Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 RFC, UV, number of uses, and ailments of species from each location

From: Regional trade of medicinal plants has facilitated the retention of traditional knowledge: case study in Gilgit-Baltistan Pakistan

S no. Family Species Local name Part used (Kargha-K, Nagar-N, Skardu-S, Ghizer-Gh, Hunza-H, Astore-A, Gilgit-G) Mode of use (Kargha-K, Nagar-N, Skardu-S, Ghizer-Gh, Hunza-H, Astore-A, Gilgit-G) Location (Astore-Astore, Ghizer-Ghizer, Gojal-Gojal, Central Hunza-Hunza, Jalalabad-Jalalabad, Kargha-Kargha, Nagar-Nagar, Skardu-Skardu) Average of RFC Average of UV Ailment categories No. of use responses Voucher no. Previous citation  
1 Amaranthaceae Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. Shutpask Whole plant Ash (H, N, K, Gh, A), decoction (S, A, Gh, H, K) Gojal 0.175 0.214286 3 14 MAS-089 17  
2 Achyranthes aspera L. larghaky Flower Paste Kargha 0.2 0.176471 3 17 MAS-238 40, 41  
3 Chenopodium album L. Snew, Sheleet, Kunoaw Leaf (S), whole plant (H, Gh Paste, infusion, poultice, decoction Ghizer, Gojal, Hunza, Skardu 0.21875 0.136706 8 59 MAS-121, MAS-153, MAS-457 9, 12, 13, 17, 33, 37  
4 Dysphania botrys (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Khama, Khord Aerial (K), whole plant (S, H) Powder, decoction Gojal, Jalalabad, Skardu 0.194444 0.12619 7 57 MAS-128, MAS-229, MAS-482 35  
5 Amaranthus viridis L. Dhimdo Leaf Paste, direct Kargha, Nagar 0.1 0.333333 3 10 MAS-314, MAS-376 14  
6 Allium humile Kunth Chung Bulb Infusion, direct Skardu 0.266667 0.176471 3 17 MAS-381 12, 13, 17  
7 Allium carolinianum DC. Kachpauk, Booma, Chong Bulb (K, S, A), leaf, bulb (H) Paste (S), direct, decoction Astore, Gojal, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.205 0.22988 21 102 MAS-012, MAS-112, MAS-346, MAS-424 12, 13, 17  
8 Allium cepa L. Ghashoo, Xong, Song Bulb (K), leaf, bulb (S), poultice, bulb (H) Poultice, decoction, direct (H, S, Gh, N, K), paste (S, A, K, Gh) Hunza, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.16875 0.202381 9 50 MAS-179, MAS-305, MAS-365, MAS-489 9, 33, 38, 39  
9 Allium sativum L. Zgoqpa, Bukpa Bulb Direct Hunza, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.31875 0.110367 11 149 MAS-180, MAS-306, MAS-366, MAS-490 9, 33, 39  
10 Anacardiaceae Pistacia mutica Fisch. & C.A.Mey. Daraaw Branches Oil Hunza 0.2 0.142857 1 7 MAS-137 9, 33  
11 Pistacia khinjuk stocks Kakavomn Galls, resin, wood, leaf Direct, decoction Jalalabad 0.175 0.071429 6 84 MAS-203 15  
12 Apiaceae Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC. Ghang Leaf Decoction Skardu 0.266667 0.071429 1 14 MAS-392 12  
13 Pimpinella diversifolia DC. Kohniod Whole plant Powder, decoction Astore, Kargha, Skardu 0.269444 0.15 9 60 MAS-028, MAS-270, MAS-440 13  
14 Pleurospermum candollei (DC.) C.B. Clarke in Hook. f. Braqshundun Whole plant Decoction Astore, Skardu 0.35 0.142857 2 14 MAS-037, MAS-449 13  
15 Angelica glauca Edgew Choro, Chora Root (K), stem, seed, root (Gh) Decoction, powder, direct Ghizer, Kargha 0.216667 0.166667 10 55 MAS-078, MAS-284 11, 16  
16 Carum carvi L. Filizooh, Zera, Hayyo Seed (K, S), seed, fruit (Gh) Decoction, powder, direct (Gh) Ghizer, Kargha, Skardu 0.205556 0.139184 8 66 MAS-084, MAS-290, MAS-472 11, 12, 16  
17 Daucus carota L. Phopuce, Jangli, Jut Ghachoon, Ghasoon, Gholafuvi lona Leaf, seed (H, N), leaf (S) Direct, decoction Hunza, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.291667 0.134921 7 57 MAS-181, MAS-307, MAS-367, MAS-491 9, 32, 33  
18 Coriandrum sativum L. Ausu, Naski Seed Decoction, direct Hunza, Kargha, Skardu 0.213889 0.119929 4 41 MAS-183, MAS-309, MAS-493 9, 33, 39  
19 Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Badian Fruit (K), seed (S) Decoction Kargha, Skardu 0.2375 0.099206 2 25 MAS-326, MAS-511 38, 39  
20 Heracleum pinnatum C.B. Clarke Hltireet Leaf Direct Kargha, Skardu 0.295833 0.142857 2 14 MAS-328, MAS-513 39  
21 Asteraceae Allardia tomentosa Decne. Tarkham Leaf, flower Grinded Skardu 0.2 0.230769 3 13 MAS-380 39  
22 Leontopodium leontopodinum Naqposhoto Seed Decoction Kargha, Skardu 0.341667 0.098086 4 41 MAS-329, MAS-514 39  
23 Berberidaceae Podophyllum emodi Wall. ex Hook.f. & Thomson Shingoy Root, rhizome Decoction Kargha 0.2 0.2 2 10 MAS-245 11, 53  
