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Table 2 Comparison of medicinal uses of animal species

From: Ethnomedicinal applications of animal species by the local communities of Punjab, Pakistan

Sr. # Scientific name, Common name, Vernacular name, Code District Jhelum (J) District Lahore (L) Previous reports
PU/MA Disease treatment FC UV RI PU/MA Disease treatment FC UV RI Diseases treated Ref. SI
J L
Amphibian
 1 Bufo stomaticus Lütken, Indus Valley toad, Maidani daddo, BS    0 0 0 Skin/T Allergy 7 0.29 0.3 Thelitis, dermatitis, decubitus wounds, ripened abscess, brunchest, pneumonia, bolianerengia [79, 80] 0 0
 2 Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin), Indian Bullfrog, Wada daddo, HT Fat/T Sexual enhancement 2 0.38 0.39       Diarrhea, dysentery, cold and cough, burn, wound, acidity [64, 81,82,83] 0 0
Muscular pain 2
Joint pain 2
Headache 2
Reptiles
 3 Lissemys punctata andersoni Webb, Indian Flap-shelled Turtle, Hara Kachupra, LPA     0.00 0.00 Carapace/T Allergy 1 0.29 0.3 Rashes, burns, asthma, lung diseases, cough, tuberculosis, Diarrhea, indigestion, malaria fever, diabetes, urinary obstruction, arthritis, Bronchitis, menorrhagia, sexual dysfunction, wounds, dermatitis, acne, piles [73, 74, 84] 0 0
Fat/T Sexual enhancement 1
Backbone pain 1
Epilepsy 2
Cession 1
Bile/T Strangulation 1
 4 Laudakia agrorensis (Stoliczka), Monitor lizard, Goh, Wada Kirla, LA Fat/ T Burn 4 0.22 0.38     0.00 0.00 Cough, fever, jaundice, burn, joint pain, skin disease, arthritis, malaria, sexual stimulant [80, 81, 83, 85,86,87] 0.51 0
Sexual male power 5
 5 Saara hardwickii (Gray), Indus Valley spiny-tail ground lizard, Sanda, UH Fat/T Sexual enhancement 10 0.84 1.56 Fat/ T Sexual enhancement 10 0.73 1.21 Increase sexual power [88] 0.25 0.25
Weakness 2
Muscular pain 5 Ear pain 5
joint pain 5 Backbone pain 5
Head-ach 5
 6 Naja naja (L.), Black cobra, Kala Naag, NNN Skin/ T Sharpen eye side 10 0.50 0.39 Fat/ T Muscular pain 3 0.53 0.90 Muscular pain, arthritis and sexual weakness, leprosy, cancer [82, 83, 88] 0 0.33
Sexual weakness 10
Oil/ T Snake bite 2 Oil/ T Snake bite 2
 7 Echis carinatus sochureki Stemmler, Sind Valley saw snake viper, Daba sap, ECH Oil/ T Snake bite 2 0.29 0.38     0.00 0.00 Snake bite [88] 0.50 0
Sexual enhancement 5
Mammals
 8 Lepus nigricollis dayanus Blanford, Desert hare, Jungli saya/Jungli khargush, LND Meat/ O Paralysis 2 0.87 1.18 Hair/ T Burning sensation 2 0.78 0.92 Tonic, chicken pox, wheezing, stomach and joint pain, high blood pressure, Asthma, burning sensation, paralysis. [63, 64, 73, 74, 77, 85, 89,90,91] 0.67 0.50
Weakness 4 Meat/ O Paralysis 20
Asthma 4 Asthma 10
 9 Hystrix indica Kerr., Indian crested porcupine, Kanday wali say, HCR Fat/ T Skin infection 3 0.36 0.77 Fat/ T Skin infection 2 0.50 0.60 Skin infection, rheumatic pain, colic, boiled, stomach-ache, foot mouth disease, easy delivery of a child, premenstrual pain, weakness and muscle fatigue, asthma [64, 77, 80, 82, 84, 90, 92,93,94] 0.08 0.14
