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Table 4 Comparative review of traditional usages of reported species with previous studies from Sudan

From: Ethnobotanical investigation on medicinal plants in Algoz area (South Kordofan), Sudan

Plant name Disease treated Suleiman [18] EL-Kamali [2] Koda and Yagi [20] Musa et al. [19] El Ghazali et al. [27,28,29,30]
Abrus precatorius Spleen problems      Snake bite1
       Headache4
Acacia nilotica subsp. adstringens Stomachache Cold and flu and pharyngitis Hypertension Cough Phlegmatic cough Cold and flu3, 4
  Cold and flu Tonsillitis    Furuncles Tonsillitis2
  Wounds Fever    Malaria  
   Measles     
   Hypertension     
   Catarrh     
   Antiseptic     
Acacia oerfota Back pain Antirheumatic   Tooth cavity Toothache Swellings4
  Swellings     Headache Scorpion sting4
  Snake bite     Snake bite  
  Toothache      
Acacia senegal Haematuria Rheumatoid arthritis   Giardiasis Kidney problems  
  Toothache Heartburn     
Acacia seyal Rheumatic pain    Leprosy Diarrhoea Diarrhoea2
     Bleeding Dysentery Dysentery2
Acanthorrhinum ramosissimum Evil eye      
Adansonia digitata Giardiasis Dysentery Fever Pain after birth Malaria Stomachache4
  Stomachache Diarrhoea Diarrhoea   Diarrhoea  
   Stomachache    Dysentery  
   Fever     
   Kidney stones   Diarrhoea   
Albizia anthelmintica Anthelmintic Anthelmintic Anthelmintic Anthelmintic   Stomachache4
  Wounds      
  Stomachache      
  Jaundice      
Allium sativum Haemorrhoids      Haemorrhoids5
Anastatica hierochuntica Postpartum      
Anogeissus leiocarpus Toothache Diabetes    Cough Cough1
  Jaundice Dysentery    Giardiasis  
  Malaria Wound    Dysentery  
   Urine retention     
   Malaria     
Anticharis senegalensis Swellings      Swellings2
Arachis hypogaea Bilharzia    Scorpion bite   
Aristolochia bracteolata Malaria Malaria Scorpion sting   Malaria Malaria1
  Ear infection HIV-1     Antitumour3
  Headache Scorpion sting     Scorpion sting4
   Ear infection     
   Wounds     
   Toothache     
   Headaches     
Azadiracta indica Rheumatic pain   Antipyretic   Malaria, fever, Fever2
  Malaria   Backache   Jaundice Scorpion sting3
       Snake bite3
       Intestinal spasm3
       Anthelmintic4
       Constipation4
Balanites aegyptiaca Diabetes Stomachache Antispasmodic Malaria   Diabetes2
  Hypertension Anthelmintic Stomach pain Kidney disorders   Constipation2
  Bilharzia Dysentery Diabetes    Constipation3
  Jaundice Constipation     Bilharzia3
   Jaundice     Wound3
   Diabetes     
       Syphilis2
Bergia suffruticosa Eczema      Leucoderms2
Blepharis linariifolia Kidney disorders Swellings Stomach pain Urine retention   Stomach pain4
  Diabetes   Kidney stone    Bilharzia4
  Wounds      
  Hypertension      
  Toothache      
  Tonic      
Boswellia papyrifera Diabetes    Dysentery Bilharzia Jaundice4
  Diarrhoea    Respiratory infections Diarrhoea, dysentery  
  Anaemia      
Calotropis procera Scorpion sting Scorpion sting Haemorrhoids Scorpion sting   Wounds2
  Wounds Haemorrhoids Scorpion sting Rheumatic pain   Rheumatic pain2
   Rheumatic pain     Scorpion sting4
   Wounds     Jaundice4
Carissa spinarum (Syn. C. edulis) Evil eye   Kidney disorders   Treating rashes Skin lesions1
    Charm and madness    Stomachache4
       Headache4
       Cough4
       Anthelmintic4
Cassia arereh Stomachache     Stomachache  
  Malaria     Diarrhoea  
  Toothache     Evil eye  
  Haematuria      
  Evil eye      
Catunaregam nilotica (Syn. Randia nilotica, Xeromphis nilotica) Malaria Swellings Swellings Rabies Measles Jaundice4
  Jaundice Tonsillitis Tonsillitis   Toothache Anthelmintic4
  Prostate Dandruff Jaundice    Rabies4
    Dandruff    
