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Table 12 List of wild spices, used part, processing methods, and forms and purpose of use

From: Species richness, cultural importance, and prioritization of wild spices for conservation in the Sudano-Guinean zone of Benin (West Africa)

Use category Plant part Processing method Form of use Purpose of use Frequency of citation
Ba (n = 61) Sb (n = 59) Zou (n = 93)
Aeollanthus pubescens Benth.
 Food Leaves Crush fresh leaves and mix with seasoning and sesame Eat as sauce Human nutrition 17
Milk production stimulation for nursing women 1
Diarrhea 2
Intestinal worms 1
Above ground Crush and mix with seasoning and sesame Eat as sauce Stop hemorrhage for nursing women 2
 Medicine Leaves Boil in water as decoction Drink the liquid 3 times/day Fever 2
 Other   Pound the fresh leaves and mix with traditional soap koto Take a shower with Deodorant for nursing women 1
Aframomum alboviolaceum (Ridley) K.Schum.
 Food Leaves Boil young leaves and mix with seasoning Eat as vegetable Human nutrition    1
Fruits Remove the cockleshell Eat the pulp Human nutrition 57 53 86
Malaria 1 5 1
Cough 1
Crushed dried cockleshells as condiment in sauce Eat Human nutrition 2
Root Crushed roots as aromatic spice in sauce Eat as sauce, contra-indicated with pregnant women Milk production stimulation for nursing women 3
 Medicine Leaves Boil leaves with stem and roots in water as decoction Drink the liquid and take a shower 3 times/day Fever and malaria 5 3 6
Drink the liquid 2 times/day Stomach-ache 1
Milk production stimulation for nursing women 1
Soak dried leaves in water for 2–3 days Drink the liquid and take a shower 3 times/day Fever and malaria 1
Boil leaves in water as decoction Take a shower Fortify infants 2
Drink the liquid, a glass for adult, half for children Dermatosis 1 1
Boil in water with Caesalpinia pulcherrima leaves, then add a piece of sugar Drink a small glass 2 times/day Icterus and yellow-fever 2
Triturate the leaves Drink the juice 2 times/day Hemorrhoid 1
Boil dried leaves in water as decoction. Add 2–3 pieces of sugar Drink the liquid 4–5 times/day Anemia for children 1
Boil in fermented corn water the yellowed leaves with A. angustifolium fruits plus tough potash Drink a glass/day Sexual weakness 1
Boil in the fermented corn water yellowed leaves with cockleshells of A. angustifolium fruits and tough potash Drink the liquid 2 times/day Painful menstruation 1
Fresh leaves Rub the leaves juice against the body Stop itching or insect bite 1
Fruits Remove the cockleshell and Soak the pulp including the seeds in water for 2–3 h Drink the liquid Malaria 2 3 3
Hematuria 1
Pound dried cockleshells with dried seeds of A. melegueta Make 9 scarifications at the hip Hip-ache 1
Remove the cockleshells Smell the scent or eat the pulp Nausea for pregnant women 2
Boil in water as decoction Drink the liquid once the day Fortify infants 1
Boil 4 fruits with other ingredients as decoction Drink the liquid 3 times/day Infertility for women 1
Pound fresh fruits and make small bowls Insert the bowls in the vagina before sleeping Absence of menstruation 1
Soak in water with roots Drink the liquid 3 times/day Strengthening of bones 2
Root Wash fresh roots Eat raw and swallow the juice Snake bite 1
Stomach-ache 1
Pounded fresh roots mix with other ingredients Make a poultice Snake bite 1 3
Soak in Sodabi or in sorghum fermented beverage for 2–3 days Drink a small glass 2 times/day - contra-indicated with pregnant women Stomach-ache 1
Soak with 7–8 M. myristica seeds and 4 Garcinia kola seeds Drink the liquid 3 times/day Sexual weakness 1
Dried roots and dried fruits plus tough potash crushed: mixed the powder palm almonds oil Eat the mixture, on the morning after eating something sweetened Intestinal worms 1
Crush dried roots with tough potash as powder Lap 3 times/day Intestinal worms 1
Boil in water with roots of Imperata cylindrica Drink the liquid 3 times/day Tuberculosis 1
Boil in water as decoction Rinse the mouth Tooth decay 1
Take a shower Fever 1
Rub the liquid against the wound Wound healing 1
Drink the liquid 3 times/day - contra-indicated with pregnant women Malaria 1
Crushed with M. myristica seeds, warm Rub the mixture against the body Swelling and edema 1
roast with Imperata cylindrica roots, 10 pods of M. myristica, 10 Garcinia kola seeds and tough potash as powder Mix with porridge, once on the morning Infertility for women 1
Soak in water for 4 days Drink the liquid and take a shower 2 times/day Fortify the body 1
Cut and Soak in the water of beverage Drink Poultry disease healing 1
Stem Cut the stem and add 3 seeds of A. melegueta Eat and swallow the juice Stomach-ache 1
Boil in water as decoction, add shea butter Drink the liquid Cough 1
Boil in water as decoction Drink the liquid 3 times/day Miscarriage 1
Seeds Macerate in the traditional palm alcohol (sodabi) dried seeds with papaya’s dried seeds Drink a small glass 3 times/day Stomach-ache 1
Take some seeds and add with a Garcinia kola seed Eat Cough 1
roast dried seeds as powder and mix with porridge Drink the porridge Vertigo
 Other Leaves Triturate the leaves in water Take a shower Bad body smells 1
Fresh leaves Wrap up maize based paste (akassa) Trade 5
Stem Fresh stems As string to attach luggage on the field Home use 6
As wipe to punish children Home use 5
 Ceremony Seeds Dried seeds Eaten by fetishist to activate incantations Magico-religious 2
Aframomum angustifolium (Sonn.) K.Schum.