Joint pain 10 Joint pain 8
 10 Pteropus giganteus (Brün.), Indian flying fox bat, Chamgadar, PGI Fat/ T Enhance sexual male power 7 0.29 0.38 Fat/ T Enhance sexual male power 9 0.33 0.30 Asthma, bronchitis, enhance sexual power [73, 74, 77, 85, 95] 0 0.20
 11 Rattus rattus (L.), House rat, Wada Choha, RR Fat/ T Joint pain 8 0.13 0.38 Fat/ T Joint pain 7 0.29 0.30 Convulsions, semen enhancement, wounds healing, joint pain [74, 77, 81, 95, 96] 0.20 0.20
 12 Ovis orientalis punjabiensis Lydekker, Urial, Heeran, OO Meat/ O Enhance power 18 0.83 0.40 Fat/ T Joint pain 10 0.73 0.91    0 0
Backbone pain 2
Sexual enhancement 10
 13 Hemiechinus collaris (Gray), Long eared desert hedgehog, Chotay kanday ali say/Kandyari Choha, HCO Fat/ T Joint pain 9 0.33 0.77 Fat/ T Joint pain, Backbone pain 10 0.30 0.60 Rheumatic pain, body ache [77] 0.50 0.50
Backbone pain 1
 14 Canis aureus L., Golden jackal, Gidar, CAA Fat/ T Skin infection 7 0.29 0.38 Fat/ T Skin infection 8 0.25 0.30 Rheumatic pain, body ache [63, 64, 74, 77, 81, 86, 91, 93, 97] 1.0 1.0
 15 Herpestes javanicus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilarie), Small Indian mongoose, Neola, HJ Fat/ T Sexual power 8 0.27 0.77 Fat/ T Sexual power 9 0.22 0.30 Sexual power, impotence by males [77, 86] 1.0 1.0
Backbone pain 3
 16 Camelus dromedarius L., Dromedary, Ount, CD Milk/ O Hepatitis B and C 10 0.75 0.78 Milk/ O Joint pain 2 0.67 1.50 Acidity, hepatitis B and C, malaria, cold, coughs, stannic pain, migraine headache, lumbago (for buffalo) [77, 88, 92, 98,99,100] 0.33 0.5
Cancer 10 Diabetes 1
Hepatitis B and C 10
Allergy 1
Cancer 14
 17 Capra aegagrus hircus (L.), Goat, Bakri, CAH Milk/ O enhance energy sexual power 20 0.86 0.80 Milk/ O Enhance sexual power 10 0.90 0.33 Fever, eye tonic, tonsillitis, asthma, tuberculosis, menstrual disorder, toothache, anemia, cough, dysentery, bronchitis, jaundice, diarrhea, blindness, joint pain, sexual enhancement, rhinitis, skin blisters [73, 74, 77, 81, 83, 88, 89, 95, 96, 98, 101,102,103] 0.33 0.33
Testis/ O Enhance sperm production 10
Meat/ O Fever 8 Bone soup/ O Heal wound 9
 18 Bos taurus L., Cattle, Gay, BT Ghai and fat/T Feet wounds 10 0.73 1.55 Ghai and fat/ T Feet wounds 4 0.82 1.21 Fever, bone fever, memory loss, paralysis, asthma, stomach ache, gastritis, diarrhea, eye infection, sore throats, tuberculosis, pesticide, measles, wound, cough, body pain, poison effect, acne and facial pimples, blood cancer, appetite stimulant, malaria, hysteria [63, 64, 66, 77, 83,84,85, 89, 90, 96, 98, 100, 103,104,105,106,107] 0.43 0.38
Milk and meat/O Body pain, Fever 10 Milk and meat/ O Body pain, Fever 6
Ghai and milk/O Poison effect 2
Testis and milk/ O Enhance the sperm production. 2
Ghai and milk/O Poison Effect 2 Testis and milk/ O Enhance the sperm production 10