24 Berberis pseudumbellata R.Parker Ishkeen, Shokurum, Skyurboo Root, stem, bark (K), whole plant (S), flower, fruit, seed (A) Decoction, powder Astore, Jalalabad, Kargha, Skardu 0.325 0.114213 10 111 MAS-019, MAS-220, MAS-261, MAS-431 13, 15, 19, 27, 34, 39  
25 Berberis lycium Royle Zolg, Ishkeen, Skyurboo Root, leaf, seed, bark, fruit, flower (S, K, N), root, leaf, fruit (H), root, leaf, stem, fruit (Gh) Decoction Ghizer, Gojal, Hunza, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.322222 0.092532 55 743 MAS-061, MAS-118, MAS-351, MAS-454 9, 14, 16, 17, 32, 33, 34, 37, 38  
26 Berberis brandisiana Ahrendt Ishkeen, Ishkenachi Root, stem, bark Decoction Jalalabad, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.33125 0.114998 39 490 MAS-235, MAS-312, MAS-374, MAS-497 15, 34  
27 Berberis orthobotrys Bien. ex Aitch. Ishkeen,Skyurboo Root, stem, bark (K), root, stem (S Decoction Jalalabad, Kargha, Skardu 0.341667 0.112444 15 121 MAS-236, MAS-313, MAS-498 15, 34  
28 Berberis parkeriana C.K.Schneid. Ishkeen,Skyurboo Root, stem Decoction Kargha, Skardu 0.354167 0.154762 5 33 MAS-317, MAS-502 34  
29 Berberis stewartiana Jafri Ishkeen, Shokurum Root, leaf Decoction Kargha, Skardu 0.25 0.224599 6 28 MAS-318, MAS-503 34  
30 Berberis ulicina Hook.f. & Thomson Ishkeen, Shokurum Root, leaf Decoction Kargha, Skardu 0.2625 0.204861 5 25 MAS-319, MAS-504 34  
31 Berberis vulgaris L. Ishkeen, Shokurum Fruit (S), leaf, fruit (K) Decoction, direct Kargha, Skardu 0.304167 0.154762 6 39 MAS-320, MAS-505 12, 34, 39  
32 Betulaceae Betula utilis D.Don Xuxi, Halli, Jowzee, Furze, Staqpa Bark, wood (N, K, H), bark (S) Decoction, direct Gojal, Hunza, Jalalabad, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.2375 0.099554 13 143 MAS-123, MAS-167, MAS-225, MAS-477 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 39, 53  
33 Boraginaceae Onosma hispida Wall. ex G. Don Kangmar Whole plant Decoction Astore, Kargha 0.291667 0.162338 5 32 MAS-020, MAS-262 11, 13  
34 Brassicaceae Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L. Phul Gobi Flower Direct Hunza 0.175 0.166667 1 6 MAS-132 9  
35 Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl Khashir Whole plant Powder, decoction Astore, Skardu 0.233333 0.174242 4 23 MAS-034, MAS-446 13  
36 Raphanus sativus L. Moolo, Gholafuvi sonma Leaf Direct Hunza, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.2875 0.071584 5 99 MAS-182, MAS-308, MAS-368, MAS-492 9, 39  
37 Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. Band Gobi Flower Direct Hunza, Nagar 0.15 0.133333 2 16 MAS-186, MAS-369 9  
38 Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. Sarsung mar Seed Oil Kargha, Skardu 0.191667 0.142857 2 14 MAS-323, MAS-508 39  
39 Lepidium latifolium L. Sonma Leaf (K), leaf, root (S) Powder, infusion (S) Kargha, Skardu 0.3375 0.171429 4 22 MAS-330, MAS-515 12  
40 Buxaceae Buxus papillosa C.K. Schneid Angaroo Leaf Oil Skardu 0.233333 0.083333 1 12 MAS-388 38  
41 Campanulaceae Codonopsis clematidea (Schrenk) C.B.Clarke Loo sunma/Bajo mindoq Flower   Astore, Skardu 0.366667 0.107143 2 21 MAS-032, MAS-444 12, 13  
42 Cannabinaeae Cannabis sativa L. Thoonch Seed (N, H), whole plant (K) Direct Hunza, Kargha, Nagar 0.258333 0.132762 12 101 MAS-178, MAS-304, MAS-364 9, 14, 33, 53  
43 Capparaceae Capparis spinosa L. Kraba, Kavir, Kappar, Chopir, Shorot, Champarrang, Thoonch Root, bark, fruit, seed, branches, flower (N, K), root, fruit, seed (S), seed, flower, fruit (H) Oil (H, N, K), powder, decoction, oil (S), paste (H) Gojal, Hunza, Jalalabad, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.276389 0.093599 25 302 MAS-124, MAS-226, MAS-359, MAS-478 9, 12, 15, 17, 33, 37, 38, 39, 53  
44 Caprifoliaceae Lonicera microphylla Willd. ex Schult. Pushkar Stem, brnaches, fruit Paste Jalalabad 0.2 0.043478 1 23 MAS-199 15  
45 Valeriana wallichii DC. Mushk-bala Root (K, H), rhizomes (S) Powder, decoction, paste Gojal, Kargha, Skardu 0.266667 0.149335 6 40 MAS-130, MAS-300, MAS-484 11, 17, 38  
46 Lonicera asperifolia Hook. f. & Thomson Krraba Leaf Direct Kargha, Skardu 0.270833 0.142857 2 14 MAS-331, MAS-516 39  
47 Caryophyllaceae Cerastium fontanum Baumg. Bloghar Whole plant Direct Astore, Kargha, Skardu 0.222222 0.118276 6 54 MAS-024, MAS-266, MAS-436 13  
48 Compositae Anaphalis nepalensis Chikee Flower, fruit Dried flower, powder, fume (Gh) Ghizer 0.233333 0.142857 1 7 MAS-039 16  
