedit. Pastures and uncultivated wet ground—R Occhiu di pinnici b-r Co C
* Leontodon siculus (Guss.) Nyman Asteraceae H ros Endem. Beech and Turkey oak woods—R Lattughedda di muntagna b-r Co C
  Leontodon tuberosus L. Asteraceae H ros Stenomedit. Dry meadows, olive-grove, glades in scrublands—VC Occhiu di pinnici, Lattughedda b-r Co C
  Leopoldia comosa (L.) Parl. Hyacinthaceae G bulb Eurimedit. Fields, uncultivated dry ground—VC Cipuddazza, Agghiòru niuru, bu Co R
* Lepidium draba L. Brassicaceae G rhiz Giamaica Uncultivated land along the roads, ruins—VC Aruchèdda, Erva pipirìna t-s Co R
  Lepidium graminifolium L. Brassicaceae H scap Eurimedit. Road sides, ruins—VC Mastrùzzu sarvaggiu t-s Co R
* Lepidium latifolium L. Brassicaceae H scap Subendem. Uncultivated dry barren ground—R Erva pipirìtu, Erva mustarda t-s Co R
* Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv. subsp. maritima Brassicaceae H scap Stenomedit. Uncultivated dry ground, cliffs, walls—VC Qualidduzzu profumatu, Ciùri bbiàncu t-s Co R
  Lycium europaeum L. Solanaceae NP Eurimedit. Cultivated for hedges and grown wild along interpoderal roads—C Spinasanta, Tammuscèddu t-s Co C
  Malva cretica Cav. Malvaceae T scap Stenomedit. Dry uncultivated land—C Marva le Co C
* Malva multiflora (Cav.) Soldano, Banfi & Galasso Malvaceae T scap Stenomedit. Dry uncultivated land, fields, ruins—VC Marva, Marvùni le Co C
  Malva nicaeensis All. Malvaceae T scap Stenomedit. Dry uncultivated land, paths, pastures—C Marva, Marba le Ra/Co C
  Malva parviflora L. Malvaceae T scap Stenomedit. Uncultivated land near the houses—C Panicèdda, Pani-panùzzi le Co C
  Malva sylvestris L. subsp. sylvestris [100, 106] Malvaceae H scap Eurosib. Wasteland piles of debris and rubbish—VC Marva, Mavvàscu le Co C
* Malva sylvestris subsp. ambigua (Guss.) Thell. [100] Malvaceae H scap Eurosib. Wasteland piles of debris and rubbish—C Marva, Mavvàscu le Co C
* Malva trimestris (L.) Salisb. [100] Malvaceae T scap Stenomedit. Fields, uncultivated land and pastures—VC Marva, Marvùni le Co C
  Moricandia arvensis (L.) DC. Brassicaceae T scap S-Stenomedit. Ruins, uncultivated land, often along the railways—VC Càvulu sarvaggiu, Garòfalu sarvaggiu le, t-s Co R
* Narcissus tazetta L. subsp. tazetta Amaryllidaceae G bulb Stenomedit. Meadows—VC Narcìsu, Agghi porri fl/infl Ra/Co VR
  Nasturtium officinale R. Br. Brassicaceae H scap Cosmop. Still and running waters, banks—VC Crisciuni, Scavùni le, t-s Ra/Co C
  Notobasis syriaca (L.) Cass. Asteraceae T scap Stenomedit. Fields, uncultivated land, dry meadows, roadsides—VC Piscialàsinu, Lamànna t-s Ra/Co R
* Onopordum horridum Viv. Asteraceae H bienn NE-Medit.-Mont. Uncultivated land, rubbish dump, covili—C Napòrdu b-r Co VC
  Onopordum illyricum L. subsp. illyricum Asteraceae H bienn Stenomedit. Uncultivated land, debris, near the stables—VC Napruddri, Munaceddu b-r Co VC
* Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cactaceae P succ America Trop. Dry localities and cliffs—VC Ficudinia, Fikupali fr Co R
  Oxalis pes-caprae L. Oxalidaceae G bulb S-Africa Uncultivated land, gardens, fields—VC Cannacitula, auriduci bu, le, st-j Ra/Co C
