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Table 1 List of wild edible species used by the Vasavas

From: Consumption patterns of wild edibles by the Vasavas: a case study from Gujarat, India

Sr. No. Botanical names and collection number Season Family/sub family Vasavi name Plant type Plant part used Habitat/location Recipe and use
1 Achyranthes aspera L. TSLBG: 2402 June–Dec Amaranthaceae Arpchinjudo 2 1 4 The leaves are consumed as leafy vegetables either boiled or stir-fried with spices
2 Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. TSLBG: 2413 April–June Rutaceae Bila (Bili) 1 3 1 Unripe fruit is pickled, and ripe fruit is consumed directly or in the form of a juice
3 Alangium salvifolium (L. f.) Wang. TSLBG: 2483 Oct–Jan Alangiaceae Aakna 1 3 1 The fruit is edible, and the twig is used as a dental floss
4 Alternanthera sessilis L. TSLBG: 2454 June–Oct Amaranthaceae Ganthiyu 2 1 4 The leaves are boiled and consumed as leafy vegetables with spices
5 Amaranthus hybridus L. TSLBG: 2548 June–Nov Amaranthaceae Laal matnu 3 1 7 Leaves are boiled and drained, and chili spice and salt are added for flavor
6 Amaranthus spinosus L. TSLBG: 2464 June–Nov Amaranthaceae Kantalomatnu 3 1 7 Leaves are boiled, and spices are added. Sometimes addition of khatibhindi (Hibiscus sabdarifa)
7 Amaranthus viridis L. TSLBG: 2558 June–Nov Amaranthaceae Matnu 3 1 7 Leaves are boiled, and spices are added
8 Annona squamosa L. TSLBG: 2409 Sept–Nov Annonaceae Aanusari 1 6 4 The fruits are edible when ripe. The roots, leaves, and bark are used medicinally
9 Argyreia nervosa (Burm. f) Boj TSLBG: 2540 June–Oct Convolvulaceae Panjo 5 6 4 Tender leaves are boiled or sautéed
10 Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott. TSLBG: 2502 June–July Apaceae Vayu 3 5 4 The young tender petiole of the plant is soaked overnight in salt water to reduce the mucilage and then pickled or cooked in sour yoghurt or buttermilk with spices as a vegetable
11 Asparagus racemosus Willd. TSLBG: 2414 All year Liliaceae Shatavari 2 4 4 Root is boiled removing the central vein and stir-fried with oil and spices; soup of boiled roots is also prepared
12 Azadirachta indica A. Juss. TSLBG: 2429 March–June Meliaceae Limdo 1 6 1 The ripe fruit pulp is edible
13 Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettest. TSLBG: 2438 Sept–Jan Scrophulariaceae Nirbrahmi/Bam 3 1 3 Washed thoroughly and prepared with onions and spices or boiled
14 Bambusa arundinacea(Retz.) Willd. TSLBG: 2415 Once after 25 years Poaceae Vans 1 5 2 The young shoot is boiled and stir-fried to a vegetable, or young shoot is boiled and made in to pickle with spices
15 Bauhinia racemosa Lam. TSLBG: 2411 Feb–May Caesalpiniae Aachitro, Hinglo 1 2 1 The young leaves and flowers are used as stir-fried vegetable
16 Bauhinia vahlii Graham TSLBG: 2417 Feb–May Caesalpiniae Aavalvel 4 3 2 The young leaves and flowers are used as stir-fried vegetable
17 Benkara pundulacakai (Gmelin.) Almeida. TSLBG: 2422 June–July Rubiaceae Gungur (flower) 2 2 2 The flowers are washed and stir-fried in oil and spices
18 Boerhavia diffusa L. TSLBG: 2501 All year Nyctaginaceae Dhagarphodiyu/Patharphodiyu 3 6 1 Stir-fried vegetable in yoghurt with spices or boiled
19 Bombax ceiba L. TSLBG: 2564 Feb–March Bombacaceae Hambo, Samro 1 2 2 Flowers are used to make stir-fry curry in oil, or they are boiled with spices
20 Borassus flabellifer Linn. TSLBG: 2484 Feb–May Palmaceae Tad 1 6 4 The sap from the inflorescence is collected in an earthen pot, and the juice is either fresh or consumed in the evening after some fermentation. Fruit is also edible
21 Borreria articularis (L.f.) F.N.Williams TSLBG: 2420 All year round Rubiaceae Ganthi 3 1 1 The leaves are used and are boiled with some spices or stir-fried in oil
22 Bridelia squamosa (Lamk.) Gehrmann. TSLBG: 2435 Jan–Feb Euphorbiaceae Akano (1) 1 3 2 The fruits are edible when ripe. The roots, leaves, and bark are used medicinally
