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Table 1 Edible usages and culture index of wild edible species of Udhampur district

From: Traditionally used wild edible plants of district Udhampur, J&K, India

Botanical name Family Voucher no. (JUH) Local name Life form Plant part used Edible usage CI
Acacia catechu (L. f.) Willd. Leguminosae 14552 Katha Tree Heartwood, branches Tea; medicinal. 0.23
Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa Rutaceae 14594 Bel patri Tree Fruits Fruit pulp is eaten fresh. Fruits are eaten raw and infusion is sieved for making sharbat (cooling drink); fruit is used as medicine. 0.34
Agave americana L. Asparagaceae 14605 Kyora Shrub Flowers Vegetable, pickled. 0.10
Amaranthus viridis L. Amaranthaceae 14452 Chaleree Herb Leaves Vegetable; medicinal. 0.28
Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kitam. Compositae 14606 Chaau Herb Seeds, flowers, leaves Condiment, spice; medicinal. 0.34
Artocarpus lacucha Buch.-Ham. Moraceae 14607 Taeoo Tree Fruits Pickled. 0.30
Asparagus adscendens Roxb. Asparagaceae 14470 Sanspour Herb Tubers Vegetable, pickled, used as salad; medicinal. 0.31
Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. Leguminosae 14493 Malungarh Climber Seeds Seeds are consumed after roasting/frying; flower buds are added to yogurt to make raita or aasara, pickled. 0.13
Bauhinia variegata L. Leguminosae 14494 Kartair Tree Flowers Vegetable is prepared in yogurt; flower buds are added to yogurt to make raita or aasara, pickled. 0.17
Berberis lycium Royle Berberidaceae 14484 Kambel Shrub Fruits Fruits are eaten raw; root is medicinal. 0.43
Bombax ceiba L. Malvaceae 14608 Simbal Tree Flower receptacle Vegetable. 0.15
Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I. M. Johnst. Boraginaceae 14609 Bibru Herb Fruits Fruits are eaten raw. 0.10
Capsella bursa–pastoris (L.) Medik. Brassicaceae 14692 Chiri halian Herb Leaves Vegetable. 0.08
Cardamine impatiens L. Brassicaceae 14870 Daraati Herb Leaves Vegetable. 0.08
Carissa spinarum L. Apocynaceae 14463 Garna Shrub Fruits Fruits are eaten raw. 0.22
Carum carvi L. Apiaceae 14940 Shia jeera Herb Fruits, seeds Spice, condiment. 0.07
Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Celastraceae 14610 Sankhir Shrub Fruits Fruits are eaten raw. 0.09
Chenopodium album L. Amaranthaceae 14504 Bathu Herb Leaves Vegetable. 0.16
Cissampelos glaberrima A. St.-Hill. Menispermaceae 14550 Battal bel Climber Leaves Pakora (prepared by deep frying leaves coated with wheat flour), chutney (prepared by grinding leaves); medicinal. 0.40
Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle Rutaceae 14611 Jambiri Tree Fruits Juice is added to chutneys, eaten raw. 0.23
Citrus medica L. Rutaceae 14596 Gargal Tree Fruits Pickled, juice is added to chutneys; medicinal. 0.40
Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott Araceae 14612 Kachaloo Herb Tubers Boiled and eaten with spices and juice of Citrus medica; cooked as vegetable. 0.20
Commelina benghalensis L. Commelinaceae 14505 Chura Herb Leaves Vegetable. 0.05
Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. Boraginaceae 14613 Lasoora Tree Fruits Vegetable and pickled. 0.51
Cucumis melo var. utilissimus (Roxb.) Duthie & Fuller Cucurbitaceae 14614 Tar Climber Fruits As salad. 0.17
Cydonia oblonga Mill. Rosaceae 14615 Bai dana Tree Fruits Fruits are eaten raw, murabba (prepared by shade drying boiled fruits and preserving them in sugar). 0.26
Dioscorea belophylla (Prain) Voigt ex Haines Dioscoreaceae 14616 Tarar bail Herb Tubers Vegetable, pickle; medicinal. 0.24