 Food Leaves Crushed leaves as aromatic spice in sesame sauce Eat the sauce Human nutrition 2
Stop hemorrhage for nursing women 1
Fruits Remove the cockleshell Eat the pulp Human nutrition 5
Root Crushed roots as aromatic spice in sauce Eat as sauce Human nutrition 1
Fortify nursing women 1
Icterus 1
Headache 1
 Medicine Leaves Crushed leaves mixed with salt or in sauce Drink the mixture or eat the sauce Stomach-ache 1
Soak fresh leaves in water Rinse the face 3 times/day Swelling of the face 1
Fresh leaves Rub the leaves juice against the face 3 times/day Swelling of the face 1
Leaves, roots and fruits as key ingredients for the recipe Drink Discard snakes and snake bite healing 1
Fruits Remove the cockleshell and Soak the pulp including the seeds in water Drink the liquid Malaria 1
Hematuria 1
Crush or pound and mix with shea butter Rub the mixture against the body Ache 1
Soak in water with roots Drink the liquid 3 times/day Strengthening of bones 1
Root Boil in water as decoction with potash Drink the liquid Anemia 1
Crush or pound fresh roots Rub the mixture against the body Swelling and edema 1 2
Crush or pound fresh roots Rub the mixture against the head Headache 7
Boil in water as decoction Take a shower Ache 1
Fever 1
Crush or pound fresh roots Put a little in the nostrils Cold 1
Crush fresh roots Put the paste obtained on the decayed tooth Tooth decay 1
Soak in water for 5 min the crushed fresh roots Rub against the head and rinse the face Vertigo 1
Soak in water with fruits peduncle and leave under the sun Take a shower Measles 1
Stem Soak in germinated corn beverage Rinse the face Swelling of the face 1
Cut the fresh stems Eat and swallow the sap Cough 1
 Other Stem Fresh stems As string to attach luggage on the field Home use 2
As wipe to punish children Home use 1
 Ceremony Seeds Dried seeds Eaten by fetishist to activate incantations Magico-religious 1 1
Aframomum melegueta (Roscoe)
 Medicine Fruits Remove the cockleshell and Soak the pulp including the seeds in water Drink the liquid Malaria 1
Hematuria 1
Crush or pound and mix with shea butter Rub the mixture against the body Ache 1
Soak in water with roots Drink the liquid 3 times/day Strengthening of bones 1
Root Sock in palm wine Drink the liquid for 9 days (men) or 7 day (women) Asthenia 1
Seeds Crush dried seeds and mix with water Drink the liquid and drip on the eyes, contra-indicated with pregnant women Anemia 1
Drink the liquid 2–3 times/day, contra-indicated with pregnant women Diarrhea 1
Crush dried seeds and mix with palm alcohol Drink the liquid 2 times/day, contra-indicated with pregnant women Stomach-ache 1
Soak with X. aethiopica fruits Drink a small glass 2 times/day, contra-indicated with pregnant women Stomach-ache 1
Crush dried seeds as powder Make scarifications for 9 days (men) or 7 days (women) Paralysis 1
Soak in palm alcohol with P. guineense and X. aethiopica fruits, ginger and lemon Drink the liquid 3 times/day, contra-indicated with pregnant women Ulcer 1
 Ceremony Seeds Dried seeds Eaten by fetishist to activate incantations Magico-religious 10
Clausena anisata (WilId.) Hook.f. ex Benth.
