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Table 1 Ethnomedicinal plants used in the Algoz region (South Kordofan)/western Sudan

From: Ethnobotanical investigation on medicinal plants in Algoz area (South Kordofan), Sudan

Plant name/family/voucher no. Local name Growth habit Part used Ailment treated Mode of administration UV
Abrus precatorius L., Leguminosae, G/106/83 Habat alaroose Climber Seed Spleen problems Infusion 0.06
Acacia nilotica subsp. adstringens (Schum. & Thonn.) Roberty, Leguminosae, G/56/83 Garad Tree Fruit Stomachache Powder mixed with ajeen and drunk 0.93
     Cold and flu Smoke fumigant  
     Wounds Powder mixed with bee wax  
Acacia oerfota (Forssk.) Schweinf., Leguminosae, O/49/78 Laoat Shrub Stem Back pain Roasted twigs put on the back 1.00
    Leaf Swellings Poultice applied to swellings  
    Root Snake bite Fresh crushed roots rubbed on the place of bite  
     Toothache Paste with atroon  
Acacia senegal (L.) Willd., Leguminosae, G/110/83 Kitir abied Tree Gum Haematuria Infusion 0.60
     Toothache Filling tooth cavity with gum powder  
Acacia seyal Delile, Leguminosae, M/21/76 Talih Tree Heart wood Rheumatic pain Smoke fumigant 0.53
Acanthorrhinum ramosissimum (Coss. & Durieu) Rothm., Plantaginaceae, W/14/95 Shagart almassas Herb Aerial part Evil eye Smoke fumigant 0.40
Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae, W/20/95 Tabaldi/fruit gongolaise Tree Fruit Giardiasis Decoction of the mesocarp 0.70
     Stomachache Decoction of the mesocarp  
Albizia anthelmintica Brongn., Leguminosae, K/11/96 Um takarny/gerfadud Tree Bark Worm expulsion Infusion 0.33
    Leaf Wounds Powder sprinkled in wound  
     Stomachache Infusion  
     Jaundice Infusion  
Allium sativum L, Amaryllidaceae, Cultivated Toom Herb Bulb Haemorrhoids Mixed with Zingiber officinale rhizome and applied to the anus 0.07
Anastatica hierochuntica L., Brassicaceae, Purchsed Kaf maryam Herb Aerial part Postpartum Maceration or infusion 0.37
Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill. & Perr., Combretaceae, W/1/97 Sahab Tree Bark Toothache Filling tooth cavity with powder 0.37
     Jaundice Maceration or infusion  
     Malaria Maceration or infusion  
Anticharis senegalensis (Walp.) Bhandari, Scrophulariaceae, W/15/94 Shagarat alwaram Herb Aerial part Swellings Poultice applied to swellings 0.03
Arachis hypogaea L., Leguminosae, Cultivated Foul sodany Herb Seed Bilharzia Maceration 0.033
Aristolochia bracteolata Lam., Aristolochiaceae, G/7/84 Um galagil Herb Aerial part Malaria Infusion 0.47
     Ear infection Smoke fumigant  
     Headache Infusion  
Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, W/95/94 Neem Tree Leaf and wood Rheumatic pain Maceration and taken as bath 0.43
     Malaria Maceration or infusion  
Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile, Zygophyllaceae, G/30/83 Laloub Tree Fruit pulp Diabetes Infusion 1.03
     Hypertension Infusion  
     Bilharzia Infusion  
     Jaundice Infusion  
Bauhinia reticulata DC., Leguminosae, M/50/85 Khroob Tree Fruit Hypertension Maceration 0.57
    Bark Jaundice Infusion  
     Wounds Powder sprinkle in wound  
Bergia suffruticosa (Delile) Fenzl, Elatinaceae, W/10/06 Shagarat almoya Herb Aerial part Eczema Powder rubbed locally 0.09
Blepharis linariifolia Pers., Acanthaceae, MA/38/77 Bagail Herb Aerial part Kidney disorders Maceration 0.87
     Diabetes Maceration or infusion  
     Wounds Powder sprinkled in wound  
     Hypertension Maceration or infusion  
     Toothache Filling tooth cavity with powder  
     Tonic Maceration  
Boswellia papyrifera (Caill. ex Delile) Hochst., Burseraceae, K/12/96 Tarag tarag Tree Bark Diabetes Maceration 0.17
     Diarrhoea Infusion  
     Anaemia Infusion  
Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand., Apocynaceae, W/20/94 Ushar Shrub Stem Scorpion sting Latex squeezed and rubbed locally 0.07
