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Table 1 The 100 common medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) of the Swat Valley

From: The ethnobotanical domain of the Swat Valley, Pakistan

No Plant names Part used Family Uses
1 Justicia adhatoda L. Leaves Acanthaceae Used as an antispasmodic and bronchodilator
2 Acorus calamus L. Underground Stem Acoraceae Used for its aroma in scents, known for its aphrodisiac activity and neurotoxicity
3 Adiantum capillus-veneris L. Leaves Adiantaceae Scorpion bite, backache
4 Viburnum foetens (D.Don) Wall ex. DC. Fruits Adoxaceae Fodder, fuel wood, fruits are eaten
5 Allium sativum L. Whole plant Amaryllidaceae Curry ingredient, flavouring and aroma, used in blood pressure and is recommended in heart problems
6 Mangifera indica L. Fruits Anacardiaceae Juice and shakes are common; refrigerant, digestive, laxative
7 Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Whole plant Apiaceae Digestive disorders, flavouring agent, used in confectionery
8 Senna alexendria L. Leaves Apiaceae Leaves are used as tea for treats ailments like cough and digestive disorders
9 Cuminum cyminum L. Seeds Apiaceae Important part of Indian and Pakistani spices, wide use in different dishes
Aromatic and carminative
10 Coriandrum sativum L. Seeds Apiaceae Used in spices and known for carminative nature, flavouring agent
11 Robinia pseudoacacia L. Whole plant Apiaceae Fuel wood mainly. Flowers are aromatic and attract bees
12 Daucus carota L. Underground Root Apiaceae High vitamin A contents, common vegetable, and used as fodder
13 Cassia fistula L. Fruits Apiaceae Fever, arthritis and neural disorders
14 Caralluma edulis (Edgew.) Hook.f. Stem, bark Apocynaceae Very bitter plant, cooked and the water is drained, blood purifier, and good for skin diseases
15 Periploca aphylla Decn. Leaves Asclepiadaceae Commonly used for feeding livestock, used as anti-fever
16 Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. Leaves Asphodelaceae Known for its effectiveness in skin problems, and kidney stone problems
17 Artemisia maritima L. Leaves Asteraceae Anthelmintic and used as ethno-veterinary drug
18 Cichorium intybus L. Leaves Asteraceae For gastrointestinal problems, for cuts and bruises, and for gall stones, etc.
19 Onopordum acanthium L. Whole plant Asteraceae Ornamental and oil is also extracted from the seeds
20 Berberis lycium Royle Roots, fruits Berberidaceae Stomach-ache, used in jaundice, and refrigerant
21 Capsella bursapastoris (L.) Medic. Whole plant Brassicaceae Fodder and pot herb
22 Nasturtium officinale R.Br. Whole plant Brassicaceae Pot herb and salad
23 Brassica rapa L. Seeds Brassicaceae Pot herb, oil is used for cooking and is grown widely
24 Buxus sempervirense Hook. f. Whole plant Buxaceae For wood carving and musical instruments
25 Gymnosporia royleana Wall. ex Lawson in Hook.f. Leaves Celastraceae Honey bee plant, used in digestive problems
26 Chenopodium album L. Whole plant Chenopodiaceae Pot herb and digestive
27 Terminalia chebula Retz. Fruits Combretaceae Very potent in digestive disorders, and urinary problems
28 Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. Leaves Crassulaceae It is used for its poisonous glycosides. It can act as a immune-suppresser
29 Momordica charantia Descourt. Fruits Cucurbitaceae Used as vegetable, blood purifier, astringent and digestive
30 Cucumis sativus L. Fruits Cucurbitaceae Eaten raw, low calories fruit (vegetable) common element of salad
31 Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Leaves Cucurbitaceae Refrigerant, diuretic
32 Cupressus torulosa D.Don. Seeds Cupressaceae For its oil, aroma, used for sore throat
33 Diospyrus lotus L. Fruits Ebenaceae Fruit is eaten, leaves used as fodder, fuel wood
34 Euphorbia helioscopia L. Whole plant Euphorbiaceae A poisonous plant, livestock suffer with severe health disorders if eaten
35 Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Roots Fabaceae Mouth ulcers, peptic ulcers Expectorant and endocrinal suppresser
36 Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Seeds, leaves Fabaceae Used as pot herb, for arthritis
37 Arachis hypogaea L. Seeds Fabaceae Highly nutritious, eaten raw and roasted
38 Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal Leaves Fabaceae Eaten as a vegetable and the ripe seeds are edible
39 Quercus dilatata Lindl. ex Royle Whole plant Fagaceae Fuel wood, timber wood
40 Quercus incana Lindl. ex Royle Whole plant Fagaceae Nuts are used as diuretic and the tree mainly as a fuel wood
41 Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Whole plant Fumariaceae A potent blood purifier, helps with body heat and used as tonic
42 Gentiana kurroo Royle Leaves Gentianaceae Tonic, antispasmodic, febrifuge
43 Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Whole plant Hypolepidaceae Pot herb, cooked with yogurt and eaten with maize bread
44 Juglans regia L. Stem, bark Juglandaceae Nuts are consumed as tonic; bark of the tree is used for gum infections
45 Mentha longifolia L. Whole plant Lamiaceae Gastric and ulcers
46 Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. Whole plant Lamiaceae Sore throat, jaundice, astringent, and tonic
47 Salvia moorcroftiana Wall.ex Benth. Leaves Lamiaceae Pot herb
48 Thymus linearis Benth. Leaves Lamiaceae Coughs, cold, fever, rheumatism
49 Mentha arvensis L. Whole plant Lamiaceae Very commonly known and used remedy for digestive problems and stomach-aches
50 Mentha spicata L. Leaves Lamiaceae Used in different sauces, mixed with yogurt and salt
51 Teucrium stocksianum Boiss. Leaves Lamiaceae Known for antispasmodic activity
52 Micromeria biflora (Buch-Hamp. ex D.Don) Benth. Leaves Lamiaceae Known for its aromatic nature and its neural healing activity, also used as pot herb
