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Table 2 List of identified wild edible plants used by villagers in this study

From: Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants with special emphasis on medicinal uses in Southern Shan State, Myanmar

Taxon Villagea and vernacular name Use Voucher number (Collection sitea)
Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. M, P: Shwe-kana-phot, Ka-na-phot Food and Medicine: shoot for salad, consumed for body swollen TS0366 (P)
Amaranthus viridis L. M: Hin-nu-nwe Food: tender leaves as vegetable TS0020 (M)
Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J.Scott M: Ta-byat-se Food: shoots and tender leaves as vegetable TS0019 (M)
Mangifera sylvatica Roxb. E: Taw-tha-yat Food and Construction: fresh fruits pounded as salad with other ingredients, sliced fresh fruits for sour taste TS0809 (E)
Annona cherimola Mill. M, P: Aw-le Food: fruits edible TS0043 (M)
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. E, M, P: Myin-kwar Food and Medicine: tender leaves as salad, paste of leaves prepared lotion for sore throat, cold infusion of leaves as eye drop TS0165, TS0293 (M)
Oenanthe cf. javanica (Blume) DC. M: Za-lae Food: tender leaves as salad, cooked as traditional curry TS0138, TS0166 (M)
Telosma cordata (Burm. f.) Merr. E, M, P: Gwe-tauk Food and Medicine: tender leaves for soup with chicken, consumed food as medicine for alcohol dependence TS0190 (M)
Amorphophallus cf. muelleri Blume E, M, P: Wa-u Food: stem and bulb as vegetable: young stem cooked as vegetable, bulb boiled and grounded to make konjac (Wa-u) TS0728/1 (E)
Amorphophallus purpurascens Kurz ex Hook.f. E, M, P: Wa-u Food: stem and bulb as vegetable: young stem cooked as vegetable, bulb boiled and grounded to make konjac (Wa-u) Thant Shin (abbreviate as TS hereafter) 0618 (P)
Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott M, P: Wa-u-pho Food and Medicine: stem and bulb as vegetables, bulb boiled and eaten for constipation TS0284 (M); TS0599 (P)
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott E: Pain-ga-nan; M, P: Pai Food and Medicine: petiole fermented, petiole as vegetable, petiole prepared soup with Kin-pun-chin, Sue-pote and Zayit; sap used externally for allergy caused by insects TS 0040, S0137, TS0277 (M)
Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites E, M: Za-yit Food: tender shoot cooked as soup, cooked with fish, boiled shoot as salad with fish paste TS0757 (E)
Macropanax dispermus (Blume) Kuntze P: Tha-yat-kin, Ka-la-kin Food, Construction, Fuelwood and Medicine: shoot as vegetable dish and salad, food consumed for retention of gasses in bowel TS0590, TS0619, TS0645 (P)
Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Sherff P: Hlan-kwa Food: shoot as vegetable TS0563 (P)
Crassocephalum rubens (Juss. ex Jacq.) S.Moore E: Nu-su; P: Taw-bi-zat Food: shoot as vegetable, tender leaves for salad TS00684 (P); TS0776 (E)
Dichrocephala integrifolia (L.f.) Kuntze M: Sein-zar-myat-lone Food and Medicine: shoots and tender leaves for soup, food consumed as medicine at postpartum period for mother TS0038 (M)
Laggera alata Nanth. M, P: La-thar-ba-pyin Food and Medicine: shoots fried with eggs, good for swollen body, the whole plant as wristband for back pain, leaves extract used over knife injuries TS0078 (M)
Markhamia stipulata (Wall.) Seem. E: Ma-lwa Food and Construction: boiled flower as salad with fish paste, fried as vegetable TS0735 (E)
Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz E, M, P: Kyaung-shar Food and Medicine: flowers and fruits for vegetable dish, fruits as salad, farmented fruit, boiled and pounded fruits as salad with other ingredients, young leaves prepared salad, and consumed orally for tinnitus TS0105 (M); TS0743 (E)
Protium serratum (Wall. ex Colebr.) Engl. E: Kadi Food and Construction: fruits eaten fresh TS0704 (E)
Celastrus paniculatus Willd. M, P: Taung-bort-lu-lin Food and Medicine: tender leaves prepared for soup, diet food for healthy life TS0230 (M)
Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. E, M, P: Thit-seint Food: seeds eaten fresh TS0702 (E)
Cheilocostus speciosus (J.Koenig) C.D.Specht E, M: Pha-lan-taung-hwa Food and Medicine: shoot fried with vegetable oil and other ingredients, cooked for soup, cooked with bamboo shoot and meat, decotion of whole plant taken orally for dysentery TS0037 (M); TS0732 (E)
Marah macrocarpa (Greene) Greene M: Kin-mon-tee Food: fruits as vegetable TS0094 (M)
Momordica subangulata Blume M: Taw-hin-khar Food and Medicine: fruits and leaves as vegetable, consumed as appetizer TS0114, TS0276 (M)
Diospyros kaki L.f. M: Tae, Tel; P: Tel Food: ripe fruits edible TS0142 (M)
Elaeagnus griffithii Servettaz P: Mat-lwat, Myat-lu Food: ripe fruits edible TS0359, TS0480 (P)
Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume M: Sein-sar-blue-pan Food and Fuellwood: seeds used to extract edible oil, seed edible TS0183 (M)
Elaeocarpus stipularis var. siamensis (Craib) Coode. M: Sein-se-ba-lu Food: ripe fruits edible TS034 (M)
Acacia concinna (Willd.) DC. E, M; Kin-mon-chin Food and Shampoo: decoction of fruits for shampoo, tender leaves prepared soup with bean, prepared salad, fried with fish paste TS0139 (M)
Acacia pennata subsp. kerrii I.C.Nielsen E: Sue-pote, Sue-pote-kyi; M, P: Sue-pote Food: tender leaves cooked as soup, cooked with fish, cook with meat, fried with egg, vegetable dish TS0736 (E)
Archidendron jiringa (Jack) I.C.Nielsen E, M, P: Da-nyin Food: boiled seeds TS0710, TS0811 (E)
Bauhinia purpurea L. E: Swe-daw; P: Kha-lat Food: tender leaves as soup with potato TS0419 (P); TS0856 (E)
Bauhinia variegata L. P: Kha-la Food: leaves as salad. Seed edible as pulses TS0629 (P)
Lithocarpus lindleyanus (Wall. ex A.DC.) A.Camus M: Thit-al-sein Food and Constructiion: roasted seed edible TS0240 (M)
Rotheca serrata (L.) Steane & Mabb. M: Yin-byar; P: Hin-byar, Hin-khar Food and Medicine: tender leaves and flowers as vegetable and salad, young leaves consumed as salad for retention of gasses in bowel, and diarrhea, cream of rhizome used as lotion on abdomen for retention of gasses in bowel, roots fermented together with jaggery and consumed orally for loss of sleep TS0005, TS0082, TS0209, TS0279 (M); TS0387, TS00494, TS0591, TS0606 (P)
Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T.Nees & Eberm. P: Thit-kya-poe Food and Medicine: leaf for spice in traditional curry, dry bark powder consumed orally as blood tonic, dry leaf powder used as inhalant at postpartum period for mother TS0678 (P)
Laurus cf. nobilis L. M, P: Lae-lu Food: leaves for spices TS0483 (P)
Duabanga grandiflora (DC.) Walp. E: Ga-zaw Food and Construction: fruits edible TS00716 (E)
Osbeckia nepalensis Hook. f. P: Shar-pyar-tee Food: fruits edible TS00631(P)
Ficus auriculata Lour. M: Ka-ohn, Kaung-oat-tee, Tha-phan; P: Pha-owl Food: ripe fruits edible TS0042, TS0110, TS0182 (M); TS0461(P)
Ficus racemosa L. E, M, P: Tha-phan Food: ripe fruit edible, fresh fruits soaked in salty water, pounded leaves as paste, tender leaves as salad, leaves cooked with potato TS00148 (M)
Ficus semicordata Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. E, M, P: Ka-dut; P: Tha-phan Food and Fuelwood: ripe fruit edible, fresh fruits fermented for food, tender leaves for soup TS0071, TS00131, TS00172 (M); TS0474 (P); TS0788 (E)
Ficus virens Aiton M, P: Nyaung-chin Food: leaves and shoots for soup and salad TS0140 (M)
Maclura fruticosa (Roxb.) Corner P: Sue-sein Food: shoot as vegetable for soup and salad TS0478 (P)
Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don M: Kata-pho Food: ripe fruits edible TS0058, TS0109, TS0180 (M)
Psidium guajava L. E: Mar-la-kar Food: fruits eaten fresh TS0760 (E)
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels E, M, P: Tha-pyay Food and Construction: ripe fruits edible TS0215 (M)
Syzygium oblatum (Roxb.) Wall. ex A.M.Cowan & Cowan E, M, P: Tha-pyay Food and Construction: ripe fruits edible TS0253 (M)
