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Table 7 Ethno-veterinary remedies relative to wounds, sprains, and bruises

From: Traditional knowledge about plant, animal, and mineral-based remedies to treat cattle, pigs, horses, and other domestic animals in the Mediterranean island of Sardinia

Animals Components of remedy** Procedure Areas
Wounds
 Oxen Field mushroom Dry powder applied on the wound Monte Acuto
 Horses Burnt lard Massaged on the wound Monte Acuto
 Horses Acetylsalicylic acid Massaged on the wound Monte Acuto, Sassarese
 Horses Coke Massaged on the wound Sassarese
 Horses Cicatrene Bought at the pharmacy Sassarese
 Horses (*) Camellia (Camellia sp.) Decoction of the plant massaged on the wound Barbagia di Nuoro
 Horses Downy oak (Quercus pubescens) cortex, water Cortex boiled in water applied on the wound, which was then wrapped up with a bandage Anglona
 Oxen Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves Massaged on the wound Monte Acuto
 Oxen Navelwort (Umbilicus rupestris) leaves Pounded fresh leaves applied to the wound Monte Acuto
 Cattle a, horses, pigs, dogs, cats, hens Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) Pounded fresh leaves applied to the wound Gallura, Anglona
 Cattle a, horses, pigs, dogs, cats, hens Powder from stem (without bark) or bark from stem of lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus) Stem powder or ground bark applied on the wound Anglona, Monte Acuto
 Cattle a Powder of bark from stem of lentisk (Pistacia lentiscus) salt Applied on the wound Sassarese
 Cattle a, horses, pigs, dogs, cats, hens Navelwort (Umbilicus rupestris) leaves Minced fresh leaves applied to the wound Gallura
 Horses, cattle a Mallow (Malva sylvestris), water, soap The wound was washed with soap and water, then decoction of leaves or root applied on the wound, which was then wrapped with a bandage Sassarese, Gallura
 Cattle a, horses, pigs, dogs, cats, hens Olive oil Applied on the wound Anglona, Gallura
 Pigs, cattle Ozzu casu (fat obtained by boiling the cream of milk with flour) Applied on the wound Campidano di Oristano
 Pigs, dogs (*) Copper sulphate, ozzu casu (fat obtained by boiling the cream of milk with flour), pumice stone Applied on the wound Nurra
 Pigs Olive oil, ashes Mixture as emollient cream for wound treatments Campidano di Oristano, Monte Acuto
 Pigs, cows Lentisk oil Applied on the wound Gallura
 Cat Olive oil Applied on the wound Gallura
 Cattle a Butter Applied on the wound Monte Acuto
Castration
 Pigs Olive oil Applied to the skin with a paintbrush Sassarese
 Pigs Ozzu brujadu (Reused motor oil) Applied to the skin with a paintbrush Sassarese
 Pigs Olive oil, ashes Mixture as emollient cream for wound treatments Campidano di Oristano
 Pigs Ozzu casu (fat obtained by boiling the cream of milk with flour) Applied on the wound Campidano di Oristano
 Pigs Urine, ashes Applied on the wound Monte Acuto
 Pigs Urine, piece of pig’s tail Applied on the wound Monte Acuto
 Pigs Ethyl alcohol (or creolin in water), cord, hot wax Ethyl alcohol (or creolin in water) and then the wound was sutured with a waxed thread Monte Acuto
 Pigs, horses Ashes Applied on the wound Anglona
 Pigs Mallow (Malva sylvestris), Applied on the wound Anglona
 Horses Creolin, water Applied on the wound Anglona
Sprains
 Cattle a, horses Downy oak (Quercus pubescens) cortex, salt, vinegar, clay The cork boiled with salt and vinegar, crushed, then mixed with clay, applied to the sore area, wrapped with a bandage Monte Acuto
 Horses Pellitory of the wall (Parietaria officinalis), mallow (Malva sylvestris), Nettle (Urtica dioica), water Decoction and plants wrapped in a bandage on the sore part Monte Acuto
 Dogs (*) Burnt cork Applied to the wound Goceano
Bruises
 Cattle a, horses, pigs Nettle (Urtica dioica) Decoction and plants wrapped in a bandage on the sore part Anglona
 Cattle a, horses, pigs Pellitory of the wall (Parietaria officinalis) Decoction and plants wrapped in a bandage on the sore part Anglona
 Cattle a, horses, pigs Mallow (Malva sylvestris), water Decoction and plants wrapped in a bandage on the sore part Anglona
 Horses Mallow (Malva sylvestris), water, vinegar Decoction and plants wrapped in a bandage on the sore part Sassarese
Wounds from saddle
 Horses Ashes Applied on the wound Nurra, Gallura
Wound from yoke
 Oxen Cistus (Cistus monspeliensis) The leaves applied at the inner base of the horns Monte Acuto
 Oxen Soap, water The mixture applied at the inner base of the horns Monte Acuto
Pimples (Furuncles)
 Cows Chijnada (ashes and water) Ashes boiled in water and then the filtrate applied on the pimple Monte Acuto
 Cows Urine As disinfectant Monte Acuto
 Cows Soap, water Soap boiled in water and then the filtrate applied on the pimple Monte Acuto
 Calves a (*) Sarsaparille (Smilax aspera) Decoction of plants wrapped in a bandage and put on the pimples Monte Acuto
Fissures
 Cows (*) Ozzu porchinu (fat from lard), ozzu seu (dried peritoneum of sheep), beeswax The mixture was boiled and stored in a jar until use Monte Acuto
 Cows (*) Beeswax Massaged around the nipple Monte Acuto
 Cows (*) Greater plantain (Plantago major), ozzu seu (dried peritoneum of sheep) The mixture was boiled and was used when milking Monte Acuto
 Cows Tincture of iodine, ozzu porchinu (fat from lard), ozzu seu (dried peritoneum of sheep), penicillin The mixture massaged on the udder Monte Acuto
Swelling udder
 Cows Silver coin (five liras) Massaged on the udder Monte Acuto
Swelling throat
 Pigs Rough stone The throat was rubbed Monte Acuto
 Hens Vinegar, water The mixture was applied on the throat Anglona
 Cattle a Wheat bran, water Boiled brans placed in a bag and tied in the throat Anglona
Swelling limbs
 Horses Clay Applied to the limbs Sassarese
 Horses Lead acetate Applied to the limbs Sassarese
 Horses (*) Clay, vinegar, salt The mixture applied to the limbs Sassarese
 Horses Clay, vinegar, water The mixture applied to the limbs Monte Acuto
 Horses Lead acetate, water The mixture applied to the limbs Sassarese
Swelling shank
 Horses Red hot pin Puncture with an iron pin Monte Acuto
  1. a Cure for cows, calves and oxen
  2. (*) Remedies still in use
  3. (**) Typed in bold are components of remedies showing highest indices in the quantitative analysis