 19 Bubalus bubalis (L.), Buffalo, Mujh, BB Milk and turmeric/O Wound 4 0.74 3.08 Milk and turmeric/ O Wound 1 0.72 2.39 Pain, wound, jaundice, ascites, rheumatic pain, weakness, osteoporosis, thrombosis, improves heart strength, pre-menstrual pain, injury [73, 74, 77, 80, 81, 85, 89, 95, 108,109,110] 0.11 0.09
Milk and almond/ O Enhance physical and mental health 1 Milk and almond/ O Enhance physical and mental health 2
Colostrum/ O Enhance immunity 2 Colostrum/ O Enhance immunity 2
Milk, Fenugreek seed, turmeric, white piper grind and mixed all/ O Diabetes 1 Milk, Fenugreek seed, turmeric, white piper grind and mixed all/ O Diabetes 2
Milk mixed with grind water caltrop/ O Enhance sexual power 2 Milk mixed with grind water caltrop/ O Enhance sexual power 2
Milk mixed with grind water caltrop/ O Enhance sexual power 1
Milk mixed with grind water caltrop/ O Enhance sexual power 2
O = Milk mixed with grind seeds of dates/ O Joint pain 2 Milk mixed with grind seeds of dates/ O Joint pain 3
Heart diseases 3 Heart diseases 2
Stones of bladder 2 Stones of bladder 3
Stones of spleen 1 Stones of spleen 1
Enhance sexual power 3 Enhance sexual power 4
 20 Manis crassicaudata É.. Geoffroy, Indian pangolin, Sipa/ Sipple, MC Scale/T enhance sexual Power 9 0.33 0.39 Scale/ T enhance sexual Power 9 0.22 0.30 Feet swelling, piles, blood pressure, head ach, asthma, anti-haemorrhoidal, warts, ear pain, angina, back pain, heals bone inflammation, anti-poison, heals torn veins and arteries, infertility, gastro-intestinal disorders, safe parturition, stomach ulcers, rheumatism and fibroid, sexual power [73, 74, 82, 84, 89, 91, 93, 110,111,112] 1.0 0.05
 21 Homo sapiens L., Human, Insan, HS Saliva/T Herpes 4 0.33 0.77 Saliva/ T Herpes 4 0.25 0.59 Eye infections, wound, hiccup, herpes, ear pain, conjunctivitis, eye pain, antiseptic in [67,68,69, 77, 80, 85, 91, 97, 101, 113] 1.0 1.0
Urine/T Ear pain 2 Urine/ T Ear pain 6
 22 Ovis aries L., Sheep, Bairh, OA Milk/T Skin burn and cracks 16 0.69 1.17 Milk/ T Skin burn and cracks 2 0.77 1.21 Edema, fractures, joint pain, sterility, flu, skin burn and crack, muscular pain, swellings, weakness, rheumatism, arthritis, swells, breast infection, headache, brain diseases, phlegm, dizziness, night blindness, heart failure, epilepsy, scabies [19, 59, 64, 66, 70, 73, 74, 77, 100, 103, 107, 110, 113,114,115,116] 0.75 0.75
Soup/ O Flu 4
Meat/ O Weakness and joint pain 10
Meat/O Weakness and joint pain 10 Testis/ O Enhance sperm production 10
 23 Felis chaus Schreber, Jungle cat, Jungli billi, FC Fat/T Joint pain 8 0.50 0.39 Fat/ T Joint pain 8 0.63 0.30 Leucoderma, joint pain [74, 77] 1.0 1.0
 24 Felis domesticus Erxleben, Domestic cat, Billi, FD Fat/T Joint pain 9 0.33 0.39 Fat/ T Joint pain 9 0.44 0.30 Fever, arthritis, Rheumatic pain, skin infections, Goiter [77, 81, 100, 101] 1.0 1.0