Syzygium pycnanthum Merr. & L.M.Perry E, M, P: Tha-pyay Food, Construction and Fuelwood: ripe fruits edible TS0104 (M); TS0615 (P)
Anacolosa clarkii Pierre M: Tay-pin Food: fruits edible TS0259 (M)
Oxalis latifolia Kunth M: Mu-chin Food: children eat all parts of plants TS0024 (M)
Antidesma acidum Retz. E: Kim-ma-lin Food: fruits and leaves as vegetable TS0795 (E)
Bischofia javanica Blume M: Yae-pa-done Food: shoots for salad, young leaves as vegetable TS0041, TS0074 (M)
Phyllanthus emblica L. E: Zepyu; M: Se-sar; P: Se-shar Food, Fuelwood and Medicine: fruits pounded as salad, boiled fruits pounded and prepared salad, consumed as food for hypertension, fruits eaten fresh for over bleeding, fruits roasted and consumed as food for cough TS0033, TS0052, TS00213, TS0185, TS00280 (M); TS0351, TS0670 (P); TS0806 (E)
Plantago major L. M: A kyaw-baung-tha-thaung Food and Medicine: tender leaf for salad, leaf heated on fire to become wilted, and touch on abscess and boils, paste of leaves used as bandage for broken legs, young leaves prepared as salad, consumed as food for toxemia and hypertension; paste of entire plant used over abscess TS0089 (M)
Embelia ribes Burm.f. M, P: Kan-pa-lar Food: leaves as salad and soup, tender leaves and buds boiled and eaten with fish sauce TS0175 (M)
Ziziphus incurva Roxb. P: Sue-kauk Food: fruits edible TS0688 (P)
Docynia indica (Wall.) Decne. M, P: Pin-sein Food and Fuelwood: fruits eaten fresh, cooked as soup, pounded with chili as side dish TS0032, TS0133, TS0168, TS0204 (M); TS0399, TS0429, TS0513, TS 0588, TS0638 (P)
Coffea arabica L. P: Coffee Food: roasted seed for coffee TS0519 (P)
Wendlandia budleioides Wall. ex Wight & Arn. M, P: Thit-ne Food and Construction: tender leaves for salad TS0085 (M)
Wendlandia tinctoria (Roxb.) DC. M, P: Thit-ni Food and Fuelwood: tender leaves as vegetable TS0176 (M)
Casimiroa cf. edulis La Llave M, P: Tha-gyar-tee Food: fruits edible TS0044 (M)
Clausena excavata Burm.f. M: Pyin-thaw-sein Food: tender leaves as raw salad TS0069 (M)
Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. P: Pyin-taw-thein Food: tender leaves as raw salad TS0543 (P)
Zanthoxylum armatum DC. M: Mike-cup Food: tender leaves ingredient to beef curry TS0030 (M)
Casearia graveolens Dalzell E: Phan-khar Food and Construction: fruits eaten fresh TS0801(E)
Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) B.L.Burtt & A.W.Hill E: Del-cline Food: fruits edible TS0765 (E)
Dimocarpus fumatus (Blume) Leenh. E: Taw-kyat-mauk Food: fipe fruits edible TS0803 (E)
Spondias pinnata (L. f.) Kurz E: Gwe Food: fruits eaten fresh TS0812 (E)
Schoepfia fragrans Wall. P: Byauk-ole-kyi Food: fruits edible TS0610 (P)
Smilax gagnepainii T.Koyama M: Sue-yit-sein; P: Sue-yit Food: shoots fried as vegetable, cooked soup, green salad TS0617 (P)
Physalis angulata L. E: no name Food: fruits eaten fresh TS0756 (E)
Physalis pubescens L. P: Taw-kha-yan-chin Food: fruits eaten fresh TS0477 (P)
Solanum torvum Sw. E, M: Kha-yan-ka-zot; P: Ka-zot Food: fruits as vegetable TS0186 (M); TS0737 (E)
Camellia taliensis (W.W.Sm.) Melch. M, P: Taw-la-phat Food: tender leaves for salad TS0112 (M); TS0339 (P)
Schima wallichii Choisy M: Thit-yar Food and Constructiion: shoots as vegetable TS0086 (M)
Dendrocnide basirotunda (C.Y.Wu) Chew E: Tha-phan Food: ripe fruits edible TS0780 (E)
Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr. E: no name; M: Pait-chin Food: shoot as vegetable TS0226 (M); TS0805 (E)
Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) Burtt M: Gon-min Food: pith as vegetable TS0278 (M)
Curcuma cf. amada Roxb M: Ba-thae-kaw Food and Medicine: dry powder of rhizome consumed orally for flatulence, pounded fresh rhizome as spice in traditional curry, rhizome sliced and dry and made powder, and used as spice in curry TS0068 (M); TS0727 (E)
Curcuma aromatica Salisb. M: Mar-lar-pu Food and Medicine: buds as vegetable, paste of rhizome used externally over injury TS0210/1 (M)
  1. a: E, Eden; M, Myin Ka; P, Pin-sein-pin