23 Buchanania cochinchinensis (Lour.) Almeida TSLBG: 2509 Feb–May Anacardiaceae Charoli 1 3 2 The fruit is edible and eaten when ripe
24 Cassia tora L. TSLBG: 2425 June–Aug Fabaceae Chinjudo 2 6 4 The small tender leaves are edible as a leafy vegetable or as a stir-fried with oil and spices
25 Celosia argentea L. TSLBG: 2444 June–Oct Amaranthaceae Lemdi 2 1 1 The leaves are eaten as a leafy vegetable either boiled or stir-fried in oil with spices
26 Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. TSLBG: 2427 July–Aug Asclepiadaceae Sap okoni 3 4 1 The tubers are edible. The tubers are boiled and added with crushed chili flakes
27 Ceropegia fantastica Sed. TSLBG: 2555 July–Aug Asclepiadaceae Okoni 3 4 1 The tubers are edible. The tubers are boiled and added with crushed chili flakes
28 Chenopodium album L. TSLBG: 2546 June–Nov Chenopodiaceae ChilBhaji 3 1 1 Leaves are cooked in buttermilk as a vegetable
29 Chlorophytum borivalianum Sant. & Fernand TSLBG: 2498 June–Aug Liliaceae Kuvlu 3 1 2 The leaves and bulb are stir-fried and eaten. The leaves are added in daal sometimes
30 Chlorophytum tuberosum (Roxb.) Baker TSLBG: 2447 June–Aug Liliaceae Dholimusli/Kuvli 3 6 2 The leaves are used in daal as a vegetable
31 Clematis hedysarifolia DC. TSLBG: 2506 June–Aug Ranunculaceae Kukadvel 5 5 4 The tender stem is used as a vegetable
32 Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels. TSLBG: 2519 All year round Menispermiaceae Vasano/Vasanvel 5 1 4 Can be eaten raw or boiled and stir-fried in spices after draining water
33 Commelina benghalensis L. TSLBG: 2475 June–Aug Commelinaceae Keniyu 3 1 7 The tender leaves are stir-fried and eaten
34 Commelina diffusa L. f. TSLBG: 2513 June–Aug Commelinaceae Punyopujyu 3 1 6 The tender leaves are stir-fried in oil and eaten with crushed chilies and salt
35 Commelina obliqua Vahl. TSLBG: 2450 June–Aug Commelinaceae Narelu 3 1 6 Tender leaves are edible and eaten stir-fried with oil and spices
36 Cordia dichotoma Forst. f. TSLBG: 2471 Dec–Feb (flower) March–June fruit Ebenaceae Gunda (green and chikna)   6 4 Inflorescence is cooked stir-fried with yoghurt and spices. The unripe fruit is used for making pickle
37 Cordia gharaf (Forsk.) E. & A. TSLBG: 2524 Dec–May Ehretiaceae Gundi 1 3 1 The ripe fruit is consumed, and unripe fruit is pickled
38 Dalbergia volubilis Roxb. TSLBG: 2561 June–Nov Fabaceae Kinhariyu/Pingush 5 1 1 The tender leaves are cooked as a leafy vegetable as a stir-fried in oil and spices
39 Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees TSLBG: 2445 July–Aug Poaceae Vans nibhaaji   5 2 Tender just emerged shoot apex is boiled and cut and made in pickle and made into vegetable
40 Dioscorea belophylla Voigt. TSLBG: 2469 Aug–Sept Dioscoreaceae Huvi 4 4 4 The bulbil is similar to Taro and is boiled and cooked similarly in oil and spices
41 Dioscorea bulbifera L. TSLBG: 2482 June–July Dioscoreaceae Kadvokand 4 4 4 The bulbil is boiled or soaked overnight in salt to remove bitterness and then cooked like potato with oil and spices and sometimes in buttermilk
42 Dioscorea hispida Dennstd. TSLBG: 2521 Aug–Sept Dioscoreaceae Manovaj 4 4 4 The bulbil is similar to Taro and is boiled and cooked similarly in oil and spices and sometimes in buttermilk
43 Dioscorea pentaphylla L. TSLBG: 2463 Aug–Sept Dioscoreaceae Huvdo 4 4 4 The bulbil is similar to Taro and is boiled and cooked similarly in oil and spices and sometimes in buttermilk
44 Dioscorea wallichii Hk. TSLBG: 2530 Aug–Sept Dioscoreaceae Chaydu 4 4 4 The bulbils is similar to Taro and is boiled and cooked similarly in oil and spices and sometimes in buttermilk
45 Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. TSLBG: 2448 May–June Ebenaceae Timru 1 6 2 Fruit is consumed for its sweet taste; unripe fruits are picked from forest and ripened in sandy soil. Leaves are used for making local handmade cigarette (bidi)