 25 Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.), Domestic rabbit, Khargush/Saya, OC Meat/ O Paralysis 10 0.72 0.78 Meat/ O Paralysis 12 0.78 0.61 Bronchial diseases, stomachache, burn, weakness [77, 88, 100, 102, 104] 0.30 0.30
Asthma 8 Asthma 6
Birds
 26 Passer domesticus (L.), House Sparrow, Chiri, PD Meat/O Weakness 5 0.75 0.78 Meat/ O Sexual power 5 0.80 0.61 Increase sexual desire, aphrodisiac, allergy, paralysis, impotency, gas trouble, constipation, Chickenpox, weakness, fever, delay dentition (child) [64, 74, 77, 83, 88, 93, 94] 0.50 0.50
Energy 4 Energy 6
Fatigue 2 Fatigue 6
Fever 9 Weakness 9
 27 Gallus gallus (L.), Domestic chicken, Murghi, Kukri, GG Egg mixed with milk/O Weakness 10 0.86 1.57 Egg/ O Breast cancer 9 0.89 2.41 Sprains, strains, nourishing food, eye-each, BP, bronchitis, hemorrhoids, diabetes, burst furuncles, asthma, indigestion, jaundice, diabetes, sinusitis, to ease birth, shortness of breath, bronchitis, nervous problems, rheumatism, stuffy nose, weak bones, flu, weakness, sore throat, furuncle, burns, night blindness, optic infection, evil eye [19, 64, 66,67,68, 77, 82, 83, 85, 90, 93, 95, 101,102,103, 107, 115,116,117] 0.30 0.10
Low blood pressure 5 Weight loss 1
Eye sight 5
Meat/O Fever 10 Deficiency of protein 3
Cold 10 Energy 2
Cold 2
CNS 1
Bones and teeth nourishment 6
 28 Columba livia Gmelin, Blue rock pigeon, Jangli kabotar, CL Meat/ O Paralysis 20 0.89 0.42 Meat/ O Paralysis 22 0.93 0.33 Menorrhagia, Bronchitis, puberty in young girls, paralysis, epilepsy, anemia, infertility, Menorrhagia, abscess [73, 74, 77, 81, 82, 86, 88, 96,97,98, 102, 117] 0.33 0.33
Weakness 4 Weakness 20
Enhance energy 4 Enhance energy 20
 29 Coturnix coturnix (L.), Common quail, Batera, CCO Brain/ O Enhance memory 22 0.81 0.81 Brain/ O Enhance memory 10 0.83 0.94 Skin diseases, anemia, body weakness, enhance memory, sexual power, fever [64, 73, 74, 77] 0.40 0.40
Meat/ O Enhance energy 1 Meat/ O Enhance energy 8
sexual power 5 sexual power 5
against cold 5 against cold 3
 30 Francolinus francolinus (L.), Black francolin, Kala tittar, FFR Meat/ O Enhance energy 10 0.77 0.80 Meat/ O Enhance energy 1 0.80 0.92 Bronchitis, weakness [77, 88] 0 0
Sexual power 10 Sexual power 10
Paralysis 6 Paralysis 2
Against cold 4 Against cold 5
 31 Anas platyrhynchos f. domesticus, Domestic duck, Batakh, APD Meat/ O Enhance energy 10 0.84 1.18 Meat/ O Fever 5 0.88 1.81 Weak eye-side, weakness, low blood pressure [77] 0.30 0.10
Egg/ O Fever 8 Enhance energy 6
Weak eye side 14 Egg/ O Weak eye side 1
Increase protein 1
CNS 1
Strengthened bones and teeth 2
 32 Streptopelia tranquebarica (Hermann), Red turtle dove, Surakh totru, STR Meat/ O Early maturity in young female 18 0.44 0.39 Meat/ O Early maturity in young female 30 0.50 0.31 Maturity in girls [77] 1.00 0
