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Table 1 Brazilian Portuguese nomenclature (generic name cação + ethnospecific modifier) for the main sharks species identified by fishers from small-scale fisheries from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, northeastern of Brazil

From: Ethnotaxonomy of sharks from tropical waters of Brazil

Species scientific identification English common nomenclature Brazilian Portuguese ethnospecific modifier Identification per species (%) Capture citation IUCN/MMA status
Alopias superciliosus Lowe, 1841 Bigeye thresher shark RAPOSA (fox)1 136 (67) 2 VU/VU
RABUDO (long-tailed)1 17 (8)
GAIÚDO/GALHUDO (long-tailed)1 3 (1.5)
ZORRO (caudal fin in ‘z’ shape)1 1 (0.5)
misidentification 47 (23)
Isurus oxyrinchus Rafinesque, 1810 Shortfin mako CAVALA (mackerel fish)1 121 (49) 42 VU/ NT
BRANCO (white)1 83 (33) 32
ANEQUIM (agressive)2 14 (6)
misidentification 30 (12)
Galeocerdo cuvier (Péron & Lesueur, 1822) Tiger shark JAGUARA-PINTADA (jaguar)1;2 107 (48) 17 NT/NT
TIGRE (tiger)1;2 74 (33) 2
misidentification 41 (18)
Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758) Blue shark TOALHA (towel)1 172 (60) 42 NT/NT
AZUL (blue)1 73 (25) 20
misidentification 44 (15)
Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Müller & Henle, 1839) Brazilian sharpnose shark RABO-SECO (thin tail)1 87 (43) 28 LC/NT
FRANGO (chiken)1 31 (15)
misidentification 85 (42)
Rhizoprionodon porosus (Poey, 1861) Caribbean sharpnose shark RABO-SECO (thin tail)1 90 (53) 35 LC/DD
FRANGO (chiken)1 25 (15)
misidentification 56 (33)
Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834) Scalloped hammerhead shark PANÃ (hat)1 147 (51) 76 EN/CR
PANÃ AMARELA (yellow hat)1 28 (10)
MARTELO (hammer)1 76 (26)
misidentification 39 (13)
Sphyrna mokarran (Rüppell, 1837) Great hammerhead shark PANÃ (hat)1 156 (54) 74 EN/EN
PANÃ AMARELA (yellow hat)1 43 (15)
MARTELO (hammer)1 83 (29)
misidentification 5 (2)
Ginglymostoma cirratum (Bonnaterre, 1788) Nurse shark LIXA (sandpaper)1 243 (80) 11 DD/VU
PAPA-TERRA (sand-eater)2 57 (19)
misidentification 4 (1)
Carcharhinus falciformis (Müller & Henle, 1839) Silky shark LOMBO-PRETO (black back)1 17 (12) 6 NT/NT
misidentification 121 (88)
Carcharhinus leucas (Müller & Henle, 1839) Bull shark CABEÇA-CHATA (flat head)1 40 (26) NT/NT
misidentification 116 (74)
Carcharhinus limbatus (Müller & Henle, 1839) Blacktip shark SICURI-DA-GALHA-PRETA (rainforest snake with blacktip fin)1 64 (36) 15 NT/NT
SICURI (rainforest snake)1 18 (10)
misidentification 96 (54)
Carcharhinus perezi (Poey, 1876) Caribbean reef shark CABEÇA-DE-CESTO (basket head)1 47 (26) 18 NT/VU
CABEÇUDO (bighead)1 6 (3)
misidentification 126 (70)
Carcharhinus signatus (Ranzani, 1839) Night shark NOTURNO (Nightly)1 43 (41) VU/VU
SICURI-BOLA (ball shape snake)1 14 (13)
misidentification 48 (46)
Carcharhinus acronotus (Poey, 1860) Blacknose shark FLAMENGO 1 188 (65) 36 NT/NT
misidentification 100 (35)
Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo, 1827) Sandbar shark BICO DOCE-DE-PAREDE (from the continental slope)1;2 12 (10) VU/CR
misidentification 105 (90)
Negaprion brevirostris (Poey, 1868) Lemon shark LIMÃO (lemon)1 12 (13) NT/VU
DOS-RECIFES (from reefs)2 10 (11)
misidentification 72 (77)
Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758) Smooth hammerhead shark PANÃ (hat)1 175 (72) 22 VU/CR
MARTELO (hammer)1 46 (19)
misidentification 23 (9)
Rhincodon typus Smith, 1828 Whale shark PINTADINHO (flacked)1 147 (63) VU/VU
BALEIA (whale)1 65 (28)
ESTRELA (star)1 12 (5)
misidentification 8 (3)
Carcharhinus obscurus (Lesueur, 1818) Dusky shark FIDALGO (noble)1 11 (11) VU/EN
misidentification 85 (89)
  1. Ethnospecific terms based on the following: 1morphological criteria; 2ecological criteria. Names in bold correspond to the main folk species cited (minimum citation of 15%). Fisher’s capture based on the number of valid citations within the last 12 months before interviews (misidentifications were not considered). Conservation status according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and Brazil’s Ministry of the Environment-(MMA) Ordinance 445 of 2014 [53]. EN endangered, VU vulnerable, LC least concern, NT near threatened, CR critically endangered, DD data deficient