49 Artemisia annua L. Xoon Whole plant Direct Ghizer 0.233333 0.157895 3 19 MAS-040 37  
50 Artemisia dubia Wall. Ex Bess. Bursay Whole plant Paste, powder Ghizer 0.2 0.142857 3 21 MAS-041 37  
51 Artemisia herba-alba Asso Kho Bursay Whole plant Decoction Ghizer 0.2 0.272727 3 11 MAS-042 37  
52 Saussurea heteromalla (D.Don) Hand.-Mazz Kali zira Weed Paste, direct Ghizer 0.1 0.111111 2 18 MAS-049 16  
53 Anaphalis triplinervis (Sims) Sims ex C.B.Clarke Yeepwoosh Leaf, flower Poultice, dried leaf and flower Gojal 0.225 0.166667 4 24 MAS-090 17  
54 Tragopogon dubius Scop Kreel woosh Flower Decoction Gojal 0.15 0.142857 1 7 MAS-104 17  
55 Achillea millefolium L. Yarrow Flower Decoction, poultice Kargha 0.175 0.142857 3 21 MAS-237 40, 41  
56 Artemisia laciniata Willd. Khampa Leaf Paste Kargha 0.3 0.142857 1 7 MAS-239 11, 12  
57 Artemisia rutifolia Spreng. Ex Spreng Kho Bursay Aerial Paste Kargha 0.175 0.142857 1 7 MAS-240 38  
58 Artemisia fragrans Willd Kho Bursay Aerial Powder Skardu 0.266667 0.166667 1 6 MAS-384 38  
59 Artemisia santolinifolia Turcz. Ex Krasch. Kho Bursay Leaf, stem Powder, paste Skardu 0.266667 0.2 2 10 MAS-385 39  
60 Jurinea dolomiaea Boiss. Sathing Leaf, root Decoction, poultice Skardu 0.233333 0.214286 3 14 MAS-393 12  
61 Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum (L.) Hilliard & B. L. Burtt Thliri Leaf Decoction Skardu 0.366667 0.142857 1 7 MAS-404 12  
62 Senecio chrysanthemoides DC. Api mindoq Leaf, flower, root Decoction, poultice Skardu 0.233333 0.157895 3 19 MAS-409 12  
63 Tanacetum senecionis (Jacquem. ex Besser) J.Gay ex DC. Hilteree/Tialo Flower Powder, infusion, decoction Skardu 0.4 0.166667 3 18 MAS-411 38  
64 Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber ex F.H.Wigg. Doduli, Mamo Shikinachi, Ishkanachi, Shantha, Talkhting, Khosmas Leaf, root (K, Gh), leaf, flower (S), leaf, latex (H), latex (A) Decoction, powder (K), infusion (S) Astore, Ghizer, Gojal, Hunza, Kargha, Skardu 0.222222 0.161198 18 136 MAS-003, MAS-051, MAS-415 9, 13, 14, 16, 17, 33, 37, 38, 53  
65 Artemisia brevifolia Wall Rooner, Bursay, Taroqtpesk, Bustae Leaf (N, K), leaf, flower (S, H), whole plant (A,Gh) Poultice, direct Astore, Ghizer, Gojal, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.216667 0.218759 12 62 MAS-006, MAS-054, MAS-109, MAS-418 13, 17, 35, 37, 38, 39  
66 Artemisia maritima L. Rooner, Zoon, Bursay Leaf, bud, flower (N, K, Gh), aerial (H), flower (A) Direct, paste, decoction (Gh) Astore, Ghizer, Hunza, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.270833 0.112619 18 228 MAS-007, MAS-055, MAS-142, MAS-419 9, 11, 14, 16, 33, 37, 39, 40, 41, 53  
67 Artemisia sieversiana Ehrh. Hampa, Khampa Leaf (K, A, N), leaf, flower, root (S) Infusion, decoction, paste Astore, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.183333 0.20211 6 29 MAS-022, MAS-264, MAS-349, MAS-434 12, 39  
68 Cousinia thomsonii C.B.Clarke Charchu Flower Diret Astore, Skardu 0.266667 0.142857 2 14 MAS-033, MAS-445 13  
69 Carthamus tinctorius L. Pock, Poong Flower, seed Decoction, oil Ghizer, Hunza 0.370833 0.079828 14 175 MAS-066, MAS-154, MAS-459 9, 16, 32, 33, 37  
70 Echinops echinatus Roxb. Jacheer Whole plant Decoction, direct Ghizer, Hunza, Kargha, Nagar 0.260417 0.103175 6 96 MAS-072, MAS-160, MAS-281, MAS-356 9, 14, 16  
71 Saussurea lappa (Decne.) Sch.Bip. Minal Root (K), stem, root (Gh) Powder, paste, decoction Ghizer, Kargha 0.204167 0.139959 9 75 MAS-082, MAS-288 11, 16, 37, 53  
72 Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kitam. Khobustae Leaf, flower (K, S), whole plant (Gh) Paste, fume (Gh), decoction (S) Ghizer, Kargha, Skardu 0.202778 0.176667 6 43 MAS-083, MAS-289, MAS-471 13, 37  
73 Cichorium intybus L. Ishkinachi, Caroop, qarali Chicknachi Whole plant (N, K), root, leaf (S) Direct, infusion, decoction, decoction (H) Gojal, Hunza, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.251667 0.148798 12 99 MAS-126, MAS-297, MAS-360, MAS-480 12, 14, 17, 33  
74 Tanacetum gracile Hook.f. & Thomson Cerpho bursay, serfo bursay, Bursay Leaf Decoction, powder (S), direct Hunza, Kargha, Skardu 0.252778 0.155844 5 32 MAS-185, MAS-311, MAS-495 12, 39, 40, 41  
75 Artemisia absinthium L. Zoon Whole plant Infusion, paste, powder Kargha, Nagar 0.175 0.177778 4 24 MAS-315, MAS-377 9, 11, 14  