Catunaregam taylorii Kidney disorders      
Chamaecrista nigricans (Syn. Senna nigricans) Haematuria      Stomachache4
Cissus quadrangularis Syphilis Syphilis Haemorrhoids Syphilis Acne Pruritus1
  Dandruff Asthma   Leprosy Evil eye Scorpion sting4
  Back pain Haemorrhoids   Snake bite   Stomachache4
  Wounds Snake bite     Joint pain4
   Tuberculosis     
Cleome gynandra (Syn. Gynandropsis gynandra) Improve eyesight      
  Spleen problems      
  Worm expulsion      
  Headache      
  Rheumatic pain      
Cleome viscosa L. Evil eye      
Clitoria ternatea Jaundice     Constipation Constipation1
  Laxative      
  Giardiasis      
Combretum aculeatum Swellings    Snake bite   Wound3
       Constipation4
       Tuberculosis4
Combretum hartmonnianum Rheumatic pain      Jaundice3, 4
Commiphora gileadensis Measles Antirheumatic     
   Typhoid fever     
Cordia africana Jaundice Cuts, burns and wounds Cuts, wounds and burns    
Coriandrum sativum Foot pain      Hypertension5
Ctenolepis cerasiformis Tonic      
Cymbopogon schoenanthus Diabetes Antispasmodic     Stomachache2
  Stomachache Stomachache     
   Gout     
   Helminthiasis     
   Inflammation of prostate     
Cyperus rotundus Kidney stones      
  Haematuria      
  Worm expulsion      
  Headache      
  Sexual debility      
Detarium microcarpum Stomachache   Rheumatism    
Dichrostachys cinerea Jaundice   Wounds   Stomachache  
  Asthma     Diarrhoea  
  Evil eye     Toothache  
      Jaundice  
      Sexual debility  
Dicoma tomentosa Jaundice      Toothache1
       Febrifuge1, 4
       Mumps3
Drimia maritima Sexual debility      
  Snake bite      
Echinops longifolius Scorpion sting      
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Toothache      
Fagonia cretica Skin allergy    Skin allergy   Stomachache2
       Muscular pain3
Geigeria alata Diabetes Antispasmodic Diabetes    Stomachache2
  Stomachache Stomachache Antispasmodic    Epilepsy3
  Kidney disorders Intestinal complaints Intestinal complaints    
  Hypertension Anthelmintic Hypertension    
   Diabetes Cough    
   Hypertension     
   Cough     
Grewia flavescens Anaemia    Stomach disorders   Tuberculosis4
     Leprosy   
Grewia tenax Wounds Tonsillitis, throat infections     Tonsillitis2
  Anaemia Anaemia     Swellings2
   Malaria     Jaundice3
   Tonic     Trichoma3
Grewia villosa Wounds Wounds    Cancer Constipation1
  Eye infection Syphilis     
   Arthralgia     
   Eye ache     
Guiera senegalensis Acid reflux Jaundice Stomach pain    Leprosy1, 4
  Malaria Antipyretic Jaundice    Antipyretic2, 3, 4
  Kidney disorders Antispasmodic Malarial fever    Leprosy3
  Diabetes Diarrhoea Antispasmodic    Vomiting4
  Tonic Leprosy As a tonic    
   Diabetes     
   Hypertension     
   Malarial fever     
   Wound     
Hibiscus sabdariffa Hypertension Cough Snake bite    
  Cold and flu Headache Scorpion sting    
  Hypertension Haematuria Haemorrhoids    
  Haemorrhoids Hypertension Headache    
   Fever     
   Snake bite     
   Scorpion sting     
Hydnora abyssinica (Syn. H. johannis) Stomachache     Cholera Dysentery2
  Diarrhoea     Diarrhoea Tonsillitis2
      Dysentery Swellings2
  Dysentery     Evil eye  
Hyphaene thebaica Diabetes      Spleen problems5
  Diarrhoea      Stomachache5
  Kidney disorders      Wound5
Jatropha curcas Sexual debility   Laxative   Giardia  
      Jaundice  
      Malaria  
      Fever  
Khaya senegalensis Malaria Malarial fever Malarial fever   Malaria Headache4
  Jaundice Syphilis Asthma   Diabetes Stomachache4
   Taeniacide Intestinal complaints    Dysentery4
   Hepatic inflammation     
   Jaundice     
   Trachoma     
   Enterogastritis     
Kigelia africana Breast swellings    Swollen mastitis Breast tumour  