  Papaver rhoeas L. var. rhoeas [100] Papaveraceae T scap E-Medit.-Mont. A weed of cereal cultivation, and ruderal Paparina russa, Paparinazzu le Ra/Co C
* Papaver rhoeas var. himerense Raimondo & Spadaro [100] Papaveraceae T scap Endem. Sic. Nitrophylous open sites—RR Papaviru rosa le, t-s Ra/Co R
  Papaver somniferum subsp. setigerum (DC.) Arcang. Papaveraceae T scap W-Medit.-Mont. Pastures, walls and cultivations—NC Paparina manza le Ra/Co VR
  Picris hieracioides subsp. spinulosa (Guss.) Arcang. Asteraceae H scap Eurosib. Uncultivated land, roadsides—VC Spireddra le Co R
* Plantago afra L. Plantaginaceae T scap Stenomedit. Uncultivated dry ground, pastures—VC Erva d’i purci, Pisillìna b-r Co R
  Plantago coronopus L. subsp. coronopus Plantaginaceae T scap Eurimedit. Uncultivated dry ground, near the sea, salt meadows, reefs—C Cornopiu, Erva di stidda b-r Co C
  Plantago lagopus L. Plantaginaceae T scap Stenomedit. Dry meadows, uncultivated land—C Cutidduzzi, Cuda di gatta b-r Co R
  Plantago lanceolata L. var. lanceolata [100] Plantaginaceae H ros Eurasiat. Uncultivated land, roadsides, fields, vineyards, generally sinantrophic—C Lanzafina, Centunèrvi strittu b-r Co C
  Plantago major L. subsp. major Plantaginaceae H ros Eurasiat. Moist mountain localities drying in Spring—C Centunèrvi, Pampina larga b-r Co R
  Plantago serraria L. Plantaginaceae H ros Stenomedit. Uncultivated dry ground mainly on the coastland—C Tuonachi, Chirchi di parrini b-r Co C
  Portulaca oleracea L. subsp. oleracea Portulacaceae T scap Subcosmop. Fields, gardens, uncultivated ground—VC Purciddana, Pucciddana le, t-s Ra/Co VC
  Primula vulgaris Huds. Primulaceae H ros Europ.-Caucas. Broadleaf woods—C Conterba siciliana, Sciuri a scocca b-r Ra/Co R
  Raphanus raphanistrum L. subsp. raphanistrum Brassicaceae T scap Eurimedit. Ruins, gardens, often also a weed of cultivations—VC Razza ruci, Lapistra le, t-s Co VC
  Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. landra (DC.) Bonnier & Layens Brassicaceae T scap Eurimedit. Ruins and fields—VC Mazzaredda, Razza le, t-s Co VC
* Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. maritimus (Sm.) Thell. [100] Brassicaceae T scap Eurimedit. Ruins and fields near the sea—C Ràfanu sarvaggiu, Aràzzu le, t-s Co C
  Rapistrum rugosum subsp. orientale (L.) Arcang. [100, 106] Brassicaceae T scap Eurimedit. Uncultivated dry land, grazing, road edges—C Sinàpa spagnola le, t-s Co C
  Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth Asteraceae H scap Stenomedit. Maritime cliffs, uncultivated dry ground, walls, roadsides—VC Caccialiepru, Curcita b-r Co VVC
  Rhagadiolus stellatus (L.) Gaertn. Asteraceae T scap Eurimedit. Uncultivated land, fields, dry meadows—C Raricchiu sarvaggiu b-r, le Co C
  Ridolfia segetum Moris Apiaceae T scap Stenomedit. Cereal fields—VC Finocchiu anitu, Finucciàzzu t-s Ra R
* Rorippa sylvestris (L.) Besser Brassicaceae H scap Eurasiat. Muds, uncultivated wet ground—VR Arùca sarvaggia picciridda le Co VR