 Medicine Leaves Boil in water as decoction Take a shower Dermatosis 1
Root Boil in water as decoction Drink the liquid 2 times/day Hemorrhoid 1
 Ceremony Leaves Fresh leaves Make magic to counter tchakatou dark magic Magico-religious 1
Cymbopogon giganteus (Hochst.) Chiov.
 Food Leaves Attach the leaves and use as aromatic in Cleome gynandra leaves sauce Eat the sauce Human nutrition 2
Lippia multiflora Moldenke
 Food Leaves Crush the young shoots and mix with seasoning and crushed sesame or peanut as aromatic spices Eat the sauce Human nutrition 49 54 29
Boil in water and mix with seasoning as vegetable sauce    1 2
Dry and reduce in powder Sprinkle the sauce Human nutrition 43 35 17
Boil fresh leaves in water with corn Eat Human nutrition 2 2
Soak in water with corn and grind Eat as akassa Human nutrition 1
Infuse dried leaves in warm water as aromatic tea Drink the tea Human nutrition 1 1
Flower Dried flowers in whole or crushed Sprinkle the sauce Human nutrition 44 35 17
Milk production stimulation for nursing women 2 1
Healing uterine wounds for nursing women 3 1
Indigestion, constipation and stomach-ache 8 5
Dysentery and Hemorrhoid 2 1
Boil flower or leaves in water with seasoning as spice for spicy meat Eat Human nutrition 1 5
 Medicine Leaves Boil in water as decoction Drink the liquid and take a shower 3 times/day Fever and malaria 6 9 25
Fortify infants 2 5 6
constipation and Stomach-ache 1 1 7
Diarrhea 3
Measles 1 1
Cover the head and take a steam bath Headache 2
Rinse the eyes Sore eyes 1
Boil in water as decoction or Soak in alcohol Drink the liquid Blood-pressure 3
Boil in water with stem and roots as decoction   Cold and cough 2 2
  Dysentery and Hemorrhoid 1 2
Drink the liquid and rinse the body or take a shower 2 times/day Dermatosis and wound healing 2 5
Boil in water leaves and roots Drink the liquid Healing uterine wounds for nursing women 4
Nausea and vomiting 3 1
Triturate the leaves Inhale the gas and drip on the eyes Headache 1
Put the juice into the nostrils Cold 1
Drink the juice before going to hospital Snake bite 1
Fresh leaves Eat and swallow the juice Cough
Root Boil in water as decoction Drink the liquid 2–3 times/day Anemia for children 1 1
Nausea and vomiting 10
Indigestion and Stomach-ache 2 9
Diarrhea 1
Ulcer 2
Intestinal worms 2
Drink the liquid and take a shower Fever and malaria 12 2
Fortify infants 3
Boil in water as decoction with small red onions, X. aethiopica fruits and M. myristica seeds Drink the liquid and take a shower Dermatosis and wound healing 7 1
Crush or pound fresh roots Rub the mixture against the body Swelling and edema 1 1
Soak in water for 2 h Drink the liquid 3 times/day Painful menstruation 1
Soak in water for 3 days with X. aethiopica fruits Rinse the eyes Sore eyes 1
Crush dried roots with 9 A. melegueta seeds and X. aethiopica fruit as powder Inhale the powder Headache 1
Stem Boil in water as decoction Drink the liquid 3 times/day Asthma 1
 Cultural Flower Dried flowers Use to spicy sauce Food 21
Monodora tenuifolia Benth.
 Food Seeds Roast the seed to remove the cockleshells and crush the almond, use as aromatic spice in sauce Eat the sauce Human nutrition 1
Crush almonds with X. aethiopica fruits and mix with pepper, chili, other spices and seasoning Eat as sauce Stomach-ache 1
 Medicine Seeds Boil in water with X. aethiopica fruits, U. chamae roots and small red onions Drink the liquid 3 times/day Stomach-ache 1
Black menstruations and absence of menstruations 1
Crush the almond and mix with palm almond oil Rub the mixture against the body Fever 1
Boil in water as decoction Take a shower Fever 1
Flower Char flowers with U. chamae roots as powder and an A. melegueta fruit pod Sprinkle wounds Incurable wounds healing 1
Bark Crush dried bark and 7 A. melegueta seeds as powder and mix with palm almond oil Put the mixture in the wounds Wound healing 1
Soak fresh barks in the water Rinse a wound Wound healing 1
Root Pound dried roots and mix with sugar and sulfur as powder Mix the powder with the porridge Dysentery and Hemorrhoid 1
 Ceremony Seeds Dried seeds Used by fetishist for various ceremonies Magico-religious 4
Piper guineense Schumach. & Thonn.
