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Table 2 Traditional practices for managing plant resources in targeted villages

From: Hierarchies of knowledge: ethnobotanical knowledge, practices and beliefs of the Vhavenda in South Africa for biodiversity conservation

Traditional practices Duthuni Tshidzivhe Vuvha Lwamondo Mashau Tshiendeulu
Consultation of the Khosi or Mukoma to seek permission before harvesting plants   X   X X X
Penalty for cutting down trees and the payment of a fine of ZAR 1000 (75USD)   X     
Stem bark is harvested on the eastern side of the plant X      X
Only the lateral roots of plants are collected X   X X X X
Soil is covered back over harvested roots X      X
Propagation of plant species in home gardens X X X    
Taboos preventing trees from being cut down, used as firewood or being placed in the homestead X X X X X X
Edible fruits from trees are only harvested when the fruits have fallen to the ground or ripened   X     X
Some species are only harvested for their tender leaves   X     X
Only the deadwood if trees is collected for firewood    X X X  
Consultation with the ancestors before harvesting a plant    X    
Women are not allowed to collect plants during menstruation    X    X
Plants harvested only from specific areas     X X  
Prohibitions from harvesting plants from the same area each year     X X  
Some species are only planted and harvested during certain seasons following ritual ceremonies by Makhadzi or traditional leaders.   X     X
Species only harvested when the flowers are present indicating the maturity of the plant       X
  1. Legend: X indicates the presence of traditional practices for managing plants in a village