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Table 2 Dye-yielding plants used by Bai communities in Dali Prefecture

From: Indigenous knowledge of dye-yielding plants among Bai communities in Dali, Northwest Yunnan, China

Voucher specimen code Vernacular name Scientific name Local name Family name Life form Used part(s) Color Dye use Main chemical components Medicinal value Use frequency (%)
DL02 Yangcong 洋葱 Allium cepa Linnaeus Yangcong Amaryllidaceae Herb Peel Yellow Cloth Phenolic pigments including flavonoids, and flavonols, etc. [27] Stimulate appetite, help digestion, sterilization, anti-cold, etc. 43
WS08 Chuandian qimu 川滇桤木 Alnus ferdinandi-coburgii Schneid. Haiseizi Betulaceae Tree Bark Yellow, gray Cloth Diaryl heptane compounds, and oleanolic acid, campyloxine, chlorogenic acid, etc. [28] Liver protection, depressurization, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, diarrhea 92
WS04 Guizhencao 鬼针草 Bidens pilosa Linnaeus Houqizi Compositae Herb Whole Plant (fresh) Yellow, gray Cloth Flavonoids, alkynes, coumarins, organic acids, and its phenols, triterpene, sterols, volatile oils, etc. [29] Dispersing superficies, clearing away heat, detoxicating, and dissipating stasis 45
HQ02 Mimenghua 密蒙花 Buddleja officinalis Maxim. Suxiuhuo Loganiaceae Shrub Flower Yellow Cloth Flavonoids, including linarin, luteolin, flavonoids, etc. [30] Expelling wind and cooling blood, moistening liver, improving eyesight, clearing away lung heat, and relieving cough 45
JC03 Sumu 苏木 Caesalpinia sappan Linnaeus Zisu Leguminosae Tree Heartwood Red Cloth Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and ematoxylin, etc. [31] Relaxing tendons, activating collaterals, activating blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis and resisting inflammation, etc. 72
WS02 Puercha 普洱茶 Camellia sinensis (Linnaeus) Kuntze var. assamica (Mast.) Kitamura Puaizaosei Theaceae Tree Leaves (fresh) Yellow Cloth Chlorophyll, carotenoidl, anthocyanin, anthocyanin, theaflavins, theaflavins, etc. [32] Antioxidation, anti-aging, reducing blood sugar, blood lipid, preventing cardiovascular system diseases 19
EY01 Honghua 红花 Carthamus tinctorius Linnaeus Hohuo Compositae Herb Flower Red, yellow Cloth Safflower yellow (C21H20O10), safflower red (C21H22O11), flavonoid derivatives, etc. [33] Activating blood to promote menstruation, dissipate blood stasis, and relieve pain 70
WS06 Huanglian 黄连 Coptis chinensis Franch. Huanglian Ranunculaceae Herb Stem, Root Yellow Cloth Berberine, coptisine, palmatine, worenine, flavonoids and coumarin, etc. [34, 35] Treat acute conjunctivitis, acute gastroenteritis, hematemesis, and other symptoms of sore carbuncle furuncle 62
EY03 Masang 马桑 Coriaria nepalensis WalLinnaeus Maixiu Coriariaceae Shrub Branches, Leave (dry) Black, gray, yellow Cloth Coriamyrtin, quercetin-3-O-a-L-Arabia sugar, kaempferol-3-O-a-L-Arabia sugar, malol, gallogen, etc. [36] Clearing away heat and toxic materials, detumescence, pain relieving, and muscle regeneration 93
DL03 Jianghuang 姜黄 Curcuma longa Linnaeus Engexigong Zingiberaceae Herb Root Yellow Cloth Flavonoids, including curcumin, demethoxy curcumin, and bisdemethoxy curcumin, etc. [37, 38] Anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor, antioxidant, and hypolipidemic 78