Carissa spinarum L., Apocynaceae, W/52/05 Alaly Shrub Root Evil eye Smoke fumigant 0.93
Cassia arereh Delile, Leguminosae, G/36/83 Um Kasho/gafa Tree Root Stomachache Maceration 0.37
     Malaria Maceration  
     Toothache Filling tooth cavity with powder  
     Haematuria Infusion  
     Evil eye Smoke fumigant  
Catunaregam nilotica (Stapf) Tirven, Rubiaceae, W/111/95 Shagarat Almarfain Shrub Bark Malaria Maceration 0.37
     Jaundice Maceration  
     Prostate Maceration  
Catunaregam taylorii (S.Moore) Bridson, Rubiaceae, K/3/96 Karno Shrub Seeds Kidney disorders Infusion 0.30
Chamaecrista nigricans (Vahl) Greene, Leguminosae, W/101/94 Jub argaly Herb Aerial part Haematuria Decoction 0.10
Cissus quadrangularis L., Vitaceae, G/47/83 Sala sala Climber Aerial part Syphilis Ash 0.67
     Dandruff Juice as a head wash  
     Back pain Powder mixed with sesame oil and rubbed locally  
     Wounds Poultice applied to wound  
Cleome gynandra L., Cleomaceae, W/17/95 Tamalaika Herb Leaf Improve eyesight Boiled in sour milk 0.23
     Spleen problems Maceration or infusion  
     Worm expulsion Decoction  
     Headache Decoction  
     Rheumatic pain Decoction  
Cleome viscosa L., Cleomaceae, W/10/95 Koda Herb Root Evil eye Band around arm 0.07
Clitoria ternatea L., Leguminosae, M/18/95 Shagarat alyaragan Herb Aerial part Jaundice Infusion 0.20
     Laxative Infusion  
     Giardiasis Infusion  
Combretum aculeatum Vent., Combretaceae, K/9/96 Shihait Shrub Young branches Swellings Poultice applied to swellings 0.07
Combretum hartmannianum Schweinf., Combretaceae, G/114/83 Habeel Shrub Bark Rheumatic pain Smoke fumigant 0.73
Commiphora gileadensis (L.) C.Chr., Burseraceae, W/76/95 Gafal Shrub Bark Measles Decoction 0.07
Cordia africana Lam., Boraginaceae, Y/4/010 Gumbail/andrab Tree Root Jaundice Maceration 0.10
Coriandrum sativum L, Apiaceae, Cultivated Kasbra Herb Seed Foot pain Poultice 0.02
Ctenolepis cerasiformis (Stocks) C.B. Clarke, Cucurbitaceae, O/37/79 Kazaky Herb Root Tonic Maceration 0.07
Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng., Poaceae, G/77/83 Mahraib Herb Aerial part Diabetes Maceration or infusion 0.50
     Stomachache Maceration or infusion  
Cyperus rotundus L., Cyperaceae, AB/16/94 Siada Herb Corm Kidney stones Infusion 1.10
     Haematuria Infusion  
     Worm expulsion Infusion  
     Headache Infusion  
     Sexual debility Maceration or infusion  
Detarium microcarpum Guill. & Perr., Leguminosae, G/127/83 Irg abolaila Tree Root Stomachache Maceration 0.07
Dicoma tomentosa Cass., Asteraceae, M/28/95 Um senainat Herb Root Jaundice Maceration or infusion 0.07
Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn., Leguminosae, K/5/96 Kadad Tree Root and fruit Jaundice Maceration or infusion 0.30
Drimia maritima (L.) Stearn, Asparagaceae, Y/17/015 Baroug/galb albarida Herb Bulb Sexual debility Maceration 0.17
     Snake bite Juice rubbed on place of bite  
Echinops longifolius A. Rich., Compositae, G/100/83 Irg agrab Herb Root Scorpion sting Fresh crushed roots rubbed locally 0.07
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., Myrtaceae, Cultivated Kafoor Tree Leaf Toothache Filling tooth cavity with powder 0.07
Fagonia cretica L., Zygophyllaceae, W/121/95 Um shuwaika Herb Aerial part Skin allergy Poultice 0.03
Geigeria alata Benth. & Hook.f. ex Oliv. & Hiern, Compositae, O/2/81 Gadad Herb Aerial part Diabetes Infusion 1.67
     Kidney disorders Infusion  
     Hypertension Infusion  
     Stomachache Infusion  
Grewia flavescens Juss., Malvaceae, G/42/83 Hilo/khakasan Shrub Fruit Anaemia Maceration and mixed with nisha 0.63
Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori, Malvaceae, G/105/83 Gudaim Shrub Bark Wounds Poultice applied to wounds 0.63
    Fruit Anaemia Maceration and mixed with nisha  