76 Seriphidium brevifolium (Wall. ex DC.) Ling & Y.R.Ling Bursay Leaf (K), flower (S) Powder, decoction, direct Kargha, Skardu 0.320833 0.142857 2 14 MAS-336, MAS-521 12, 39  
77 Tanacetum falconeri Hook.f. Haltiry, Htialo, Pholing, Zoon, Tyalo Whole plant (K), leaf (S) Direct, powder Kargha, Skardu 0.204167 0.190909 4 21 MAS-338, MAS-523 13, 39  
78 Convolvulaceae Canvolvulus arvensis L. Thringthringmo Whole plant Decoction, powder Astore, Kargha, Skardu 0.197222 0.166667 3 18 MAS-023, MAS-265, MAS-435 13  
79 Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Ghbul thaq Stem, flower (K), whole plant (S) Decoction, direct (S) Kargha, Skardu 0.2375 0.1625 4 26 MAS-325, MAS-510 38, 39  
80 Crassulaceae Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. Chundol Root Powder Skardu 0.233333 0.222222 4 18 MAS-406 12  
81 Cucurbitaceae Cupressus sempervirens L. Saro Fruit, stem Decoction, direct Ghizer 0.466667 0.095238 2 21 MAS-044 16, 37  
82 Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. Bowar Fruit Decoction Hunza 0.225 0.045455 1 22 MAS-133 9, 33  
83 Cucurbita pepo L. Hosar Seed Oil, direct Nagar 0.4 0.085714 3 35 MAS-339 9  
84 Cupressaceae Juniperus squamata Buch. Cheleh, Chili, Hlashuk, Yarz, Shukpa Fruit, twigs Infusion, oil, paste Ghizer 0.233333 0.132075 7 53 MAS-045 37  
85 Juniperus turkestanica Kom. Cheleh Leaf, fruit, wood Powder, decoction Jalalabad 0.175 0.054054 2 37 MAS-198 15  
86 Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. Cheleh, Chili, Hlashuk, Yarz, Shukpa Fruit, wood, leaf (N, K, H), fruit (S, A) Ash, powder, decoction, paste (Gh) Astore, Ghizer, Gojal, Jalalabad, Kargha-Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.245238 0.157465 25 194 MAS-004, MAS-052, MAS-107, MAS-416 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 37  
87 Juniperus communis L. Mitthary, Oshuk Fruit, wood (K, A, S), fruit, wood, oil (Gh) Infusion, decoction, paste, powder (A) Astore, Ghizer, Jalalabad, Skardu 0.272917 0.145114 13 112 MAS-009, MAS-057, MAS-215, MAS-421 13, 15, 37  
88 Elaeagnaceae Elaeagnus rhamnoides (L.) A.Nelson Buru, Buroh, Seabuckthorn, Soq, Rema, Zakh, Chanso, Karsoq Leaf, fruit, seed, root, wood (K, N), leaf, fruit, seed (S), fruit (H), fruit, stem, leaf (Gh), fruit, leaf (A) Ash, direct, decoction, powder Astore, Ghizer, Gojal, Hunza, Jalalabad, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.323958 0.106938 43 747 MAS-002, MAS-050, MAS-105, MAS-414 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 30, 33, 38, 39, 53  
89 Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Shekarkuch, Gindawar, Ghonair, Sisk, Ghundair Whole plant (N, K), flower, fruit, gum (Gh, H) Direct, powder, decoction, Ghizer, Gojal, Hunza, Jalalabad, Kargha, Nagar 0.295833 0.080555 25 331 MAS-059, MAS-116, MAS-350, MAS-452 9, 14, 15, 16, 17, 32, 33, 37  
90 Ephedraceae Ephedra intermedia Schrenk & C.A.Mey. Shaay Soom Stem, root Decoction Jalalabad 0.2 0.061538 4 65 MAS-194 57  
91 Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf Soom, Say, Yemook, Sopat, Sopt Whole plant (K, Gh), aerial (S), leaf, stem (H) Decoction Ghizer, Gojal, Hunza, Jalalabad, Kargha, Skardu 0.294444 0.097941 22 239 MAS-060, MAS-275, MAS-453 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 32, 33, 37, 38, 53  
92 Equisetaceae Equisetum arvense L. Thangshingy harswa, Thangshing stwa Aerial (S), whole plant (A) Decoction Astore, Skardu 0.283333 0.142857 2 14 MAS-035, MAS-447 13, 38  
93 Ericaceae Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don Chauman Leaf, flower Infusion, decoction Skardu 0.3 0.15 3 20 MAS-407 12  
94 Gentianaceae Swertia petiolata D. Don Brama Leaf, root Paste, decoction, powder (A) Skardu 0.233333 0.210526 4 19 MAS-410 12  
95 Gentiana olivieri Griseb. Tikta Leaf, flower (K), leaf (S) Direct Kargha, Skardu 0.233333 0.162338 3 18 MAS-327, MAS-512 12, 39  
96 Geraniaceae Geranium nepalense Sweet Bamik Fruit, root Poultice, decoction, powder Skardu 0.3 0.235294 4 17 MAS-391 12  
97 Grossulariaceae Ribes himalense Royle ex Decne. Murshatooh Fruit Powder Jalalabad 0.175 0.075 3 40 MAS-204 15  
98 Ribes orientale Desf. Ghonashatooh Root Powder Jalalabad 0.2 0.033333 2 60 MAS-205 15  
