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Table 1 Indicator variables of cultural, economic, ecological, and management variables used to estimate multivariate analyses

From: Cultural, economic, and ecological factors influencing management of wild plants and mushrooms interchanged in Purépecha markets of Mexico

Matrix Variables Description Criterion Value
Cultural and economic variables Recognition of species Recognized (by 80 to 100% of interviewed persons), regularly recognized (by 40 to 79% of persons), and little recognized (by less than 40% of persons) Recognized 3
Regular recognized 2
Little recognized 1
Use form Diversity of use forms, food is the highest value since it is the priority of people arriving to markets Edible 2
Medicinal 1
Ceremonial and ornamental 1
Use preference Preference, according to flavor, usefulness, and its substitutability Preferred 2
Optional 1
Degree of need referred to by people According to a gradient of presence in food, traditional medicine, and the daily life of persons Basic 4
Complementary 3
Sumptuous 2
Optional-substitutable 2
Opportunity 1
Harvest effort invested Effort invested in harvesting, high values are considered when gathering involves field trips exclusively planned to collect a resource Journey dedicated to harvest the species 2
Opportunist 1
Variety of products Processing at home considering a gradient of effort, time, and inputs invested Propagated plant in pot 6
Jam 5
Tamales 4
Cooked product 4
Dehydrated product 3
Peeled product, raw match and/or wash 2
Bunches, bouquets, and sachets 1
Interchange form Diversity of interchange forms in the different contexts of the markets Wholesale 4
Retail sale 3
Sale and barter 2
Barter 1
Interchange value Price or monetary equivalence per selling unit. Categories of economic value are high when price is higher than $50.00 pesos, intermediate when price is from $20.00 to less than $50.00, and low when it is lower than $20.00 High 3
Intermediate 2
Low 1
Period offered in markets Period of a resource is offered, which depends on the seasonal availability but may influence the desire, need, demand, and requirement of the resources 1 to 4 months 3
5 to 8 months 2
9 to 12 months 1
Number of communities offering products Number of communities offering a product, an indicator reflecting the importance of a resource and its regional demand 9 to 15 communities 3
5 to 8 communities 2
1 to 4 communities 1
Number of markets where products were recorded Number of markets where a product is interchanged, which reflects its importance value for people’s life Three markets 3
Two markets 2
One market 1
Number of sellers Average number of persons offering wild and weedy plants and mushrooms in the three markets From 13 to 19 3
From 6 to 12 2
Less than 6 1
Ecological variables Useful parts According to the impact of gathering on survival, re-sprouting, and reproduction of managed populations. It was considered higher the ecological risk of gathering parts of long-life cycle individuals and mushrooms, lower risk the gathering of complete individuals of herbs, and the lowest risk the gathering of parts of herbaceous or shrubby plants Reproductive parts 3
Complete individual 2
Vegetative and reproductive parts 1
Perception of abundance Abundance of plants and mushroom species perceived by persons interviewed Scarce 3
Regular abundance 2
Abundant 1
Management variables Management practices Type of management practices used to increase the availability of plants and mushrooms Propagation 6
Transplanting of individuals 5
Protection 4
Enhancement 3
Tolerance 2
Simple gathering 1
Management system Type of systems where the species studied are managed, from higher to lower management intensity Homegarden 3
Agricultural of milpa, vegetables, and fruits 2
Forest management 1
Artificial selection Presence of human selection on individual plants (not recorded any selection in mushrooms) Selective propagation 3
Selective tolerance 2
Selective gathering 1
Without selection 0