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Table 2 Ethnomedicinal uses of herbal drinks in Azad Kashmir

From: Traditional knowledge on herbal drinks among indigenous communities in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

Scientific name Voucher no in Pakistan NH Local name Life form Plant part used Administration Disease treated†† Preparation mode Active constituents [literature reference] UV RFC
Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile Fabaceae ISL −49,177 Keekar Tree Bark Decoction Toothache Bark is ground to powder and put into boiling water. Decoction prepared is used for gargling in case of toothache. Alkaloids, saponins, anthraquinones [102] 0.03 0.09
Achillea millefolium L.
ISL-40550 Rattiboti Herb Leaves, flower Decoction,
infusion, tea
Brain disorders, fever, piles, headache, stomach disorders Boiling water is poured over dried leaves, and this hot infusion is taken to induce sweating that relieves fever. Tea is made by dissolving plant material in boiled water and sugar can also be added. Tea is consumed in case of stomach disorders. Tannins, flavonoids, saponins [103] 0.16 0.27
Adiantum venustum D. Don Pteridaceae ISL-100609 Kakwa Herb Leaves,roots Infusion Fever Infusion of leaves is prepared by pouring hot water over leaves of plant. Sugar can also be added. This infusion is taken twice a day to relieve fever. Flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids [104] 0.08 0.14
Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schult.
ISL-50064 Boikalan Herb Leaves Infusion Stomach disorders Leaves are infused in hot water which is then consumed to get ease from stomach disorders. Terpenoids, alkaloids [105] 0.01 0.12
Ajuga integrifolia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Lamiaceae ISL-109327 Kauri booti Herb Leaves, stem Decoction Jaundice 1–2 g of dried leaves is boiled in water. The decoction prepared is taken in early morning before breakfast to treat jaundice. Glycosides, terpenoids [106] 0.01 0.09
Amaranthus viridis L. Amaranthaceae ISL-115671 Ganhar Herb Leaves Decoction Anemia Leaves of plant are boiled in water for 1 h to make decoction at slow heat. Half cup of decoction is then taken once a day in case of anemia. Tannins, flavonoids, glycosides [107] 0.03 0.13
Arnebia benthamii (Wall. ex G.Don) I.M.Johnst.
ISL-94123 Ghaozban Herb Root Tea Pneumonia, flu Tea is prepared from roots of plant and taken three times a day in case of pneumonia. Phenolics, steroids [108] 0.05 0.09
Bauhinia variegate L. Fabaceae ISL- 54078 Kachnar Tree Leaves, flowers Infusion Inflammation Leaves and crushed flowers are soaked in water for 2 days then filtered. Hot water is poured over this filtrate which is used against inflammation. Alkaloids, saponins, phenolics, tannins, saponins [109] 0.03 0.15
Berberis lycium Royle.
ISL-108676 Sumbal Shrub Fruit, root Infusion, juice, decoction Cough, jaundice, Sore throat Grinded root bark mixed with water, and sugar is taken before sleeping in sore throat and pain Juice of fruit is used in gum troubles. Phenolic, flavonoids [110] 0.05 0.11
Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. Saxifragaceae ISL 100171 Batwaya Herb Rhizome Infusion Earache, muscular pain Rhizome is grinded and 1–2 teaspoon of powder is infused in boiling water which is taken before breakfast for muscular pains. Alkaloids, flavovoids, phenolics, glyscosides saponins [111] 0.1 0.14
Cannabis sativa L.
ISL-101521 Bhang Herb Leaves Beverage Mental relief Leaves and flowering tops are mixed with milk with addition of sugars and almonds to make drink sardai which helps in mental relaxation. Terpenes, flavonoids [112] 0.02 0.08
Carissa spinarum L.
ISL-22557 Granda Shrub Leaves Infusion Jaundice Infusion of leaves is taken orally in early morning to treat jaundice. Flavonoids [113] 0.04 0.05
Chrysojasminum humile (L.) Banfi
ISL-116143 Chambeli Shrub Root Decoction Ringworm Roots are boiled in water. Decoction obtained is cooled for 10–15 min and then consumed orally in case of ringworm. Glucoside, phenolics [114] 0.07 0.2
Cichorium intybusl.
ISL-116352 Handh Herb Flowers, leaves, root Decoction Bronchial disorders 2–3 g of flowers and leave’s material is boiled in water and given orally at least once in a day to get ease in respiratory disorders. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins [115] 0.02 0.08
Corydalis incisa (Thunb.) Pers. Papaveraceae ISL-116140 Papra Herb Whole plant Decoction, juice Fever, blood purifier Ground plant material is taken, and water is added in it. The juice is then extracted which is used to relieve fever. Tannins, alkaloids [116] 0.06 0.07
Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Poaceae ISL 48939 Serai Shrub Leaves Tea Stomach disorders, headache Leaves are infused in hot water for 20 min to make tea which is given to treat stomach pain. Alkaloids, saponins, tannins [117] 0.13 0.09
Cynoglossum lanceolatum Forssk.