99 Ribes alpestre Wall. ex Decne. Shumlooh, Skioruru Root, flower Powder, direct Astore, Gojal, Jalalabad, Skardu 0.189583 0.109821 9 109 MAS-011, MAS-111, MAS-217, MAS-423 13, 15, 17  
100 Iridaceae Crocus sativus L. Zafran Flower Powder Kargha, Skardu 0.266667 0.142857 2 14 MAS-324, MAS-509 39  
101 Juglandaceae Juglans regia L. Achow, Ashooh Root, kernel, wood (N), root, kernel, seed, wood (K), kernel (S, H) Oil, direct Hunza, Jalalabad, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.276667 0.098536 11 139 MAS-173, MAS-301, MAS-488 9, 13, 15, 33  
102 Lamiaceae Nepeta floccosa Benth. Buzlanj Leaf, flower Decoction, infusion Gojal 0.2 0.172414 5 29 MAS-098 17  
103 Isodon rugosus (Wall. ex Benth.) Codd Phaypush Leaf, branches Powder Jalalabad 0.2 0.097561 4 41 MAS-197 15  
104 Dracocephalum nuristanicum Rech.f. & Edelb. Shamdun Leaf, flower, seed Paste, decoction, infusion Skardu 0.7 0.064935 5 77 MAS-389 12, 38, 39  
105 Mentha haplocalyx Briq. Shoma Leaf Direct, paste Skardu 0.3 0.214286 3 14 MAS-394 39  
106 Nepeta leucolaena Benth. ex Hook.f. Askuta Whole plant Powder, decoction Skardu 0.366667 0.035714 1 28 MAS-395 12, 38  
107 Prunella vulgaris L. Harswa Leaf Decoction Skardu 0.466667 0.153846 4 26 MAS-403 12  
108 Mentha royleana Wall. ex Benth. Foling, Gudunj Leaf (K, A, S), leaf, flower (H) Powder, paste (H), direct, infusion Astore, Gojal, Kargha, Skardu 0.291667 0.104499 9 91 MAS-013, MAS-113, MAS-257, MAS-425 12, 13, 17, 38, 39  
109 Thymus linearis Benth. Tumuro, Tumburu, Tumburuk Whole plant (N, S), leaf, flower (H), flower (A) Decoction, infusion Astore, Gojal, Nagar, Skardu 0.222917 0.100514 12 151 MAS-014, MAS-114, MAS-347, MAS-426 12, 13, 17, 53  
110 Mentha longifolia (L.) L. Fileel, Whadan, Phileel Leaf, flower (H, K, N), leaf (Gh) Powder, paste, decoction (Gh) Ghizer, Gojal, Kargha, Nagar 0.252083 0.12514 29 319 MAS-065, MAS-122, MAS-278, MAS-353 14, 16, 17  
111 Mentha sylvestris L. Bundoo Leaf, flower Decoction Ghizer, Hunza 0.241667 0.101515 8 74 MAS-067, MAS-155, MAS-460 9, 33, 37, 53  
112 Thymus serphyllum L. Tumuro, Ree tumburuk Whole plant (K, Gh), leaf, flower (S), aerial (H) Decoction Ghizer, Hunza, Kargha, Skardu 0.33125 0.079512 17 268 MAS-074, MAS-162, MAS-283, MAS-467 9, 11, 14, 16, 33, 37, 38  
113 Mentha arvensis L. Peeno Leaf (S, K), whole plant (Gh) Powder, direct, paste Ghizer, Kargha, Skardu 0.275 0.138889 6 44 MAS-085, MAS-291, MAS-473 37, 38, 39  
114 Perovskia abrotanoides Kar. Faring bursay Flower Infusion Hunza, Kargha, Skardu 0.202778 0.126246 6 57 MAS-184, MAS-310, MAS-494 12, 39, 40, 41  
115 Mentha spicata L. Podina Whole plant Decoction Hunza, Nagar 0.3375 0.046801 8 160 MAS-189, MAS-372 9, 33  
116 Stachys tibetica Vatke Khampa Leaf Powder, direct Kargha, Skardu 0.304167 0.049043 2 41 MAS-337, MAS-522 39  
117 Leguminosae Astragalus frigidus (L.) A.Gray Shashal Leaf, stem Powder Astore 0.233333 0.176471 3 17 MAS-001 13  
118 Astragalus falconeri Bunge Hapocho Leaf, stem Powder Ghizer 0.233333 0.083333 1 12 MAS-043 16  
119 Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. Bissasing Whole plant Decoction Ghizer 0.333333 0.115385 6 52 MAS-046 16, 37  
120 Astragalus strictus Benth. Zhop/Thope Leaf, flower Direct Gojal 0.175 0.142857 1 7 MAS-091 17  
121 Melilotus alba Ledeb. Sinjhi Aerial Paste Gojal 0.175 0.166667 2 12 MAS-096 17  
122 Caragana brevifolia Kom. Hapoocho Root Direct, decoction Jalalabad 0.175 0.058824 1 17 MAS-191 15  
123 Caragana tragacanthoides var. himalaica Komarov Hapoocho Root Direct, decoction Jalalabad 0.225 0.037037 1 27 MAS-192 15  
124 Robinia pseudoacacia L. Kekar Resin, wood, legumes Paste Jalalabad 0.35 0.076923 2 26 MAS-206 15  
125 Astragalus zanskarensis Bunge Shukpa Leaf, stem Paste, ash Skardu 0.2 0.25 2 8 MAS-386 39  
126 Trifolium fragiferum L. Gul-e-Nasreen Leaf, flower Direct Skardu 0.233333 0.142857 2 14 MAS-413 38  
127 Trifolium pratense L. Chita-batta, Ol, Jangli shaftal Flower Powder Astore, Hunza, Kargha, Skardu 0.2125 0.078571 6 76 MAS-017, MAS-147, MAS-260, MAS-429 9, 13, 14, 40, 41  
128 Cicer microphyllum Benth. Stranjungstwa Whole plant Astore, Kargha, Skardu 0.230556 0.087446 3 35 MAS-025, MAS-267, MAS-437 13  
129 Medicago sativa L. Ucharg, Ishfit Whole plant Direct, powder, decoction Ghizer, Gojal 0.2 0.134921 9 70 MAS-058, MAS-115 16, 17, 37  
