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Table 6 Ethno-veterinary remedies against viral and bacterial diseases

From: Traditional knowledge about plant, animal, and mineral-based remedies to treat cattle, pigs, horses, and other domestic animals in the Mediterranean island of Sardinia

Animals Components of remedy** Procedure Areas
Foot and mouth disease (aphtha)
 Oxen Pins Pinching the blister Gallura
 Oxen Fool’s-water-cress (Apium nodiflorum) Fresh plant massaged in the tongue Anglona
 Oxen Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) Fresh plant massaged in the tongue Anglona
 Cattle a Seawater Mouth washes Anglona
 Cows, oxen Needle Blisters on tongue were stung with a needle Monte Acuto
 Cows Needle, scissors, salt The vein under the tongue was stung with a needle, then the blisters were cut with scissors and salt was added on the wounds Monte Acuto, Gallura
 Cows (*) Needle, salt Blisters of tongue was stung with a needle and added with salt Monte Acuto
 Cattle a Vinegar, salt Blisters of tongue were cut with a knife (or with a scissors) and tongue was disinfected with the mixture Monte Acuto
 Oxen Vinegar, salt Mouth washes Anglona
 Oxen River Oxen bathed in the river for several times Monte Acuto
 Pigs, cows Barley (Hordeum vulgare), water Barley flour boiled with water given as feed Monte Acuto
 Oxen Vinegar Mouth washes Meilogu
 Cattle a Brine Applied to the tongue Gallura
 Cattle a Brine, vinegar Applied to the tongue with a cloth Goceano
 Cattle a, horses, pigs, dogs, cats, hens Mud Applied to the tongue Anglona
Swine fever
 Pigs Milk goats Intravenous injection Monte Acuto
 Pigs Blood of rabbit Intravenous injection Barbagia di Nuoro
 Oxen Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Decoction of plants was filtered and given to drink Monte acuto
 Cows Peg The mammary vein was excised and then left bleeding, the haemorrhage was stopped by pinching the vessel with a peg Sassarese
 Cattle a Ashes, water Ashes boiled in water and applied with a bandage Monte Acuto, Sassarese, Anglona
 Cattle a Vinegar, ash Massaged on udder Monte Acuto
 Cattle a, horses, pigs, dogs, cats, hens Downy cork (Quercus pubescens) cortex, water Cortex boiled in water until reddish, then the water was used to wash the udder Barbagia di Nuoro
 Cattle a Ozzu casu (fat obtained by boiling the cream of the milk with flour) Massaged on udder Sassarese, Nurra, Gallura
Eyes infection
 Cattle a Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) bone Powder inserted into the eye or massaged around the eyes Monte Acuto, Meilogu, Anglona
 Cattle a, horses Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) bone Powder inserted into the eye Gallura, Sassarese
 Cattle a Wild teasel (Dipsacus fullonum) Eye washed with the plant decoction Anglona
Hoof infection
 Horses, oxen Garlic (Allium sativum) Crushed garlic application after nail clipping Sassarese
 Horses, oxen Burnt lard Burnt lard application after nail clipping Sassarese
 Oxen Burnt sugar The sugar was burnt over the wound Monte Acuto
 Horses Rope made of goat’s hair Incision of the nail with a knife then hoof dressed with the hairy rope Monte Acuto
 Cattle a Clay, water Applied on the hoof with a bandage Gallura
Blood poisoning (septicemia)
 Cows Knife Bleeding by incising the neck vein Goceano
 Pigs Cow’s milk Intravenous injection Monte Acuto
 Horses, cattle a Red-hot iron Cauterization of the vesicles Barbagia di Nuoro, Goceano, Monte Acuto
Respiratory diseases
 Dogs Anagyris (Anagyris foetida) The plant was put as a collar to the cold affected dog Barbagia di Nuoro
 Calves, oxen Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), water Decoction of plants given as drink Monte Acuto
 Oxen Mallow (Malva sylvestris) Decoction of plants given as drink Anglona, Meilogu,
 Cattle a Pellitory of the wall (Parietaria officinalis), water Decoction of leaves given as drink Anglona
 Oxen Wild ficus tree (Ficus carica var., caprificus) The oxen covered with a blanket had to breathe the fumes of burnt leaves of wild fig tree for 3 days Monte Acuto
 Horses Hot bran (Hordeum vulgare, Triticum durum) Decoction of plant given as feed Gallura
  1. aCure for cows, calves, and oxen
  2. (*) Remedies still in use
  3. (**) Typed in bold are components of remedies showing highest indices in the quantitative analysis