  Rosa canina L. Rosaceae NP Paleotemp. Degraded scrubland, bushes, and hedges—VC Giarrauta, Rosa sarvaggia fl/infl Ro R
  Rosa sempervirens L. Rosaceae NP W-Medit.-Mont. Thermo-Meso-Mediterranean woods and scrublands—C Rusidda spinusa, Rusidda di San Giuvanni fl/infl Ro R
  Rubus ulmifolius Schott Rosaceae NP Eurimedit. Hedges, uncultivated land, coppice—VC Amurèdda, Rivèttu t-s Ra/Co VR
  Rumex acetosa L. Polygonaceae H scap Circumbor. Manured and mown meadows—R Acitàzzu, Aureddùci t-s Co R
  Rumex bucephalophorus L. subsp. bucephalophorus Polygonaceae T scap Eurimedit.-Macaron. Uncultivated dry ground mainly on the coastland—VC Acitusèdda, Agru-duci cu’ fogghi picciriddi t-s Co R
  Rumex crispus L. Polygonaceae H scap Subcosmop. Uncultivated and cultivated ground, ruins—C Aùru acìtu, Lapàzzu t-s Co VR
  Rumex intermedius DC. Polygonaceae H scap NW-Stenomedit. Uncultivated ground—R Acitàzzu t-s Co R
  Rumex pulcher L. subsp. pulcher Polygonaceae H scap Eurimedit. Uncultivated land, ruins, meadows and semi-humid ground—VC Lapàzza, Lapazzèddu rizzu t-s Co R
  Rumex scutatus L. Polygonaceae H scap S-Europ.-Sudsib. Limestone stony and uncultivated land—VC Acìtula di sciara, Citulìdda le, st-j Ra/Co R
  Rumex thyrsoides Desf. Polygonaceae H scap W-Stenomedit. Dry uncultivated ground—VC Acìtura t-s Co R
  Ruscus aculeatus L. Ruscaceae Ch frut Eurimedit. Thermophilous Quercus woods—C Spinasurci, Scuparìni t-s Ra/Co VVC
  Ruscus hypophyllum L. Ruscaceae Ch frut Eurimedit. Broadleaf woods, particularly Quercus ilex woods—R Sparaci trona, Erva di trònu t-s Ra/Co C
. Salvia officinalis L. Lamiaceae Ch suffr N-Medit.-Mont. Only rarely naturalized, and always in disturbed habitat—R Sarvia le Ra/Co C
  Sambucus nigra L. Caprifoliaceae P caesp Europ.-Caucas. Wet woods, glades, hedges—NC Sammùccu, Savùcu fl/infl Co R
  Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. minor Rosaceae H scap Paleotemp. Dry meadows, garigue, uncoltivated ground—NC Pampinèdda di campagna, Pimpinedda le Co VR
  Scolymus grandiflorus Desf. Asteraceae H scap SW-Eurimedit. Uncultivated land, road edges—VC Scòddi, Zammuri di campagna t-s Ra/Co VC
  Scolymus hispanicus L. Asteraceae H bienn Eurimedit. Uncultivated dry and sandy ground—VC Spina bianca, Scoddu t-s Ra/Co C
  Scolymus maculatus L. Asteraceae T scap S-Stenomedit. Uncultivated clayey ground—VC Scoddu, Scuoddo t-s Ra/Co C
  Scorzonera cana (C. A. Mey.) Griseb. Asteraceae H scap S-Europ.-Sudsib. Clayey and marly ground—C Benedìciti le Co R
  Scorzonera laciniata L. Asteraceae H bienn Paleotemp. Uncultivated land, vineyards, dry slopes—NC Erva di gnàgnaru pilusa, Scursunèra le, t-s Ra/Co R
* Scorzonera laciniata subsp. decumbens (Guss.) Greuter [106] Asteraceae H bienn Medit. Vineyards, cultivation edges, ruins—NC Latti di lepri le, t-s Co R
  Scorzonera undulata subsp. deliciosa (Guss.) Maire Asteraceae G bulb SW-Stenomedit. Uncultivated dry ground—C Scursunèra b-r, ro Ra/Co R
  Senecio vulgaris L. Asteraceae T scap Eurimedit. Uncultivated land near houses and a weed in fields—VC Erva di li cardìddi, Mancialèbbri le Co R
  Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke subsp. vulgaris Caryophyllaceae H scap Paleotemp. Uncultivated ground, meadows, scree—C Aricchi i liepru, Erba du priricaturi t-s Ra/Co VC
* Silene vulgaris subsp. commutata (Guss.) Hayek Caryophyllaceae H scap Orof. SE-Europ. Meadows among cliffs—R Aricchi i liepru, Cannatèdda t-s Ra/Co C
* Silene vulgaris subsp. tenoreana (Colla) Soldano & F. Conti [100, 106] Caryophyllaceae H scap Steno - Medit –Orient Dune, reefs, and dry localities near the sea—VC Calicèdda di muru, Campanèdda t-s Ra/Co C
  Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Asteraceae H bienn Eurimedit.-Turan. Ruins, hedges, roadsides—VC Carduggiu, Cardu marianu b-r Co VC
  Sinapis alba L. subsp. alba Brassicaceae T scap E-Medit. Cereal fields, uncultivated land and ruins—VC Làssani, Mazzarèddu fl/infl, t-s Co R
* Sinapis alba L. subsp. dissecta (Lag.) Bonnier Brassicaceae T scap E-Medit.-Mont. Cereal fields, uncultivated land and ruins—NC Sinacciòlu di linu fl/infl, t-s Co R
  Sinapis arvensis L. Brassicaceae T scap Stenomedit. Cereal fields, uncultivated land, ruins—VC Alàssani, Sinàpa sarvaggia fl/infl, t-s Co R
* Sinapis pubescens L. Brassicaceae Ch suffr SW-Stenomedit. Uncultivated dry ground, cliffs—VC Sinacciòla, Sinàpa fimminedda fl/infl, t-s Co R
  Sisymbrium irio L. Brassicaceae T scap Paleotemp. Uncultivated land, ruins, gardens—VC Approcchiu, Pisciacani le Ra/Co R
  Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. Brassicaceae T scap Paleotemp. Antropophilous on debris and road sides—VC Làssinu di sceccu, Mazzarèddri fl/infl Ra/Co R
  Smilax aspera L. Smilacaceae NP Subtrop. Evergreen scrubland, holm oak—VC Gratta culu, Stràzzacausi t-s Co R
  Smyrnium olusatrum L. Apiaceae H bienn Eurimedit.-Subatl. Wet and shady uncultivated land, hedges, ruins and debris—VC Làccia sarvaggia, Lisciànnaru t-s Ra/Co VR
  Smyrnium perfoliatum L. Apiaceae H bienn Eurimedit. Coppice and uncultivated shady ground—C Lisciandrèddu t-s Ra/Co VR
  Smyrnium rotundifolium Mill. Apiaceae H bienn S-Stenomedit. Dry and sunny uncultivated land—C Casese, Casesi t-s Ra/Co VR
  Solanum americanum Mill. Solanaceae T scap Cosmopol. Fields, uncultivated land, ruins—VC Amareddri, Pumarureddi niuri le, t-s Co R
  Sonchus asper (L.) Hill subsp. asper Asteraceae T scap Eurasiat. Hoed fields, gardens, vineyards—C Cardedda spinusa, Cardedda di scecchi b-r, le Co VVC
  Sonchus asper subsp. glaucescens (Jord.) Ball Asteraceae T scap Eurasiat. Uncultivated land mainly near the sea—R Cardiddazza, Cardinnastra b-r, le Co C
  Sonchus oleraceus L. Asteraceae T scap Eurasiat. Fields and abandoned fields—VC Cardedda bianca, Cardedda fimminina b-r, le Co VVC
  Sonchus tenerrimus L. Asteraceae T scap Stenomedit. Cliffs, fields, uncultivated land, urbn habitat—VC Cardedda di muru, Cardèdda scucìvola b-r, le Co VVC
  Stellaria media subsp. cupaniana (Jord. & Fourr.) Nyman Caryophyllaceae T scap Medit. Antropogen vegetation—VC Centocchiu le, t-s Co R
  Stellaria media (L.) Vill. subsp. media Caryophyllaceae T rept Cosmopol. Ruderal and a weed, human sites, gardens—NC Centocchiu t-s Co C