130 Sophora mollis (Royle) Baker Khakhul, Popshing, Pushool Leaf (K, Gh), leaf, seed (S), whole plant (H) paste, powder, decoction (S) Ghizer, Gojal, Hunza, Kargha, Skardu 0.243333 0.10857 10 108 MAS-119, MAS-151, MAS-277, MAS-455 9, 12,16, 17, 38, 39  
131 Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Shalako Root, rhizome (Gh), rhizome (K) Decoction, paste Ghizer, Kargha 0.3 0.091954 12 145 MAS-079, MAS-285 11, 16, 37  
132 Trigonella foenum-graecum L. Shamilik Leaf (K), whole plant (S, Gh) Direct, decoction Ghizer, Kargha, Skardu 0.277778 0.111683 6 62 MAS-086, MAS-292, MAS-474 37, 38, 39  
133 Astragalus psilocentros Fisch. BiowaCharchu, Biacharchoo, Sokhrus, Hapoocho Leaf, stem (K, H), leaf, root, thorny branches (S), Decoction, infusion (S) Ghizer, Hunza, Kargha, Skardu 0.258333 0.153501 9 63 MAS-088, MAS-166, MAS-294, MAS-476 9, 12, 13, 38  
134 Linaceae Linum usitatissimum L. Human Seed Powder Hunza 0.175 0.07874 10 127 MAS-134 9, 32, 33  
135 Lythraceae Punica granatum L. Danooh, Sio, Dolum, Danu Fruit, root (K, S), flower, fruit, seed, bark (H) Decoction, paste, powder, direct Gojal, Hunza, Jalalabad, Skardu 0.26875 0.112524 19 220 MAS-125, MAS-169, MAS-227, MAS-479 9, 15, 17, 33, 38  
136 Malvaceae Malva neglecta Wallr. Shanishah Whole plant Powder, decoction Gojal 0.125 0.071429 1 14 MAS-095 17  
137 Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench Bhindi Seed, fruit Infusion Hunza, Jalalabad, Nagar 0.308333 0.064052 3 57 MAS-174, MAS-233, MAS-362 9  
138 Morus nigra L. Kini Marooch Whole plant Decoction, paste, direct Hunza 0.225 0.1 3 30 MAS-135 33  
139 Ficus carica L. Faag, Faak Fruit, stem latex (N, H, K), fruit (Gh) Poultice, direct, powder, paste Ghizer, Hunza, Jalalabad, Nagar 0.275 0.096875 16 203 MAS-070, MAS-158, MAS-224, MAS-355 9, 15, 16, 33  
140 Morus alba L. Marooch, Shae Marooch Whole plant Decoction, paste, direct Hunza, Jalalabad 0.275 0.065763 7 119 MAS-171, MAS-230 9, 15, 32, 33  
141 Nitrariaceae Peganum harmala L. Spandur, Isman, Ispandure, Supandour Whole plant (N, H), seed (Gh, S) Powder, decoction, paste (H) Ghizer, Gojal, Hunza, Nagar, Skardu 0.288333 0.097728 14 143 MAS-063, MAS-120, MAS-352, MAS-456 9, 16, 17, 33, 38, 53  
142 Nyctaginaceae Mirabilis jalapa L. Gul-e-Abbas Flower Paste Hunza, Kargha 0.1875 0.142857 2 14 MAS-176, MAS-302 40, 41  
143 Oleacea Fraxinus hookeri Wenz. Kasunar Bark, wood Decoction Jalalabad 0.275 0.047619 2 42 MAS-195 15  
144 Fraxinus xanthoxyloides (G.Don) Wall. ex A.DC. Kasunar Bark, wood Decoction Jalalabad 0.175 0.055556 2 36 MAS-196 15  
145 Olea ferruginea Wall. ex Aitch. Kawoo Leaf, wood, bark Direct, decoction Jalalabad 0.2 0.071429 1 14 MAS-200 15  
146 Onagraceae Epilobium latifolium L. Pondol Leaf, flower Paste, decoction Skardu 0.233333 0.071429 1 14 MAS-390 12  
147 Orchidaceae Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soó Narmada Root, rhizome Powder Gojal 0.15 0.090909 1 11 MAS-094 17  
148 Orobanchaceae Pedicularis cheilanthifolia Schrenk Serfo spanthing Leaf Decoction Skardu 0.3 0.166667 2 12 MAS-396 12  
149 Pedicularis pectinatiformis Bonati Sunpo spanthing Leaf Infusion Skardu 0.233333 0.157895 3 19 MAS-397 12  
150 Papaveraceae Corydalis crassifolia Royle Sackros/Zarvosh Whole plant Gojal 0.2 0.142857 1 7 MAS-093 17  
151 Papaver somniferum L. Mardakhaw Latex Decoction Hunza 0.175 0.115385 3 26 MAS-136 9, 33  
152 Pinaceae Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Chirpine Resin, wood Paste, powder, direct Ghizer 0.233333 0.121212 4 33 MAS-047 37  
153 Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss. Kachul Resin, wood Powder, decoction Jalalabad 0.2 0.071429 1 14 MAS-201 15  
154 Pinus gerardiana Wall.ex Lamb. Cheenh Resin, wood, leaf Decoction, direct, paste, powder (k) Jalalabad 0.175 0.096774 3 31 MAS-202 15  
155 Pinus wallichiana A.B.Jacks. Cheenh Resin, wood, leaf Infusion, powder Nagar 0.175 0.142857 3 21 MAS-340 15  
156 Plantaginaceae Plantago ovata Forssk. Ispaghol Seed, leaf, root Powder, infusion Ghizer 0.233333 0.069767 3 43 MAS-048 16  
157 Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Karroo Leaf, bark, root, rhizome Paste Kargha 0.2 0.130435 3 23 MAS-244 11  
158 Plantago major L. Shiltive, Boqna Root, seed, leaf (K), seed (S), leaf, seed (Gh, H) Direct, decoction, oil (S) Ghizer, Hunza, Kargha, Skardu 0.2875 0.104482 9 127 MAS-073, MAS-161, MAS-282, MAS-466 9, 14, 33, 37, 38, 53  