46 Dregea volubilis (L.f.) Benth. ex Hook.f. TSLBG: 2431 Sept–Feb. Asclepiadaceae Kadvishir 5 3 1 The young leaves and stems are boiled and drained and eaten with crushed chili and salt
47 Enicostema littorale Bl. TSLBG: 2488 June–Aug Gentianaceae Mamejavo/KadviNai 3 1 1 Tender leaves stir-fried as vegetable
48 Eulophia herbacea Lindl. TSLBG: 2497 July–Sept Orchidaceae Waghmodhu 3 2 1 Inflorescence is cooked
49 Ficus hispida L.f. TSLBG: 2507 May–July Moraceae Umbo/Koth Umbo 1 3 1 Fruit edible and much enjoyed by kids, leaves medicinal
50 Flueggea microcarpa Bl. TSLBG: 2489 July–Nov Euphorbiaceae Safed chini 2 3 1 The white, ripe fruits are edible
51 Garuga pinnata Roxb. TSLBG: 2494 Jan–May Burseraceae Kakaro 1 3 1 Pickle is made up of fruits
52 Grewia hirsuta Vahl. TSLBG: 2495 Aug–October Tiliaceae Tamna 1 3 2 Ripe fruit is edible raw and has medicinal properties for stomach disorders
53 Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl. TSLBG: 2529 Aug–October Tiliaceae Dhaman 1 6 2 Ripe fruit is edible raw. Stem is used for toothache as dental floss
54 Heracleum grandis (Dalz. & Gibs.) Mukh. TSLBG: 2532 All year Umbelliferae Bokhudo 2 6 3 Stir-fried vegetable of the leaves either boiled or stir-fried with oil and spices
55 Holarhena antidysenterica (Heyne ex Roth) Wall. ex DC. TSLBG: 2451 June–Aug Apocynaceae Kunvad 2 1 4 The tender leaves are made into a leafy vegetable
56 Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch TSLBG: 2441 Jan–May Ulmaceae Kunjo, Punjo 1 3 1 The leaves are boiled and drained and eaten with added spices
57 Holostemma annularium (Roxb.) K Schum. TSLBG: 2534 June–Aug Asclepiadaceae Nanshiri/meethishir 4 6 2 Tender leaves are used as vegetables, and flowers are bit sweet and edible as well. Medicinally, the leaves and roots are used for menstrual disorders and period pain
58 Ipomoea marginata (Desr.) Verdc. TSLBG: 2432 June–Oct Convolvulaceae Panjvu 5 1 7 The leaves are used as leafy vegetable and is edible either stir-fried or boiled with spices
59 Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. TSLBG: 2436 All year Convolvulaceae Nal 3 1 3 Stir-fried vegetable or boiled leaves with added spices
60 Ipomoea carneassp. Fistulosa (Mortex ex Choisy) Austin TSLBG: 2433 July–Nov Convolvulaceae Nihuto 2 1 1 The tender leaves after rain are plucked and stir-fried into a vegetable with oil and spices
61 Kirganelia reticulata (Poir.) Bail. TSLBG: 2442 July–Aug Euphorbiaceae Kinhariyu/Kalichini 2 1 1 Tender shoots and leaves are stir-fried to make leafy vegetable with oil and spices
62 Leea asiatica (L.) Ridsdale TSLBG: 2437 Aug–Nov Leeaceae Nanidhini 2 2 2 The inflorescence is cut and cooked as a vegetable with oil and spices
63 Leea edgeworthii Sant. TSLBG: 2544 July–Sept Leeaceae Nanudhinu 2 5 2 The inflorescence is cut and cooked as a vegetable with oil and spices
64 Leea macrophylla Roxb. ex Hornem TSLBG: 2485 July–Aug Leeaceae Motu Dhinu 3 2 1 Cultural importance of leaves for usage in ritual of offering first grain of harvest and praying. Fruits edible. Inflorescence is cooked as vegetable stir-fried in oil with spices
65 Limonia acidissima L. TSLBG: 2520 Nov–March Rutaceae Kotha 1 3 1 The fruit pulp is edible after adding some spices. It is usually made into a chutney (thick sauce) with salt and chili occasionally also adding sugar
66 Madhuca indica Gmel. TSLBG: 2473 March–July Sapotaceae Mahuda 1 6 2 Flower is fleshy and is sun-dried and eaten, local liquor made from fleshy flower. Seed oil is medicinal and used for massage and cooking. Fruit pulp can be edible too
67 Manilkara hexandra Dub. TSLBG: 2443 April–May Sapotaceae Rayan 1 3 1 Ripe fruits are sweet and edible
68 Marsilea minuta L. TSLBG: 2446 In water bodies throughout the year Marsileaceae Chabarchilu/Chilo 3 1 3 Tender leaves are stir-fried with fresh pigeon pea beans with spices as a leafy vegetable