* Sulla coronaria (L.) Medik. Fabaceae H scap W-Stenomedit. Clayey ground—C Sudda, Suddra t-s Ra/Co C
  Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund Asteraceae H ros Circumbor. Hill and mountain meadows—NC Tarassacu, Denti di liuni b-r Co C
* Taraxacum caramanicae Lojac. Asteraceae H ros Endem. Sic. Open fields, disturbed habitat—NC Tarassacu, Denti di liuni b-r Co C
* Taraxacum garbarianum Peruzzi, Aquaro, Caparelli & Raimondo [100] Asteraceae H scap Endem. Sic. Mountain open pastures—R Tarassacu, Denti di liuni b-r Co R
* Taraxacum gasparrinii Lojac. Asteraceae H ros W-Eurimedit. Woods—C Taràssacu b-r Co R
* Taraxacum minimum (Guss.) N. Terracc. Asteraceae H ros Medit. Mountain open pastures—NC Cuddu cudduzzu, Cicòria sarvaggia b-r Co R
  Taraxacum obovatum (Willd.) DC. Asteraceae H ros W-Medit.-Mont. Meadows, road edges, disturbed habitat—C Erba di pirnici b-r Co R
* Taraxacum siculum Soest Asteraceae H ros Endem. Wet localities with stagnant water—VR Denti di liuni sicilianu b-r Co VR
* Teucrium fruticans L. Lamiaceae NP W-Stenomedit. Limestone cliffs near the sea—VC Alivedda, Caca aucèddi b-r Co R
  Thlaspi perfoliatum L. Brassicaceae T scap Paleotemp. Mountain grasslands—NC Talaspiu t-s Co R
* Tolpis umbellata Bertol. Asteraceae T scap Stenomedit. Uncultivated land, dry meadows—C Scalurèdda b-r Co R
* Tolpis virgata (Desf.) Bertol. subsp. grandiflora (Ten.) Asteraceae T scap Endem. Uncultivated land, dry meadows—NC Scalurèdda, Erba janca b-r Co R
* Tolpis virgata (Desf.) Bertol. subsp. virgata Asteraceae T scap Stenomedit. Uncultivated land and dry meadows—NC Scalurèdda, Lattuchedda b-r Co R
  Tordylium apulum L. Apiaceae T scap Stenomedit. Dry meadows, cultivated and uncultivated land—VC Spiccialiccia, Tammuridduzzi picciriddi t-s Ra VR
  Tragopogon crocifolius subsp. nebrodensis (Guss.) Raimondo Asteraceae T scap Endem. Sic. Uncultivated land, dry meadows, roadsides—R Barbabècchi, Latti d’aceddu le, t-s Co R
  Tragopogon porrifolius L. subsp. porrifolius Asteraceae H bienn Eurimedit. Mountain pastures—VR Latti d’aceddi, Barbabecchi le, t-s Co R
  Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis (Jord.) Nyman Asteraceae H bienn Medit. Uncultivated land, dry meadows, roadsides—NC Erba di gnagnaru pilusa, Varva di beccu le Ra/Co R
* Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. cupanii (DC.) I. Richardson Asteraceae H bienn Endem. Dry meadows, uncultivated land, roadsides and field edges—NC Varba di vecchiu le, t-s Co R
* Umbilicus horizontalis (Guss.) DC. Crassulaceae H rhiz Stenomedit. Wet and shady cliffs, old walls—VC Paracqua, Aricchia di vecchia, le Ra R
* Umbilicus rupestris (Salisb.) Dandy Crassulaceae G rhiz Stenomedit.-Atl Wet and shady cliffs, old walls—VC Pampina di uricchia, Uriccieddi le Ra R
  Urospermum dalechampii (L.) F. W. Schmidt Asteraceae H scap Eurimedit. Dry meadows, uncultivated land, roadsides—VC Cicoria sarvaggia, Cuosti i porci b-r, le Co VC
  Urospermum picroides (L.) F. W. Schmidt Asteraceae T scap Eurimedit. Uncultivated land, roadsides, olive-grove, vineyards—VC Cardiddazza spinusa b-r, le Co VC
  Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae H scap Subcosmop. Nitrophilous habitat, also in wood clearings and riverbeds—C Ardìcula fimminedda, Lardìca sarvaggia le Co C
  Urtica membranacea Poir. Urticaceae T scap S-Stenomedit. Ruins and nitrophilous habitat—VC Addrìcula, Ziculièdda le Co C
  Urtica pilulifera L. Urticaceae T scap S-Stenomedit. Ruins and nitrophilous habitat—VC Ardicula masculina le Co R
  Urtica urens L. Urticaceae T scap Subcosmop. In disturbed habitat, nitrophilous and often urophilous species—C Ardiculèdda fimminedda, Ddìcula le Co C
  Valerianella eriocarpa Desv. Valerianaceae T scap Stenomedit. A weed to sown lands, uncultivated land, pastures—VC Gaddinedda, Per’i ciocca le, t-s Ra/Co R
  Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterr. Valerianaceae T scap Eurimedit. Acid meadows—NC Gaddinedda, Spezzaquartàri le, t-s Ra/Co R
  Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. var. anagallis-aquatica [100] Scrophulariaceae H scap Cosmopol. Ditches, banks—VC Crisciunèddu, Erva di tràcina le Ra R
* Xanthium strumarium L. subsp. strumarium Asteraceae T scap America Ruins, debris, uncultivated dry ground—VC Aggruppa cudi, Bardana minuri b-r Co R
* Xanthium orientale subsp. italicum (Moretti) Greuter Asteraceae T scap N-Eurimedit. Uncultivated land, ruins near the sea—VC Aggruppa cudi, Bardana minuri b-r Co R
  1. Asterisk indicates taxa used only in Sicily as vegetable
  2. Ch frut fruticose chamaephytes, Ch suffr suffruticose chamaephytes, G bulb bulbous geophytes, G rad root-budding geophyte, G rhiz rhizome-geophytes, H bienn biennial hemicryptophytes, H caesp caespitose hemicryptophytes, H rhiz rhizomatous hemicryptophytes, H ros rosette hemicryptophytes, H scand hemicryptophytes scandentia, H scap scapose hemicryptophytes, He helophytes, NP nanophanerophytes, P caesp caespitose phanerophytes, P lian lianous phanerophytes, P scap scapose phanerophytes, P succ succulent phanerophytes, T rept reptant therophytes, T ros rosette therophytes, T scap scapose therophytes, Asiat. Asiatic, Atl. Atlantic, C- Central, Caucas. Caucasic, Circumbor. Circumboreal, Cosmopol. Cosmopolite, E East, Endem. Endemic, Eurimedit. Euri-mediterranean, Europ. European, Eurosib. Eurosiberian, Macaron. Macaronesian, Medit. Mediterranean, Mont. Montane, N North, Orient. Oriental, Orof. Orofitic, Paleotemp. Paleotemperate, S South, Saharo-Sind. Saharo-Sindic, Sic. Sicilian, Stenomedit. Stenomediterranean, Subtrop. Subtropical, Trop. Tropical, Turan. Turanian, W West
  3. ab-r—basal rosettes, bu.—bulbs, fl/infl—flowers/inflorescences, fl-b—flower buds, fr—portion of the fruits, le—leaves, ro—roots/tubers, st-j—stem juice and flower juice (nectar), t-s—tender shoots, including aerial parts, tender parts, tender stems, young shoots)
  4. bRa—raw, Co—cooked, Ra/Co—raw and cooked
  5. cVVC—widely common, cited by more than 75% (n > 735) of the informants; VC—Very common, 50–75% (n = 490–735) of the informants; C—common, 20–50% (n = 196–490) of the informants; R—rare, 5–20% (n = 49–196) of the informants; VR—very rare, less than 5% (n < 49) of the informants