 Food Leaves Fresh leaves crushed or in whole as aromatic spice in sauce Eat Human nutrition 13
Fruits Crush dried fruits and mix with seasoning    11
Stem Cut fresh stems and put in the sauce    2
Root Put fresh roots in the sauce    1
 Medicine Leaves Boil in water as decoction Drink the liquid Dermatosis 1
Fruits Sock in water dried fruits with ginger and fruit of X. aethiopica Drink the liquid, contra-indicated with pregnant women Dermatosis 1
Soak in alcohol dried fruits with A. melegueta and X. aethiopica fruits   Ulcer 1
Hematuria 1
Soak dried fruits in alcohol Drink the liquid 2 times/day Blood-pressure 1
Crush dried fruits and mix with salt Drink the mixture  
 Ceremony Fruits Dried fruits Used by fetishist for ceremonies of fâ Magico-religious 5
Securidaca longipedunculata Fresen.
 Medicine Root Crush or pound the roots Make a poultice Edema and abscess 2
Soak in water with X. aethiopica fruits and M. myristica seeds Drink the liquid antibiotic 1
Boil in water with U. chamae and Z. zanthoxyloides roots, X. aethiopica fruits, M. myristica seeds and small red onions Drink the liquid once the day Stomach-ache 1
Soak in alcohol with garlic and A. melegueta seeds Drink the liquid Fever 1
Thonningia sanguinea Vahl
 Medicine Root Rub against a rock Rub the root juice against the body Edema, abscess, swelling, wound and mumps 10 1
Dry and reduce in powder the roots with papaya roots and fruits of A. melegueta   Hemorrhoid 1
Crush the roots Rub the past against the body Guinea-worm disease 1
Uvaria chamae P.Beauv.
 Food Fruits Ripe fruit Eat Human nutrition 1
Root Crush and mix with seasoning as aromatic spice Eat Human nutrition 1
 Medicine Leaves Boil in water as decoction Take a shower Fever 1
Root Soak in alcohol with X. aethiopica fruits, M. myristica and A. melegueta seeds Drink the liquid 2 times/day Stomach-ache 2
Boil in water with ripe palm fruits Drink the liquid Anemia 1
Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich.
 Medicine Fruits Boil or soak in water with A. melegueta seeds Drink the liquid 3 times/day Stomach-ache 3
Dried fruits Eat the fruit and swallow the juice Nausea and vomiting 1
Boil in water with other ingredients as decoction Drink the liquid Infertility for women 2
Boil in water as decoction Drink the liquid Fortify infants 1
Crush dried fruits and mix with alcohol Rub the mixture against the body Edema, swelling and dermatosis 2
Crush dried fruits as powder and mix with sugar Mix the powder with the beverage and drink Asthenia 1
 Ceremony Fruits Dried fruits Used by fetishist for various ceremonies Magico-religious 2
Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepernick & Timler
 Food Root Remove, dry and crush roots’ barks as powder Spicy sauces and eat, contra-indica with pregnant women Human nutrition 25
Milk production stimulation for nursing women 9
Stomach-ache and ulcer 4
Dysentery and diarrhea 2
Healing uterine wounds for nursing women 5
 Medicine Root Soak the roots’ barks in alcohol Drink the liquid 2–3 times/day, contra-indicated with pregnant women Stomach-ache 14
Nausea and vomiting 1
Intestinal worms 1
Sexual weakness 1
Soak the roots’ barks in alcohol with A. melegueta seeds   Abortion 2
Soak the roots’ barks in alcohol with garlic, pepper, chili, X. aethiopica fruits, M. myristica and A. melegueta seeds Drink the liquid 2–3 times/day, contra-indicated with pregnant women Ulcer 3
Menstruation issue 1
Boil in water the roots’ barks with garlic, pepper, chili, X. aethiopica fruits, M. myristica and A. melegueta seeds Drink the liquid 2–3 times/day, contra-indicated with pregnant women Sexually transmissible infections 1
Boil in water the roots’ barks with ginger leaves as decoction Drink the liquid Painful and dark menstruation 2
  1. Ba Bassila, Sb South-Borgou