53 Vitex negundo L. Leaves Lamiaceae Antiseptic and antibacterial.
54 Cinnamomum verum J. Presl. Stem, bark Lauraceae Aromatic bark is used in spices, especially in rice preparation
55 Punica granatum L. Fruits Lythraceae Used in spices and for gastric problems. Juice is nutritious
56 Malva neglecta Wall. Leaves Malvaceae Common herb cooked, digestive and emollient
57 Melia azedarach L. Leaves, fruits Meliaceae Anthelmintic and vermifuge, also use for body heat release
58 Morus nigra L. Stem Moraceae Digestive and laxative in properties
59 Musa balbisiana Lacatan Fruits Musaceae Highly nutritious, tonic, juices and milk shakes
60 Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. Perry Fruits Myrtaceae Highly valuable plant; the fruits and flowers are used in curries
61 Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Leaves Myrtaceae Used in teas, fuel wood, and bee plant
62 Peganum harmala L. Leaves Nitrariaceae Another plant usually used for rituals like protection from evil eye, etc. famous for good aroma
63 Mirabilis jalapa L. Leaves Nyctaginaceae food colouring, used as food, diuretic and purgative
64 Olea ferruginea Royle Fruits Oleaceae The small fruits are eaten; leaves are used as antipyretic and antiseptic. Fuel wood
65 Olea europaea L. Fruits Oleaceae Oil is used in cooking, massage and as anti-fungal, sacred plant
66 Paeonia emodi Wall. Ex Royle Underground Roots Paeoniaceae Backache, tonic, epilepsy
67 Papaver somniferum L. Latex, seeds Papaveraceae Known for neurotoxins and alkaloids. Seeds are used in confectionary
68 Sesamum indicum L. Seeds Pedaliaceae Used in confectionery, high oil content
69 Pinus wallichiana A.B.Jackson Whole plant Pinaceae Timber used in construction. Many other uses as well
70 Picea smithiana (Wall) Boiss. Whole plant Pinaceae Timber tree, leaves used in teas, leaves used in mats
71 Plantago lanceolata L. Whole plant Plantaginaceae Husk is used as laxative; the plant is anti-fungal in nature and is also cooked as pot
72 Digitalis lanata L. Flowers, Leaves Plantaginaceae Cardiac stimulant, used in blood pressure
73 Cymbopogon citratus Springs. Whole plant Poaceae Teas are prepared, sometimes mixed with green tea to enhance the flavour, diuretic
74 Saccharum officinarum L. Leaves Poaceae Stimulant. Sugar crop in the country
75 Polygonum biaristatum Aitch. & Hemsl. Leaves Polygonaceae Fodder, fish poison.
76 Thalictrum falconeri Lecoy. Leaves Ranunculaceae Used in ophthalmic
77 Aconitum violaceum Jacq. ex Stapf Underground stem Ranunculaceae Gout and rheumatism, aphrodisiac
78 Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Fruits Rhamnaceae Fruits and leaves emollient, laxative and fruit is considered tonic
79 Prunus amygdalus Batsch. Fruits Rosaceae Tonic, and used in neural disorders, served as a good gesture of hospitality
80 Rosa indica L. Flowers Rosaceae Rose water is used for ophthalmic cures, digestive disorders, and scents
81 Malus domestica Borkh. Fruits Rosaceae Well known tree in Swat, for its taste and aroma widely used, blood problems, nutritious
82 Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Fruits Rosaceae Digestive, high sugar content, demulcent and expectorant
83 Fragaria nubicloa (Hook.f.) Lindl. Fruits Rosaceae Fodder, fruit is eaten
84 Skimmia laureola (DC.) & Zucc. ex Walp. Stem, leaves Rutaceae Highly salient plant in the community, used for the protection from evil eye, good aroma and used for digestive problems
85 Citrus × limon (L.) Burm.f. Fruits Rutaceae Juice, flavouring agent in all sort of traditional dishes
86 Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Camb.) Hook.f. Whole plant Sapindaceae Agricultural tools making fuel wood, fodder
87 Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jacq. Whole plant Sapindaceae Fuel wood, aromatic leaves are burnt in houses for some rituals
88 Bergenia ciliata(Haw.) Sternb. Whole plant Saxifragaceae Wound healing, fractured bones
89 Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle. Whole plant Simaroubaceae Fuel wood, considered as an alien species to the valley
90 Allium cepa L. Whole plant Solanaceae Main ingredient of curry, spices and eaten raw
91 Nicotiana tabacum L. Leaves Solanaceae Snuff tobacco is commonly used for making snuff
92 Solanum miniatum Benth. Fruits Solanaceae Used for its laxative properties, some consider it as antispasmodic
93 Capsicum annum L. Fruits Solanaceae Curry essential ingredient, a common spice
94 Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze. Leaves Theaceae Diuretic and stimulant. Normally consumed after heavy meals
95 Urtica dioca L. Leaves Urticaceae Used as pot herb anti-rheumatic
96 Valeriana jatamansi Jones Whole plant Valerianaceae Antispasmodic and also used in cholera
97 Curcuma longa L. Underground Stem Zingiberaceae Spices, cuts and bruises, carminative
98 Zingiber officinale Roscoe Underground Stem Zingiberaceae Spice ingredient, used in curries, rice preparation, etc., refrigerant and carminative
99 Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton. Whole plant Zingiberaceae A very well known for its aroma, a must ingredient of all spices
100 Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Underground Stem Zingiberaceae Used in beauty products and spices