DL06 Huangmao qinggang 黄毛青冈 Cyclobalanopsis delavayi (Franch.) Schott. Fusei Fagaceae Tree Bark Yellow Cloth Pedunculagin, astalin castalagin, castavaloninic acid, valolaginic acid, isovalolaginic acid, etc. [39] Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antibacterial, antiviral 91
DL05 Shizi 柿子 Diospyros Kaki Linnaeusf. Tazi Ebenaceae Tree Fruit Yellow Cloth Lutein, fructose, glucose, sucrose, a variety of vitamins and minerals, especially iodine, etc. [40] Lowering blood pressure, prevent bleeding hemorrhoids, constipation, suitable for thyroid disease caused by iodine deficiency 46
HQ01 Zijingzelan 紫茎泽兰 Eupatorium adenophora Spreng. Geifacao Compositae Herb Branches, Leaves Yellow Cloth Polysaccharides, anthraquinones, flavonoids,coumarins, and lactones, etc. [41] Regulating menstruation and activating blood, detoxifying, and eliminating swelling, cure wind-heat type common cold 88
WS09 Zizhihua 栀子花 Gardenia jasminoides Ellis Zizihuo Rubiaceae Shrub Fruit Yellow Cloth Gardenia yellow pigment, saffron, saffron, rutin and xanthophyll, etc. [42] Clearing away heat, purging fire, cooling blood 77
JC01 Meiguiqie 玫瑰茄 Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Meiguiqie Malvaceae Herb Fruit Red Cloth Roselle red pigment, delphinidin, scabiolide, and chlorogenic acid, etc. [43] Clearing away summer heat, eliminate fatigue, lowering blood pressure, relieving asthma, diuresis, detoxification, etc. 27
WS03 Fengxian Hua 凤仙花 Impatiens balsamina Linnaeus Shenjiaihuo Balsaminaceae Herb Flower Red Cloth and nails Anthocyanins, quercetin, lawsone, cyanidinmono-glycoside, etc. [44] Promoting blood circulation to reduce swelling and treating traumatic injury 83
WS05 Hetao 核桃 Juglans regia Linnaeus Aodao Juglandaceae Tree Peel Black, yellow, gray Cloth Naphthoquinone pigment, and its glycoside, flavonoids, flavonoids, etc. [45] Anti-mildew, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor 80
JC02 Sang 桑 Morus alba Linnaeus Souwu Moraceae Shrub Fruit Red Cloth Tannic acid, malicacid, carotene, cyanidin, and chrysanthemin, etc. [46] Improve human immunity, eliminate free radicals, anti-aging 51
EY04 Dianzicao 滇紫草 Onosma paniculatum Bur.et Fr. Zetan Boraginaceae Herb Root Red Cloth and nails Shikonin, Acetyl Shikonin (C18 H18O6), etc. [47] Hypoglycemic, bacteriostatic, and antitumor 85
DL04 Shiliu 石榴 Punica granatum Linnaeus Ximia Punicaceae Shrub Peel Yellow Cloth Phenolic compounds including ellagic tannins, epigallocatechin, gallic acid, catechins, and anthocyanins, etc. [48] Antioxidant, antitumor, scavenging oxygen free radicals, and inhibiting atherosclerosis 74
WS07 Mali 麻栎 Quercus acutissima Carruth. Zuilizi Fagaceae Tree Peel Yellow, gray Cloth Tannins, quercetin, flavonoids, anthocyanins, etc. [49] Antipyretic, astringent, hemostatic, etc. 88
EY02 Qiancao 茜草 Rubia cordifolia Linnaeus Qianhuohuo Rubiaceae Liana Root Red Cloth and nails Anthraquinone derivatives, including alizarin (C14H8O4), alizarin purple pigment (C14H8O5), etc. [50] Hemostasis, anti-platelet aggregation, elevation of leukocytes, and antitussive sputum 79
WS01 DL01 Banlan 板蓝 Strobilanthes cusia (Nees) O. Kuntze Na Acanthaceae Herb Branches, leaves (fresh) Blue Cloth Indigotine (C16H10N2O3), blue glucoside (C14H17NO6), etc. [51, 52] Clear heat detoxification, antibacterial antiphlogistic 95
  1. Species in inventory are ordered by the scientific name alphabetically. Vernacular name of dye-yielding plants are written using Chinese pinyin and characters