Grewia villosa Willd., Malvaceae, G/11/83 Gargadan Shrub Bark Wounds Poultice applied to wounds 0.67
     Anaemia Maceration and mixed with nisha  
     Eye infection Infusion used as an eyewash  
Guiera senegalensis J.F.Gmel., Combretaceae, K/35/96 Gubaish Shrub Leaf/root Acid reflux Mixed with Ammi visnaga and sugar and taken as powder 1.87
    Leaf Malaria Infusion  
     Kidney disorders Infusion  
     Diabetes Infusion  
     Tonic Infusion  
Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Malvaceae, Cultivated Karkady Herb Calyx Hypertension Infusion 0.93
     Cold and flu Infusion  
     Haemorrhoids Powder applied to the anus  
Hydnora abyssinica A.Br., Hydnoraceae, G/65/83 Dumbo dumbo Parasite Root Stomachache Powder mixed in yoghourt or ajeen 1.83
     Diarrhoea Decoction  
     Dysentery Powder mixed in yoghourt  
Hyphaene thebaica (L.) Mart., Arecaceae, K/81/96 Dom Tree Fruit Diabetes Infusion 0.50
     Diarrhoea Infusion  
     Kidney disorders Infusion  
Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Y/20/014 Habat almolouk Shrub Seed Sexual debility Eat with date 0.07
Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss., Meliaceae, G/173/83 Mahougany Tree Bark Malaria Maceration 0.93
     Jaundice Infusion  
Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth., Bignoniaceae, G/8/84 Um shotoor Tree Fruit Breast swellings Poultice applied at night 1.07
     Rheumatic pain Roasted and powder mixed with sesame oil and rubbed  
     Leprosy Powder rubbed locally  
Lannea fruticosa (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Engl., Anacardiaceae, Y/3/010 Layoun Shrub Bark Swellings Poultice applied to swellings 0.03
Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br., Lamiaceae, M/9/76 Faky bla dawaya Herb Aerial part Evil eye Smoke fumigant 0.43
Leptadenia arborea (Forssk.) Schwein., Apocynaceae, W/8/95 Hadana/shaloub shailingo Climber Root Acid reflux Maceration 0.30
     Diarrhoea Maceration  
     Swellings Poultice applied to swellings  
     Jaundice Maceration  
Lepidium sativum L., Brassicaceae, Cultivated Habat rashad Herb Seed Kidney stones Powder taken and water drunk after 0.2
Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne., Apocynaceae, W/53/06 Mirikh Shrub Stem Rheumatic pain Smoke fumigant 0.07
Maerua pseudopetalosa (Gilg & Gilg-Ben.) DeWolf, Capparaceae, G/107/83 Kurdala Herb Root Diabetes Masticated then drink water 0.80
     Sexual debility Masticated then drink water  
     Hypertension Smoke fumigant  
     Kidney disorders Infusion  
Maerua oblongifolia (Forssk.) A.Rich., Capparaceae, G/21/82 Wad elbarieh/irig mahaba Shrub Root Evil eye/luck Smoke fumigant 0.23
Martynia annua L., Martyniaceae, Y/5/014 Irg agrab/maklab shytan Herb Root Scorpion sting Fresh crushed roots rubbed locally 0.63
Mentha spicata L., Lamiaceae, Cultivated Nanaa Herb Aerial part Flatulence Decoction 0.60
Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, Y/17/014 Moringa Shrub Seed Back pain Powder mixed with sesame oil and salt and rubbed 0.20
    Leaf Fatigue Infusion  
Nigella sativa L., Ranunculaceae, Cultivated Kamoon aswad Herb Seed Articulation pain Powder mixed with sesame oil 1.20
     Stomachache Maceration  
     Headache Infusion  
    Aerial part Jaundice Infusion  
Oldenlandia uniflora L., Rubiaceae, Y/12/015 Shagarat albahag Herb Root Leprosy Powder rubbed locally 0.13
Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., Cactaceae, W/34/95 Teen ahawky Shrub Latex Dandruff Boil in sesame oil and rub hair skin before wash 0.07
Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br., Poaceae, Cultivated Duchen Herb Seed Measles Powder mixed with milk of black goat and drunk and as body wash 0.10
     Sexual debility Powder prepared as pudding and eaten  
Plicosepalus acaciae (Zucc.) Wiens & Polhill, Loranthaceae, W/161/95 Enaba Parasite Bark Evil eye Powder mixed with gum and wax of black goat 0.07