Diospyros lotus L. Ebenaceae 14617 Amlook Tree Fruits Dried fruits are eaten; medicinal. 0.16
Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. Athyriaceae 14618 Kasroor Herb Fronds Vegetable, pickled. 0.32
Duchesnea indica (Jacks.) Focke Rosaceae 14619 Jangali shatawari Herb Fruits Fruits are eaten raw; medicinal. 0.09
Elaeagnus parvifolia wall. ex Royle Elaeagnaceae 14620 Kaain Shrub Fruits Fruits are eaten raw. 0.02
Euphorbia royleana Boiss. Euphorbiaceae 14515 Thor Shrub Young shoots Young shoots are boiled, cut into small pieces, and added to yogurt to make raita or aasra; medicinal. 0.07
Fagopyrum acutatum (Lehm.) Mansf. ex K. Hammer Polygonaceae 14621 Van daraiyoon Herb Leaves, seeds Vegetable; chapatti of flour are eaten during severe cold. 0.06
Ficus auriculata Lour. Moraceae 14622 Trimbal Tree Fruits Fruits are eaten raw. 0.06
Ficus palmata Forssk. Moraceae 14557 Phagwara Tree Young leaves, fruits Young leaves are cooked with diluted yogurt to make curry, leaves are also cooked with meat; fruits are eaten raw; medicinal. 0.43
Ficus racemosa L. Moraceae 14558 Rumbal Tree Fruits Fruits are eaten raw. 0.15
Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr. Salicaceae 14623 Kakooaa Tree Fruits, inner bark Fruits are eaten raw; tea. 0.19
Flemingia prostrata Roxb. Leguminosae 14624 Titri Shrub Fruits, seeds Chutney (prepared by grinding fruits and seeds). 0.06
Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pusley Papaveraceae 14528 Pitpapra, indu Herb Leaves Vegetable; medicinal. 0.51
Impatiens bicolor Royle Balsaminaceae 14625 Alwa Herb Seeds Fruits are eaten raw. 0.03
Indigofera cassioides DC. Leguminosae 14626 Kathi Shrub Flowers Vegetable. 0.05
Juglans regia L. Juglandaceae 14531 Akhrot Tree Fruits Fruits are eaten raw, chutney is prepared; medicinal. 0.30
Lamium amplexicaule L. Lamiaceae 14627 Indu saag Herb Leaves, young shoots Vegetable. 0.03
Lathyrus aphaca L. Leguminosae 14628 Khand khiru, mithu saag Herb Leaves, young shoots, seeds Vegetable, young seeds are eaten; fruits are eaten raw. 0.15
Malva parviflora L. Malvaceae 14546 Sonchal Herb Leaves Vegetable. 0.20
Medicago polymorpha L. Leguminosae 14740 Sriri Herb Leaves Vegetable; medicinal. 0.34
Mentha longifolia (L.) L. Lamiaceae 14535 Mainani Herb Leaves Chutney; tea; medicinal. 0.70
Moringa oleifera Lam. Moringaceae 14629 Sohanjana Tree Pods, roots Vegetable, pickle; medicinal. 0.35
Morus alba L. Moraceae 14560 Shtoot Tree Fruits Fruits are eaten raw; medicinal. 0.28
Morus nigra L. Moraceae 14872 Kala toot Tree Fruits Fruits are eaten raw; medicinal. 0.17
Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. Rutaceae 14630 Kari patta, drankari Shrub Leaves Spice; medicinal. 0.14
Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. Nelumbonaceae 14631 Nadroo Herb Roots Vegetable is prepared either with tomato puree or yogurt (dish is locally called nadroo ki yakhni) 0.06
Nepeta laevigata (D. Don) Hand.-Mazz. Lamiaceae 14632 Kaali khari Herb Fruits Fruits are eaten raw. 0.03
Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae 14536 Babbari, Naazposh Herb Seeds Sharbat (cooling drink prepared as infusion or decoction); medicinal. 0.03
Oxalis corniculata L. Oxalidaceae 14569 Ammi Herb Leaves Chutney; medicinal. 0.08
Persicaria amplexicaulis (D. Don) Ronse Decr. Phyllanthaceae 14580 Aambla Tree Fruits Tea. 0.06
Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb. Arecaceae 14633 Khajoor Tree Fruits Fruits are eaten raw. 0.10
Phyllanthus emblica L. Plantaginaceae 14517 Challa Herb Leaves Fruits are eaten raw, pickle, murabba; medicinal. 0.86