159 Plantago lanceolata L. Sman Hrswa, Sepgilk, Yeeps Flower, leaf (S), leaf, seed (H) Decoction, infusion, paste (S), ash (H) Gojal, Skardu 0.295833 0.121667 6 49 MAS-131, MAS-485 12, 17  
160 Poaceae Zea mays L. Makayee Fruit Direct Hunza 0.125 0.142857 1 7 MAS-139 9, 33  
161 Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schult. Izkhar Makki Flower Decoction Kargha 0.175 0.133333 2 15 MAS-242 40, 41  
162 Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. Cha soq Stem Direct Kargha 0.175 0.0625 1 16 MAS-243 39  
163 Saccharum bengalense Retz. Phoroo Root, stem Powder Kargha 0.175 0.190476 4 21 MAS-247 14  
164 Hordeum vulgare L. Cha Fay, York Seed Powder Gojal, Kargha, Skardu 0.263889 0.161905 4 24 MAS-129, MAS-299, MAS-483 17, 39  
165 Avena sativa L. Nas Choo, Sheshar Seed (S), seed, leaf (H) Decoction Hunza, Skardu 0.270833 0.144796 5 47 MAS-190, MAS-496 9, 39  
166 Polygonaceae Rheum tibeticum Maxim. ex Hook. f. Sheepod Stem Direct Gojal 0.2 0.142857 1 7 MAS-102 17  
167 Bistorta amplexicaulis (D.Don) Greene Onbu Root Powder, decoction, infusion Skardu 0.266667 0.214286 3 14 MAS-387 12  
168 Polygonum affine D. Don. Strin mindoq Root, flower Decoction, infusion Skardu 0.4 0.142857 3 21 MAS-398 12  
169 Polygonum tataricum L. Bro Kho-Bro Leaf, seed Powder, decoction Skardu 0.233333 0.157895 3 19 MAS-399 38  
170 Rheum spiciforme Royle Khakhol Leaf, root Direct, powder Skardu 0.266667 0.214286 3 14 MAS-405 39  
171 Rumex chalepensis Mill. Sa-shing Root Decoction Skardu 0.266667 0.083333 1 12 MAS-408 38  
172 Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Bro, Ghiawas, Stabro, Baraw Seed (K, H, A), leaf, seed (S) Direct, paste, powder Astore, Hunza, Kargha, Skardu 0.195833 0.150985 12 89 MAS-016, MAS-146, MAS-259, MAS-428 9, 13, 33, 38  
173 Rumex nepalensis Spreng. Churkeen, Rashona Root (K), leaf (A) Paste Astore, Kargha 0.229167 0.142857 2 14 MAS-021, MAS-263, MAS-433 13, 14  
174 Rheum australe D. Don Shoot, Lachu Root (K, A), leaf, root, stem (S) Powder, infusion, decoction Astore, Kargha, Skardu 0.280556 0.155556 8 50 MAS-030, MAS-272, MAS-442 12, 13  
175 Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill Span Harswa, Skyurbutaq Leaf (S), aerial (A) Powder, decoction Astore, Skardu 0.233333 0.177778 4 24 MAS-036, MAS-448 12, 38  
176 Rheum emodi Jarochuntal, Chontal Whole plant Decoction Ghizer, Hunza 0.258333 0.120909 5 61 MAS-068, MAS-156, MAS-461 9, 16  
177 Rumex hastatus D. Don Churki Whole plant (K), leaf, root, stem, fruit (Gh) Direct, decoction, powder (Gh) Ghizer, Kargha 0.3 0.093168 3 53 MAS-080, MAS-286 14, 16, 37  
178 Bistorta affinis (D.Don) Greene Buma Leaf Powder Kargha, Skardu 0.204167 0.142857 2 14 MAS-322, MAS-507 39  
179 Polygonum hydropiper L. Thangmarcy Leaf (K), aerial (S) Decoction Kargha, Skardu 0.2625 0.188235 5 27 MAS-333, MAS-518 14, 38  
180 Primulaceae Primula macrophylla D. Don Benufsha Whole plant Decoction, powder Gojal 0.175 0.083333 1 12 MAS-101 17  
181 Primula denticulata Sm. Daoo Leaf, root Decoction, powder, infusion (s) Skardu 0.4 0.2 4 20 MAS-401 12  
182 Primula farinose L. Spangpunar Flower Paste, decoction Skardu 0.366667 0.142857 2 14 MAS-402 38  
183 Rananculaceae Clematis baltistanica Qureshi & Chaudhri Margush, Murgushi, Chindrik Leaf, flower (H), whole plant (K) Paste Gojal, Jalalabad, Kargha 0.208333 0.086652 6 76 MAS-127, MAS-228, MAS-298 9, 14  
184 Aconitum nepellus L. Booma, Sai booma Flower, leaf (N, H, K), whole plant (K), aerial (S) Direct Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.2 0.231481 7 31 MAS-316, MAS-378, MAS-501 11, 38, 53  
185 Ranunculus trichophyllus Chaix ex Vill. Threadleaf crowfoot Whole plant Paste, infusion Kargha 0.175 0.111111 2 18 MAS-246 14  
186 Thalictrum foetidum L. Momeran Leaf Direct Kargha 0.225 0.142857 1 7 MAS-248 39  
187 Aconitum violaceum Jacquem. Ex. Stapf Booma Root Decoction, powder Skardu 0.233333 0.25 4 16 MAS-379 12  
188 Aquilegia fragrans Benth. Karfo Koo-kuk Leaf, flower Paste, decoction Skardu 0.233333 0.133333 2 15 MAS-382 38  
189 Aquilegia pubiflora Wall. Ex Royle Koo-kuk Leaf, flower Paste Skardu 0.233333 0.111111 2 18 MAS-383 38, 53  
190 Thalictrum foliolosum DC. Momyrun Root Decoction Skardu 0.4 0.142857 2 14 MAS-412 38  