    Seed Repels insect from ear Smoke fumigant  
Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC., Leguminosae, W/44/95 Adan alfar/shgr dabib Herb Root Snake bite Fresh crushed roots rubbed on place of bite 0.50
Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A.Bruce, Rubiaceae, K/14/96 Um dimy Shrub Root or fruit Malaria Maceration 2.067
     Jaundice Maceration  
     Diabetes Infusion  
    Fruit pulp Stomachache Maceration  
     Acid reflux Infusion  
Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra (Sond.) Kokwaro, Anacardiaceae, G/92/83 Hommaid Tree Bark Jaundice Decoction 0.93
     Diarrhoea Maceration or infusion  
     Stomachache Maceration or infusion  
Senna italica Mill., Leguminosae, W/14/95 Sena sena Herb Fruit Dysentery Maceration or infusion 0.60
     Laxative Maceration or infusion  
     Acne Powder rubbed locally  
Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby, Leguminosae, G/39/83 Kawal Herb Leaf and seed Jaundice Decoction 0.63
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link, Leguminosae, W/63/95 Bun balash/soreib Shrub Seed Diabetes Infusion 0.13
     Eczema Powder rubbed locally  
Setaria acromelaena (Hochst.) T.Durand & Schinz, Poaceae, Y/7/015 Um lisaig Herb Root Evil eye Smoke fumigant 0.07
Solanum dubium Dunal, Solanaceae, W/16/95 Um gibin Shrub Root Jaundice Decoction 0.07
Sonchus cornutus Hochst. ex Oliv. & Hiern, Compositae, W/12/03 Moleata Herb Leaf Malaria Infusion 0.200
     Diabetes Infusion  
Stylochiton grandis N.E.Br., Araceae, O/6/79 Marouro Herb Root Scorpion sting Fresh crushed roots rubbed on place of bite 0.93
Striga hermonthica (Delile) Benth., Orobanchaceae, Y/42/014 Boda Parasite Aerial part Menstrual cramps Maceration 0.93
     Diabetes Maceration  
Strychnos spinosa Lam., Loganiaceae, W/66/95 Umm bekhesa Tree Fruit Hypertension Eaten 0.07
Tamarindus indica L., Leguminosae, G/132/83 Aradaib Tree Fruit pulp Malaria Macerated with lemon, calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa and pods of Acacia nilotica subsp. adstringens 0.30
    Bark Evil eye Maceration  
    Seed Kidney disorders Infusion  
Terminalia brownii Fresen., Combretaceae, M/8/79 Sobag Tree Bark Jaundice Decoction until water gets yellow in colour 0.30
     Rheumatic pain Smoke fumigant  
     Wounds Poultice applied to wound  
Terminalia laxiflora Engl., Combretaceae, G/102/83 Daroat Tree Bark Malaria Maceration 0.07
Tephrosia uniflora Pers., Leguminosae, S/17/97 Tor farid Herb Leaf Urine retention Maceration 0.50
     Prostate Maceration  
Thymus vulgaris L., Lamiaceae, Purchsed Zaatr Herb   Rheumatic pain Mixed with olive oil and rubbed 0.07
Tinospora bakis (A. Rich.) Miers, Menispermaceae, Y/7/014 Bun balash/irg alhagar Climber Root Swellings Poultice applied to swelling 0.83
     Snake bite Maceration  
     Stomachache Maceration  
     Malaria Macerated with clove  
     Diabetes Maceration or infusion  
     Evil eye Smoke fumigant  
Tribulus terrestris L., Zygophyllaceae, W/83/95 Diraisa Herb Root Kidney disorders Maceration 0.70
     Diabetes Maceration  
Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Leguminosae, Cultivated Hilba Herb Seed Uterus inflammation Mixed with curcuma, black cumin and bee honey 0.63
     Swellings Poultice applied to swellings  
     Foot pain Cataplasm  
Vangueria madagascariensis J.F.Gmel., Rubiaceae, W/45/95 Kir kir Tree Fruit Diabetes Maceration 0.10
     Kidney disorders Maceration  
     Hypertension Maceration  
Ximenia americana L., Olacaceae, Y/17/014 Jabl fungur Tree Bark Rheumatic pain Mixed with salt, fruit of Acacia nilotica subsp. adstringens and sesame oil and rubbed 0.07
Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf., Rhamnaceae, W/122/95 Sidir Tree Leaf Evil eye Maceration and drunk or as body wash 0.73
    Fruit Stomachache Sousing the mesocarp  
    Bark Dysentery Decoction with atroon