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Table 2 Twenty-three compounds and their bioactivities related to ethnobotanical uses of fleagrass

From: Before it disappeared: ethnobotanical study of fleagrass (Adenosma buchneroides), a traditional aromatic plant used by the Akha people

Compound Content % (Shen et al. 1991) [12] Content % (Xu et al. 2005) [15] Bioactivity Reference
3-Hexenol 0.01 0.04 Insect pest control [30, 31]
α-Pinene 0.36 1.24 Antibacterial; antifungal; insect repellent [32,33,34]
Sabinene 0.01 Antibacterial; insect repellent [35, 36]
β-Pinene 0.01 0.05 Antibacterial; antifungal; antidepressant; insecticide [32, 33, 37, 38]
α-Phellandrene 11.86 0.11 Antimicrobial; insecticide [39, 40]
3-Carene 0.36 1.67 Oviposition deterrent insect repellent; antibacterial [17, 19]
p-Cymene 4.40 6.60 Oviposition deterrent; antibacterial; insecticide [16, 41, 42]
Limonene 0.39 2.49 Oviposition deterrent; insecticide; insect repellent; antimicrobial [42,43,44]
β-Phellandrene 11.86 Insecticide [45]
Terpinolene 0.01 0.33 Insecticide; insect repellent [46]
Linalool 0.04 0.05 Antimicrobial; insecticide; antidepressant; anticonflict effects [38, 47,48,49]
4-Terpineol 0.06 0.08 Antimicrobial; insecticide; insect repellent; anti-inflammatory [50,51,52,53]
α-Terpineol 0.08 0.13 Antimicrobial; anti-inflammatory [47, 52, 54]
Cuminic acid 11.17 Fungicide [55]
Carvone 0.03 0.02 Antimicrobial; insect repellent [34, 43]
Carvacrol 0.78 34.78 Antimicrobial; anti-inflammatory; analgesic; insecticide [16, 56, 57]
Thymol 52.48 0.70 Antibacterial; insecticide; antioxidant; antimicrobial; anti-viral [18, 58,59,60,61]
β-Caryophyllene 0.08 0.17 Insecticide; anti-inflammatory; antibacterial [37, 62]
β-Bisabolene 10.57 1.34 Synergistic bactericidal; insect repellent [17, 63]
Farnesene 0.69 Insect repellent [64]
Guaiol 0.57 Insecticide [65]
Eugenol 0.02 Insecticide, insect repellent; antifungal; anti-inflammatory [36, 66, 67]
Caryophyllene oxide 0.01 Anti-platelet aggregation; antifungal; insecticide [46, 68, 69]