ISL-196130 Lainda Herb Root Decoction Joint pain Decoction of root is taken for rheumatic disorders. Alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenes [118] 0.04 0.16
Diospyros lotus L.
ISL-68699 Kala Amlook Tree Fruit Juice Stomach disorders Juice of fruit is extracted and consumed in case of stomach problems. Tannins, alkaloids [119] 0.05 0.35
Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf
ISL-67687 Asmanipoda Herb Root Decoction Joint pain Roots decoction is taken twice a day to treat rheumatism. Alkaloids, tannins, glycosides [120] 0.03 0.23
Euphorbia illirica Lam. Euphorbiaceae ISL-68688 Kankoli Shrub Leaves Infusion Urinary disorders Leaves are infused in hot water and taken orally to help treat urinary problems. Alkaloids, flavonoids [121] 0.01 0.07
Euphorbia prostrata Aiton
ISL-65674 Hazardaani Herb Stem Decoction Dysentery, diarrhea Stem is chopped into pieces and boiled in water then cooled for 1 h. Decoction is given orally after intervals to treat dehydration problems. Tannins, glycosides [122] 0.08 0.13
Fagonia cretica L.
ISL 47236 Temaan Shrub Leaves Infusion Cough Infusion of leaves is taken to get relief from cough with regular intervals of hours. Terpenoids, saponins [123] 0.02 0.07
Fagopyrum esculentum Moench
ISL-116233 Hulla Herb Root Juice Fever Juice of root is taken in case of fever. Glucosides, tannins [124] 0.04 0.13
Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
ISL 103476 Sonf Herb Seeds Decoction, infusion Stomach disorders, diarrhea 10 g seeds boiled in 100 ml water and decoction prepared which is used to cure stomachache and diarrhea. Glucoside, saponins, alkaloids [125] 0.09 0.17
Fragariavesca L.
ISL-106789 Budhamewa Herb Leaves, fruit Juice Menorrhagia Juice of leaves is extracted and taken at least once in a day in case of menstrual pain. Phenolics, Flavonoids [126] 0.05 0.17
Gentiana kurroo Royle. Gentianaceae ISL-67293 Pashanbhed Herb Leaves, flower Decoction Blood tonic Decoction of leaves and flowers are used as a blood purifier. Phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins [127] 0.04 0.2
Geranium wallichianum D.Don ex Sweet
ISL-101166 Ratanjote Herb Flower Tea Rheumatism Flowers are boiled with water and mixture is stained. This tea is taken in the morning for treating joint pain. Steroids, coumarins [128] 0.03 0.09
Gerbera gossypina Royle Asteraceae ISL- 96899 Ladrun Herb Root Juice Blood pressure, gastric diseases Root juice consumed to lower the blood pressure. Alkaloids, flavonoids [129] 0.08 0.11
Geum adnatum Wall.
ISL-97938 Shoonkar Herb Root Decoction Dysentery, diarrhea Decoction of root is consumed orally in case of chronic dysentery or diarrheal bleeding. Sterols, terpenoids [130] 0.04 0.09
Isodon rugosus (Wall. ex Benth.) Codd
ISL-16965 Peemar Shrub Leaves Juice Diarrhea Leaves juice is extracted with water and is given to treat diarrhea two times a day. Alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids, anthraquinones [131] 0.04 0.05
Justicia adhatoda L. Acanthaceae ISL 13237 Baikar Shrub Leaves Decoction Bronchial diseases Decoction of leaves is taken to give ease in cough and bronchial disorders. Alkaloids, tannins [132] 0.03 0.07
Laphangium affine (D. Don) Tzvelev
ISL-40456 Janglidodal Herb Leaves Decoction Influenza 5 g of leaves are boiled in water. Decoction prepared is cooled and put into bottle. This is used from time to time in case of flu and cold. Flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenes [133] 0.03 0.17
Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng.
ISL 16961 Chara Herb Leaves Decoction Malaria Decoction is prepared and consumed in case of malaria. Sterols, flavonoids [134] 0.04 0.09
Malva neglecta Wall. Malvaceae ISL 66146 Sonchal Herb Leaves Decoction Constipation Leaves boiled in water are frequently consumed in case of constipation. Alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin [135] 0.02 0.12
Mentha arvensis L.
ISL 116029 Podina Herb Leaves Infusion Diarrhea, vomiting Dried leaves are infused in boiling water and taken in case of diarrhea and vomiting. Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, cardiac glycosides [136] 0.06 0.07
Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds.