69 Momordica dioica Roxb. TSLBG: 2449 July–Sept Cucurbitaceae Kantola/Kotno/Kankoda 5 3 4 Fruit is cooked as a vegetable with spices stir-fried in oil
70 Morinda tomentosa Heyne ex Roth syn M. Tinctoria Roxb. TSLBG: 2472 Sept Rubiaceae Aal 1 3 2 Ripe fruits are edible
71 Moringa concanensis Nimmo. TSLBG: 2455 Sept–Feb Moringaceae Hengvo 1 6 2 The leaves and flowers are thoroughly washed and consumed as a leafy vegetable stir-fried in oil with spices
72 Moringa oleifera Lamk. TSLBG: 2499 Oct–Mar Moringaceae Saragvo 1 6 1 Fruit pods are used as a vegetable in daal and boiled vegetable with spices. The leaves and flowers are also used as a leafy vegetable either boiled or stir-fried in oil
73 Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb. TSLBG: 2528 Jan–June Arecaceae Khajuri 1 3 4 The fruit is edible
74 Phyllanthus emblica L. TSLBG: 2487 Oct–Feb Euphorbiaceae Ambli/amla 1 3 2 Fruits are edible raw or pickled, pickled vegetable also made. Dried fruit powder used in medicines
75 Pleurotus sp. TSLBG: 2505 July–Aug Pleurotaceae Vansitro/Vans naphool   6 2 The mushrooms are washed and cleaned and stir-fried with onions and spices
76 Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb.) DC. TSLBG: 2474 All year Fabaceae Bohon 4 1 3 Stir-fried or boiled with spices
77 Randia spinosa (Thumb.) BL. TSLBG: 2468 Jan–May Rubiaceae Galu 2 3 1 The fruits are edible in small amounts
78 Schleichera oleosa Lour. TSLBG: 2479 Feb–July Sapindaceae Kusum 1 3 1 The ripe fruits are edible
79 Solanum nigrum L. TSLBG: 2458 June–Nov Solanaceae Nagadyu 2 6 4 The leaves are edible as leafy vegetables and eaten boiled with chili and salt. The fruits are edible when ripe
80 Spondias acuminata Roxb. TSLBG: 2517 May–June Anacardiaceae Khatakumba/Khatambni 1 3 2 Fruits are edible raw. Bark is softened and applied on rashes
81 Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels TSLBG: 2492 May–Sept Myrtaceae Jambu 1 3 1 The ripe fruits are edible
82 Tamarindus indica L. TSLBG: 2512 Feb–July Caesalpiniaceae Katra (Khatiambli) 1 6 1 The leaves and flowers are made into a leafy stir-fried vegetable with spices. Chutney (sauce) of unripe fruits made by crushing it with spices and garlic. Ripe fruits are used for culinary purpose as well. Bark and seeds are used medicinally
83 Telosma pallida (Roxb.) Craib. TSLBG: 2523 June–Nov Asclepiadaceae Varshadodi 4 1 1 The tender leaves are eaten as leafy vegetable either boiled or stir-fried with spices
84 Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. TSLBG: 2461 Jan–May Combretaceae Behado 1 3 1 The red fruits are edible
85 Tinospora glabra (Burm.f.) Merrill TSLBG: 2480 Jan–May Menispermiaceae Kamboli 5 5 1 The leaves are tender; stem is cut and stir-fried in oil and mixed with other leafy vegetables
86 Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br. TSLBG: 2500 March–June Apocynaceae Safed Kuvad/Dudh Kuvad 1 6 1 Flowers are edible and stir-fried as a vegetable with oil and spices
87 Wrightia tomentosa Roem. & Schult. TSLBG: 2514 March–July Apocynaceae Danti-Kuvad 1 6 1 Flowers are edible and stir-fried as a vegetable with oil and spices
88 Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. TSLBG: 2511 Jan–March Rhamnaceae Bor 1 3 1 The ripe fruits are edible
89 Ziziphus oenopila (L.) Mill. TSLBG: 2526 Jan–April Rhamnaceae Emardi 1 3 1 The ripe fruits are edible
90 Ziziphus xylopyra (Retz.) Willd. TSLBG: 2439 Jan–March Rhamnaceae Ghat bor 1 3 1 The ripe fruits are edible
  1. Key to the numerical categorization: plant type: 1—tree, 2—shrub, 3—herb, 4—twiner, 5—climber; plant part used: 1—leaves, 2—flowers, 3—seed/fruits, 4—tuber/underground part, 5—young shoot, 6—multiple parts used; habitat/location: 1—field/village, 2—forest, 3—swamp, 4—village + forest, 5—swamp + forest, 6—village + swamp, 7—all