  Rheumatic pain     Hypertension  
  Leprosy     Diabetes  
Lannea fruticosa Swellings     Dysentery  
      Wound  
Leonotis nepetifolia Evil eye      Swellings4
       Stomachache4
Leptadenia arborea Acid reflux Jaundice   Jaundice   Snake bite3
  Diarrhoea Dandruff   Dandruff   Gonorrhoea4
  Swellings      Swellings4
  Jaundice      
Leptadenia pyrotechnica Rheumatic pain Antirheumatic Rheumatism    
   Sciatica     
   Urine retention     
Lepidium sativum Kidney stones      Swellings5
Maerua pseudopetalosa Diabetes      
  Sexual debility      
  Hypertension      
  Kidney disorders      
Maerua oblongifolia Evil eye/luck      Snake bite2
Martynia annua Scorpion sting      
Mentha spicata Flatulence      Flatulence5
Moringa oleifera Back pain      
  Fatigue      
Nigella sativa Articulation pain      Diabetes5
  Stomachache      Hypertension5
  Headache      Stomachache5
  Jaundice      
Oldenlandia uniflora Eczema      
  Leprosy      
Opuntia ficus-indica Dandruff      
Pennisetum glaucum Measles      Rheumatic pain5
  Sexual debility      
Plicosepalus acaciae Evil eye      Lactagogue2
  Repels insect from ear      Wound2
Piliostigma reticulatum Hypertension     Snake bite Snake bite1
  Jaundice      
  Wounds      
Rhynchosia minima Snake bite      Anti acid1
Sarcocephalus latifolius (Syn. Nauclea latifolia) Malaria Malarial fever Headache, cough    Tapeworms1
  Jaundice Headache Antihypertensive    Dysentery4
  Diabetes Cough Kidney disorders    Cough4
  Stomachache Hypertensive     Abdominal pain4
  Acid reflux Kidney disorders     
   Dysentery     
   Abdominal pain     
Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra Jaundice Dysentery Suleiman (2015) [21]   Dysentery Stomachache4
  Diarrhoea Diarrhoea    Diarrhoea Diarrohea4
  Stomachache Diabetes     
Senna italica Dysentery    Constipation   Rheumatic pain3
  Laxative      
  Eczema      
Senna occidentalis Diabetes Backache Backache Diabetes Jaundice Jaundice3
  Eczema Hypertension Hypertension Gonorrhoea   
   Malaria   Intestinal ulcer   
   Dysentery     
   Jaundice     
Senna obtusifolia Jaundice Jaundice Jaundice   Jaundice Constipation4
  Eczema      Ringworm4
       Wound4
Setaria acromelaena Evil eye      
Solanum dubium Jaundice      
Sonchus cornutus Malaria      
  Diabetes      
Striga hermonthica Menstrual cramps   Diabetes    
  Diabetes      Leukoderma3
Strychnos spinosa Hypertension    Hypertension Sexual debility  
Stylochiton grandis Scorpion sting      Scorpion sting2
Tamarindus indica Malaria Malaria   Food poisoning Malaria Malaria4
  Kidney disorders Malaria fever   Toothache Fever Constipation4
  Evil eye Cold and flu    Stomachache  
   Jaundice    Wound  
   Constipation     
Tephrosia uniflora Urine retention     Diarrhoea Headache1, 4
  Prostate      Tonic4
Terminalia brownii Jaundice      Diabetes1
  Rheumatic pain      Cough2
  Wound      
Terminalia laxiflora Malaria     Cough, tonic  
Thymus vulgaris Rheumatic pain      Flatulence5
Tinospora bakis Swelling   Abdominal pain    Wound1
  Snake bite      
  Stomachache      
  Malaria      
  Diabetes      
  Evil eye      
Tribulus terrestris Kidney disorders      
  Diabetes      
Trigonella foenum-graecum Uterus inflammation      Swellings5
  Swellings      Haemorrhoids5
  Foot pain      
Vangueria madagascariensis Diabetes     Diabetes  
  Kidney disorders      
  Hypertension      
Ximenia americana Rheumatic pain    Rheumatic pain   Measles1
Ziziphus spina-christi Stomachache Swellings Antispasmodic   Stomachache, Swellings2
  Dysentery Antispasmodic Fever   Dysentery Constipation2
  Evil eye Constipation    Diarrhoea Intestinal spasm3
   Gonorrhoea    Malaria Stomachache4
      Urine retention Gonorrhoea4