 33 Streptopelia decaocto (Frivaldszky), Indian ring dove, Kogi/Ghogi, SDE Meat/ O Early maturity in young female 16 0.44 0.39 Meat/ O Early maturity in young female 32 0.50 0.31 Maturity in girls, sexual tonic [77, 94] 1.00 0
 34 Streptopelia orientalis (Latham), Oriental turtle dove, Totru, SOR Meat/O Early maturity in young female 14 0.43 0.39 Meat/ O Early maturity in young female 14 0.50 0.31 Maturity in girls [77] 1.00 0
 35 Spelopelia senegalensis (L.), Little brown dove, Chhoti tutru/Chhoti kogi, SSE Meat/ O Early maturity in young female 15 0.38 0.39 Meat/ O Early maturity in young female 13 0.46 0.30 Maturity in girls [77] 1.00 0
 36 Athene brama (Temminck), Spotted owlet, Ullo, ABR Blood/ T Enhance male power and treat sexual weakness 21 0.79 0.41 Blood/ T Enhance male power and treat sexual weakness. 24 0.75 0.32 Rickets, cough, sexual weakness [73, 77] 0.50 0.50
 37 Acridothere ginginianus (Latham), Bank myna, Lali, AGI Meat/ O Whooping cough 15 0.47 0.39 Meat/ O Whooping cough 15 0.40 0.30    0 0
 38 Anas platyrhynchos L., Mallard, Nilsir, APL Meat/ O Paralysis 7 0.53 0.77 Meat/ O paralysis 5 0.47 0.60 Erectile dysfunction, scarlet fever, body strength, weakness, paralysis [66, 73, 74, 77, 96] 0.5 0.25
Egg/ O Eye sight 3
Enhance energy 2
Egg/ O Enhance energy 8 Protein 5
 39 Aquila nipalensis Hodgson, Tawny eagle, Baaz, ARN Fat/ T Breast swelling and pain 17 0.53 0.39 Fat/ T Breast swelling and pain 17 0.47 0.31 Chest pain, breast swelling [59, 77] 0.50 0.50
 40 Upupa epops L., Common hoopoe, Hud-hud, UEP Meat/ O Kidney problems 9 0.44 0.39 Meat/ O Kidney problems 9 0.56 0.30 Gall bladder stone, kidney problems [77, 93] 1.00 1.00
Fishes
 41 Rita rita (Hamilton), Rita, Khaga, RRI Brain/ O Enhance memory 4 0.81 1.17 Brain/ O Enhance memory 4 0.86 1.21 Joint pain [88] 0.21 0
Meat/ O Enhance energy 5 Meat/ O Enhance energy 5
Sexual power 2 Sexual power 2
Oil/ O Energy 5 Oil/ O Reduce overweight 5
Against cold 5 Energy 5
Joint pain 1 Against cold 2
 42 Sperata seenghala (Sykes), Giant river catfish, Singhari, SPSA Brain/ O Enhance memory 5 0.72 1.16 Brain/ O Enhance memory 4 0.67 1.20    0 0
Meat/ O Enhance energy   Meat/ O Enhance energy 5
Sexual power 5 Sexual power 2
Oil/ O Energy   Oil/O Reduce overweight 5
Against cold   Energy 2
Joint pain   Against cold 2
 43 Channa punctata (Bloch), Spotted snakehead, Dola, CPU Brain/ O Enhance memory 1 0.84 1.18 Brain/ O Enhance memory 5 0.81 1.22 Blood purification, appetite, malaria control, body pain, corn or calves [118,119,120] 0 0
Meat/ O Enhance energy 6 Meat/ O Enhance energy 5
Sexual power 3 Sexual power 10
Reduce overweight 5
Oil/ O Energy   Oil/ O Energy 5
Against cold 5 Against cold 1
Joint pain 1
 44 Channa marulius (Hamilton), Bullseye snakehead, Sap machli, CMA Brain/ O Enhance memory 3 0.81 1.17 Brain/ O Enhance memory 3 0.86 1.21 Increase sex power of male increase hemoglobin level, rheumatic pain [88, 118, 121, 122] 0.17 0.17
Meat/ O Enhance energy 2 Meat/ O Enhance energy 2