ISL 116056 Babri Herb Leaves, Flower Tea Abdominal diseases, vomiting, nausea Leaves are dried and then boiled with water to make tea which is used in vomiting. Terpenoids, flavonoids [137] 0.07 0.21
Morus alba L.
ISL-10625 Chitta toot Tree Bark Decoction Asthma Bark is chopped into pieces, boiled in water and decoction is given to get relief in severe cough. Phenolics, flavonoids [138] 0.03 0.09
Morus nigra L.
ISL-10697 Kala toot Tree Fruit Decoction Throat pain Fruit decoction is prepared and gargled in sore throat. Phenolics, flavonoids [138] 0.05 0.17
Muehlenbeckia hastulata (Sm.) I.M. Johnst.
ISL-97865 KhattaHulla Herb Leaves Juice Bleeding 10–15 g leaves are put in water for 2 h. Juice obtained is taken in case of internal bleeding. Anthraquinones [139] 0.03 0.11
Nerium oleander L.
ISL-47361 Gandeera Herb Leaves Decoction Stomach ailments, constipation Half kg branches boiled in 2 L of water for 2 h in order to make decoction. Two teaspoon of this decoction used daily for constipation and stomach pain. Tannins, saponins, terpenoids [140] 0.1 0.15
Ocimum basilicum L.
ISL 16251 Neazbu Herb Whole plant Juice Stomach diseases Juice of plant is consumed in case of stomach disorders. Phenolics [141] 0.04 0.07
Oenothera rosea L Her. ex Aiton
ISL 10057 Jungligulab. Herb Leaves, stem Infusion Constipation Plant material is infused in boiling water and taken in case of constipation. Carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, and steroids [142] 0.04 0.15
Olea europaea (Wall. and G.Don) Cif. Oleaceae ISL-116120 Kaahu Tree Leaves Decoction Toothache, infections Decoction of leaves is prepared and used in gargling in toothache. Flavonoids, tannins [143] 0.06 0.11
Onopordum acanthium L.
ISL-98635 Kandyara Herb Leaves, stem Decoction,juice Ulcers Stem decoction is preferably consumed to treat stomach ulcers. Terpenoids [144] 0.02 0.12
Onosma bracteata Wall. Boraginaceae ISL-95864 Gaozaban Herb Leaves Decoction Stomach disorders Leaves infusion is consumed after regular intervals until get relief from stomachache. Tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids [145] 0.04 0.09
Oxalis corniculata L.
ISL-38367 Khattibooti Herb Whole plant Infusion Stomach disorders Whole plant powder is mixed in hot water with addition of sugar, stained, and given for stomach ailments. Carbohydrates, glycosides, phenols [146] 0.02 0.12
Paeonia emodi Royle
ISL-91236 Mamaikh Herb Root Decoction Blood purification Roots are boiled in water and taken as a remedy to purify blood. Flavonoids, sterols, saponins [147] 0.02 0.35
Periploca aphylla Decne
ISL-22591 Batta Shrub Bark Decoction Stomach disorders Bark decoction is taken to give relief in stomach disorders. Alkaloids, flovonoids, terpenoids [148] 0.02 0.13
Persicaria alpine (All.) H.Gross
ISL-106743 Masloon Herb Seeds Infusion Diarrhea, fever Seeds are infused in water. The mixture is stained and kept in a bottle. This mixture is consumed daily in case of fever. Terpenoids, flavonoids [148] 0.1 0.15
Pimpinella diversifoliaDC.
ISL 103476 Tarpakhi Herb Leaves Decoction Cough, cold Leaves decoction is consumed in cough and cold. Phenols, glucosides [149] 0.04 0.09
Punica granatum L.
ISL 87324 Daroona Shrub Fruit Juice Stomach ailments Seeds are soaked in water for a day then filtered the mixture. Add sugar and taken twice to treat stomach aches. Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins [150] 0.02 0.18
Quercus oblongata D.Don
ISL-10672 Reen Tree Bark Decoction Rectal disorders Decoction is made by using ground bark powder and given for intestinal disorders. Tannins, terpenoids, steroids, alkaloids [151] 0.05 0.17
Rheum australe D.Don
ISL-98765 Chutial Herb Root Decoction Acidity Roots are boiled in water and given orally to treat acidity. Anthraquinones [152] 0.02 0.09
Rubus fruticosus L. Rosaceae ISL-106878 Aakhray Herb Leaves, roots Infusion,
Dysentery, diarrhea, bleedings, whooping cough Leaves are boiled in water and consumed in case of cough. Decoction of flowers is also consumed in dysentery. Phenolics, tannins [153] 0.1 0.1
Smilax aspera L.