Plantago lanceolata L. Polygonaceae 14725 Masloon Herb Roots Vegetable. 0.03
Prunus armeniaca L. Rosaceae 14587 Saari, haari Tree Fruits Fruits are eaten raw. 0.30
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Rosaceae 14588 Aaru, aarn Tree Fruits Fruits are eaten raw. 0.33
Pueraria tuberosa (Willd.) DC. Leguminosae 14634 Bidda Climber Tubers Fruits are eaten raw and cooked as vegetable. 0.10
Punica granatum L. Lythraceae 14542 Darooni Tree Fruits, seeds Fruits are eaten raw, anaardana (dried seeds) are ground to make chutney; medicinal. 0.68
Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Rosaceae 14589 Batangi, kainth Tree Fruits Fruits are eaten raw. 0.02
Ranunculus arvensis L. Ranunculaceae 14858 Tilphari Herb Whole plant Whole plant in vegetative stage is washed, sun dried, and oil and tatri are added and consumed as pickle. 0.03
Rosa indica L. Rosaceae 14590 Gulaab Shrub Petals Gulukand (prepared by preserving petals in sugar); medicinal. 0.15
Rubus ellipticus Sm. Rosaceae 14592 Aakhe Shrub Fruits Fruits are eaten raw. 0.18
Rumex dentatus L. Polygonaceae 14581 Tandalak Herb Leaves Vegetable. 0.07
Rumex hastatus D. Don Polygonaceae 14582 Ammi Herb Leaves Vegetable, chutney. 0.22
Rumex nepalensis Spreng. Polygonaceae 14635 Urval Herb Leaves Vegetable, curry made in yogurt. 0.27
Scandix pecten-veneris L. Apiaceae 14636 Bhuss, indu saag Herb Young shoots Vegetable. 0.02
Silene conoidea L. Caryophyllaceae 14502 Takla Herb Leaves, fruits Vegetable; fruits are eaten raw. 0.13
Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Caryophyllaceae 14850 Koukoon, laadroon Herb Leaves, shoots Vegetable. 0.02
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Myrtaceae 14564 Tallay Tree Fruits Fruits are eaten raw; medicinal. 0.57
Taraxacum campylodes G. E. Haglund Compositae 14480 Phul dudhli Herb Leaves Vegetable; medicinal. 0.50
Telosma cordata (Burm. F.) Merr. Apocynaceae 14637 Guaal manda Climber Flowers Vegetable, eaten raw. 0.14
Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn. Combretaceae 14638 Arjan Tree Fruits Fruits are eaten raw; medicinal. 0.15
Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Combretaceae 14639 Bahera Tree Fruits Fruits are eaten raw after removing outer covering; medicinal. 0.41
Terminalia chebula Retz. Combretaceae 14640 Reer Tree Fruits Vegetable, curry; medicinal. 0.22
Trifolium pratense L. Leguminosae 14774 Shataala Herb Leaves, shoots Vegetable; medicinal. 0.11
Trifolium repens L. Leguminosae 14798 Chaptal Herb Leaves Vegetable; medicinal. 0.08
Tulipa clusiana DC. Liliaceae 14697 Maghey, kayaloon, kukarboona Herb Tubers Tubers are eaten raw. 0.02
Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae 14772 Saddar Herb Young leaves and shoots Vegetable; beverage; medicinal. 0.49
Veronica persica Poir. Plantaginaceae 14754 Titi Herb Young leaves and shoots Vegetable is prepared in yogurt. 0.05
Viburnum grandiflorum Wall. ex DC. Adoxaceae 14641 Taildi Shrub Fruits Fruits are eaten raw. 0.02
Vicia hirsuta (L.) Gray Leguminosae 14642 Kanghi Herb Pods Pods are eaten raw. 0.01
Vicia sativa L. Leguminosae 14934 Jawaal Herb Leaves, young shoots, seeds Vegetable is prepared from leaves; dried seeds are cooked as pulse; fresh seeds are eaten raw. 0.09
Viola odorata L. Violaceae 15752 Banafsha Herb Flowers Tea; medicinal. 0.39
Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Rutaceae 14597 Timbru Shrub Seeds, fruits Chutney is prepared from seeds; fruits are sun dried, fried in oil, and used as pickle; medicinal. 0.42
Zizyphus jujuba Mill. Rhamnaceae 14767 Ber Tree Fruits Fruits are eaten raw; medicinal. 0.27