Sexual power 5 Sexual power 5
Oil/ O Energy 3 Oil/ O Reduce overweight 3
Against cold 2 Energy 2
Joint pain 6 Against cold 6
 45 Oreochromis niloticus (L.), Baringo tilapia, Chirra machhli, OAU Brain/ O Enhance memory 3 0.50 1.54 Brain/ O Enhance memory 3 0.56 1.49 Abscesses, sharpen sight, carbuncle, scorpion bite [123] 0 0
Meat/ O Enhance energy 2 Meat/ O Enhance energy 2
Sexual power 3 Sexual power 5
Scorpion bite 1 Reduce overweight 3
Oil/ O Energy 1 Oil/ O Sharpens eye sight 2
Against cold 6 Energy 6
Joint pain 1 Against cold 1
 46 Labeo calbasu (Hamilton), Black rohu, Kalbans, LCA Brain/ O Enhance memory 1 0.50 1.15 Brain/ O Enhance memory 3 0.57 1.49 Increase energy and memory, galactagogue [121] 0.33 0.33
Meat/ O Enhance energy 2 Meat/ O Enhance energy 2
Sexual power 3 Sexual power 5
Oil/ O Energy 1 Oil/ O Reduce overweight 1
Against cold 1 Increase lactation in mother 1
Joint pain 6 Energy and cold 2
 47 Ctenopharyngodon idella (Steindachner), Gardd carp, Grass carp, CID Brain/ O Enhance memory 2 0.73 1.16 Brain/ O Enhance memory 3 0.67 1.20 Against cold [124] 0 0
Meat/ O Enhance energy 2 Meat/ O Enhance energy 2
Sexual power 1 Sexual power 5
Oil/ O Energy 1 Oil/ O Reduce overweight 2
Against cold 1 Energy 2
Joint pain 8 Against cold 1
 48 Cyprinus carpio L., Aischgrund carp, Gulfam, CCA Brain/ O Enhance memory   0.68 1.16 Brain/ O Enhance memory 3 0.74 1.20 Erysipelas, lumbago, CNS [123] 0 0
Meat/ O Enhance energy 2 Meat/O Enhance energy 2
Sexual power 5
Sexual power 1 Reduce overweight 3
Oil/ O Energy 1 Oil/ O Energy 2
Against cold 3 Against cold 4
Joint pain 10
 49 Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton), Mrigal carp, Marakhi, CMR Brain/ O Enhance memory 1 0.73 1.17 Brain/ O Enhance memory 3 0.77 1.21 Joint pain, reduce weight [88] 0.17 0.17
Meat/ O Enhance energy 2 Meat/ O Enhance energy 2
Sexual power 1 Sexual power 5
Oil/ O Energy 3 Reduce overweight 3
Against cold 3 Oil/ O Energy 2
Joint pain 12 Against cold 6
 50 Labeo rohita (Hamilton), Roho labeo, Raho, LRO Brain/ O Enhance memory 1 0.88 1.19 Brain/ O Enhance memory 3 0.85 1.22 Urine Problem, stomach ache, weakness, rheumatic pain, Gastric [80, 88, 118] 0 0
Meat/ O Enhance energy 12 Meat/ O Enhance energy 2
Sexual power 1 Sexual power 15
Oil/ O Energy 1 Reduce overweight 3
Against cold 3 Oil/ O Energy 2
Joint pain 15 Against cold 6
 51 Carassius auratus (L.), Goldfish, Sanhari, CAU Brain/ O Enhance memory 1 0.63 1.16 Brain/ O Enhance memory 3 0.68 1.20    0 0
Meat/ O Enhance energy 6 Meat/ O Enhance energy 2
Sexual power 3 Sexual power 5
Oil/ O Energy 1 Reduce overweight 3
Against cold 1 Oil/ O Energy 2
Joint pain 7 Against cold 4
 52 Gibelon catla (Hamilton), Catla, Thaila, CACA Brain/ O Enhance memory 1 0.70 1.17 Brain/ O Enhance memory 3 0.6 1.2 Increase energy and memory, galactagogue, rheumatic pain [88, 121] 0.33 0.33