ISL-11624 Shogr Herb Whole plant Decoction Infection Decoction of whole plant is prepared and cooled. It is used to treat infection. Phenolics, flavonoids [154] 0.02 0.07
Solanum nigrum L.
ISL 112661 Kachmach Herb Leaves, flower,
Juice Rheumatism, cough, fever, bronchitis, diarrhea The juice of the leaves can be used alone or with addition of honey to cure diarrhea and cough. Alkaloids, saponins, tannins [155] 0.1 0.16
Solanum surrattense Burm. f.
ISL-67895 Mokri Herb Leaves, fruit Infusion Body pain Fruit peels are infused in water and consumed for a week to get relief from body pain. Terpenes, phenolics, quinones [156] 0.01 0.21
Solanum virginianum L.
ISL-10237 Ghanar Herb Leaves Infusion Skin diseases Infusion of leaves is taken once in a day for skin diseases. Alkaloids, flavonoids [156] 0.05 0.09
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill Asteraceae ISL-10987 Dodhal Herb Leaves Infusion Abdominal diseases Leaves infusion is taken in case of abdominal pain. Steroids, glycosides, flavonoids [157] 0.02 0.13
Swertia petiolata D. Don
ISL-33193 Chirayetta Herb Leaves, stem, root Decoction Ulcers, asthma, urinary disorders Decoction of plant is given twice a day in case of urinary disorders. Terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids [158] 0.16 0.12
Tagetes minuta L.
ISL-16983 Satbarga, Gainda Herb Leaves, flower Juice Earache and ophthalmic Leaves and flowers juice is extracted with water and taken orally in case of earache. Saponin, tannin, alkaloid [159] 0.13 0.13
Tamarindusindica L.
ISL-10045 Imli Tree Fruit Infusion Fibril diseases Peels of fruit are infused in water and taken to treat fibril disorders. Alkaloids, anthraquinone, glycoside [160] 0.04 0.17
Taraxacum officinale F.H.Wigg.
ISL-116231 Peelibooti Herb Leaves Decoction Constipation, jaundice Leaves are boiled in water and consumed to treat constipation. Glucosides, terpenoids, tannins [161] 0.04 0.13
Trichodesma indicum (L.) Sm.
ISL-116018 ChotaKulfa Herb Leaves Juice Eye infections, dysentery Juice of leaves is taken with addition of sugar and salt as per taste to treat dysentery. Steroids, terpenoids, lipids [162] 0.04 0.08
Trifolium repens L.
ISL 123169 Shatal Herb Flowers, leaves, root Infusion Fevers and leucorrhoea In case of leucchorea the infusion of flowers and leaves is taken. Flavonoids, steroids [163] 0.08 0.05
Valeriana jatamansi Jones ex Roxb.
ISL 18643 Murma Herb Root Decoction Headache Decoction of 3-4 g of roots is consumed in case of headache. Flavones, Glycosides [164] 0.03 0.14
Verbascum thapsus L. Scropulariaceae ISL 11315 Janglitambaku Herb Leaves Infusion Skin problems Boiled water is poured over the leaves and kept for 2 h then taken orally for skin diseases and skin allergy. Glycosides, flavonoids, terpenoids [165] 0.02 0.1
Verbena officinalis L.
ISL 114005 Neelgu Herb Whole plant Decoction Joint pain Decoction is prepared and taken once a day for rheumatic disorders. Flavonoids, Glucosides, Phenolics [166] 0.06 0.14
Viola canescensWall.
ISL 40466 Banafsha Herb Leaves Decoction Respiratory disorders Leaves are boiled in water and taken orally for respiratory disorders. Alkaloids, sterols, flavonoids [167] 0.04 0.15
Vitis vinifera L.
ISL 59527 Daakh Climber Fruit Juice Cough, asthma Fresh fruit juice is used directly in case of cough. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins [168] 0.04 0.14
Zanthoxylum armatum DC.
ISL 11640 Timber Shrub Seeds, bark Infusion Indigestion, hemorrhoids, ulcers Pour a cup of boiling water onto 1–2 teaspoonful of the bark+ fruit and let infuse for 10–15 min and used for stomach pain. Anthraquinone, glycoside flavonoids [169] 0.04 0.15
Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Wight and Arn.
ISL 11625 Beri, Jand Shrub Root Infusion Diabetes Boil 5–8 g of grinded root with 1 glass of water till volume of water reduced to half. It is used to cure diabetes. Alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics [170] 0.1 0.1
  1. In column scientific name, species name starting with † indicates newly reported species. NH National Herbarium, UV use value, RFC relative frequency of citation.
  2. ††Uses in bold indicate preferred uses for a given plant