Meat/ O Enhance energy 12 Meat/ O Enhance energy 2
Sexual power 2 Sexual power 15
Oil/ O Energy 1 Reduce overweight 3
Against cold 1 Oil/ O Energy 2
Against cold 2
Joint pain 10
 53 Wallago attu (Bloch), Boal, Mali, WAT Brain/ O Enhance memory 1 0.74 1.17 Brain/ O Enhance memory 3 0.70 1.21 Joint pain, liver tonic, blood dysentery and piles [67, 113, 125] 0.17 0.17
Meat/ O Enhance energy 1 Meat/ O Enhance energy 2
Sexual power 13 Sexual power 10
Liver diseases 1 Reduce overweight 3
Oil/ O Energy 1 Oil/ O Energy 2
Against cold 3 Against cold 3
Joint pain 3
 54 Bagarius bagarius (Hamilton), Bagarid catfish, Foji Khaga, BBA Brain/ O Enhance memory 1 0.81 1.18 Brain/ O Enhance memory 3 0.85 1.51 Body burns, stomach pain, body pain [86, 118] 0.37 0.17
Meat/ O Enhance energy 2 Meat/ O Enhance energy 2
Sexual power 10 Sexual power 10
Oil/ O Energy 4 Reduce overweight 3
Against cold 1 Oil/ O Energy 2
Joint pain 9 Against cold 2
 55 Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), Scorpion cat-fish, Singhi, HF Brain/ O Enhance memory 1 0.74 1.16 Brain/ O Enhance memory 3 0.79 1.20 Sting, joint pain, increase hemoglobin level and fever, pain, wound healing [80, 83, 98, 114] 0.17 0
Meat/ O Enhance energy 1 Meat/ O Enhance energy 2
Sexual power 8 Sexual power 5
Oil/ O Energy 1 Reduce overweight 3
Against cold 1 Oil/ O Energy 2
Joint pain 7 Against cold 2
Invertebrates
 56 Apis mellifera L., Honey Bee, Shahd makhi, AME Honey mixed with grind cinnamon/ O Cold 10 0.89 5.39 Honey mixed with grind cinnamon/ O Cold 1 0.83 5.95 Dark spots, bronchitis, skin lightening, cough, fever, cataract, burn, sexual impotence, cold, flu, aging, sore throat, shortness of breath, arthritis, tuberculosis, constipation [19, 59, 66, 67, 94, 96, 100,101,102,103, 115] 0.13 0.09
Cough 1
Cough 1 Acidity 1
Acidity 3 Obesity 1
Obesity 1 Control blood pressure 1
Control blood pressure 1 Muscle pain 2
Belly pain 1
Muscle pain 5 Antimicrobial 3
Belly pain 1 Anti-inflammatory 2
Fennel mixed with honey/ O Indigestion 1
Honey/T Hair loss 3
Pimple 1
Honey/ O Body pain 3 Insect bite 1
Ulcer 1 Grind big raisins, fennel mixed with honey/O Indigestion 1
Allergy 1
Tumor 1
Enhance immunity 1   Body pain 1
Ulcer 1
Green tea, fennel, black cardamom, cinnamon mixed with honey/ O Indigestion 1 Allergy 1
Tumor 1
Enhance immunity 1
Lemon juice, olive oil mixed with honey (in equal quantity)/ O Kidney stones 1
Ghai, egg yolk, mixed with honey/ O Weak eyesight 1
Grind walnut mixed with honey/ O Stomach diseases, increase energy 1
Green tea, fennel, cardamom, cinnamon mixed with honey/ O Indigestion 1
 57 Oligochaeta spp. Earth worm, Gundoya, LTE    0 0.00 0.00 Dry and clean earthworm body take in dry mud pot and pot close with mud and warm it with cow/buffalo dung, now get a ash/ O Backbone pain 6 0.17 0.30 Wound, impotence [59, 96] 0 0
  1. Note: O (mean oral), T (topical), PU (parts use), MA (mode of application)