191 Delphinium brunonianum Royle Makhoting Leaf, flower (K), whole plant (S, A) Decoction, powder (S), infusion (S) Astore, Kargha, Skardu 0.269444 0.132937 8 75 MAS-026, MAS-268, MAS-438 12, 13, 38, 39  
192 Pulsatilla wallichiana (Royle) Ulbr. Zgiongmonana Loqparimandoq Flower Powder Astore, Skardu 0.316667 0.142857 2 14 MAS-038, MAS-450 13  
193 Rosaceae Comarum salesovianum (Stephan) Asch. & Graebn. Noghurdoom woosh Flower   Gojal 0.175 0.142857 1 7 MAS-092 9  
194 Potentilla eriocarpa Wall. ex Lehm. Amber Leaf, flower Gojal 0.1 0.142857 1 7 MAS-099 17  
195 Potentilla microphylla D. Don Zatspirg Leaf, seed   Gojal 0.175 0.222222 2 9 MAS-100 17  
196 Rubus irritans Focke Icheejeh Fruit Direct Jalalabad 0.325 0.061224 3 49 MAS-207 15  
197 Potentilla argyrophylla Wall. ex Lehm. Serfo Harswa Whole plant Paste Skardu 0.466667 0.142857 1 7 MAS-400 12  
198 Rosa webbiana Wall. ex Royle Shighaye, Sia marpho, Chereer, Sia sarfo Bark, wood (K), flower, bark (S), fruit, seed, wood (H, A) Decoction Astore, Gojal, Hunza, Jalalabad, Skardu 0.238333 0.103989 10 116 MAS-010, MAS-110, MAS-144, MAS-422 9, 13, 15, 17, 38, 53  
199 Prunus armeniaca L. Jui, Jaroty, Chooli Fruit, kernel, oil Direct, oil, powder, paste Astore, Hunza, Jalalabad, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.276389 0.082586 49 706 MAS-015, MAS-145, MAS-218, MAS-427 9, 13, 15, 32, 33, 38, 39  
200 Spiraea canescens D.Don Darah, Skhsi Flower, stem, wood Oil, decoction Astore, Jalalabad 0.175 0.066667 3 52 MAS-018, MAS-219 13, 15  
201 Potentilla salesoviana Steph. Sniarmastwa, Karfo mindoq Flower Infusion (s), paste Astore, Kargha, Skardu 0.222222 0.116883 8 78 MAS-029, MAS-271, MAS-441 12, 13,38  
202 Rosa brunonii Lindl. SiaMarpho, Siya Bark Decoction, powder (k), infusion (s) Astore, Kargha, Skardu 0.216667 0.142857 3 21 MAS-031, MAS-273, MAS-443 12, 13  
203 Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A.Webb Badum, Balth, Kono, Stargi mar Kernel, flower Direct, oil, paste, decoction (s) Ghizer, Hunza, Jalalabad, Kargha, Nagar, Skardu 0.231944 0.11893 21 194 MAS-069, MAS-223, MAS-354, MAS-462 15, 16, 32, 39  
204 Rosa indica L. Ghulab Flower Paste, oil Ghizer, Hunza, Skardu 0.313889 0.090149 6 62 MAS-076, MAS-164, MAS-469 32, 37, 38  
205 Malus domestica Borkh. Skamkooshu Fruit Powder Kargha, Skardu 0.270833 0.142857 2 14 MAS-332, MAS-517 39  
206 Potentilla bifurca L. Tarqan Flower (K), aerial (S) Infusion (S), decoction (K) Kargha, Skardu 0.345833 0.103343 4 54 MAS-334, MAS-519 12, 38, 39  
207 Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Takushu Choo Fruit Paste (k), decoction (s) Kargha, Skardu 0.2375 0.171429 3 17 MAS-335, MAS-520 39, 53  
208 Salicaceae Salix babylonica L. Muchoor Leaf, bark, seed, gum Decoction, paste, direct Hunza 0.125 0.142857 4 28 MAS-138 9  
209 Salix acmophylla Boiss. Brawoon Leaf, bark, stem, branches Decoction, paste Jalalabad 0.275 0.074627 5 67 MAS-208 15, 53  
210 Salix denticulata Andersson Brawoon Leaf, bark, stem, branches Decoction, paste, direct Jalalabad 0.225 0.083333 5 60 MAS-209 15  
211 Salix iliensis Regel Brawoon Leaf, bark, stem, branches Decoction, paste, direct Jalalabad 0.175 0.09434 5 53 MAS-210 15  
212 Salix sericocarpa Andersson Brawoon Leaf, bark, stem, branches Decoction, paste, direct Jalalabad 0.175 0.096154 5 52 MAS-211 15  
213 Salix turanica Nasarov Brawoon Leaf, bark, stem, branches Decoction, paste, direct Jalalabad 0.2 0.1 5 50 MAS-212 15  
214 Salix alba L. Mori Bayao, Bayo Leaf, bark Decoction, paste, direct Ghizer, Kargha 0.225 0.099462 5 55 MAS-081, MAS-287 14, 16  
215 Populus alba L. Fulsoo, Turaq Leaf, wood (K), leaf (H) Decoction Hunza, Jalalabad 0.1375 0.107143 2 21 MAS-172, MAS-231 9, 15, 33  
216 Populus nigra L. Jerpa Leaf Decoction Hunza, Jalalabad, Nagar 0.166667 0.119048 3 28 MAS-175, MAS-234, MAS-363 15, 33  
217 Salix tetrasperma Roxb. Byao, Bew Leaf, bark Decoction, paste, direct Hunza, Kargha 0.2 0.107143 2 21 MAS-177, MAS-303 9, 14  
218 Saxifragaceae Saxifraga hirculus L. Sitbark Whole plant Decoction Gojal 0.15 0.117647 4 34 MAS-103 17  
219 Bergenia himalacia Boriss. Sanspur Root Powder, decoction Kargha 0.175 0.133333 2 15 MAS-241 9, 11, 12, 16, 33, 53  
220 Bergenia stracheyi (Hook.f. & Thomson) Engl. Sasper, Khichlay Root, leaf Infusion, powder, paste, direct Ghizer, Hunza, Nagar, Skardu 0.25625 0.14944 18 124 MAS-075, MAS-163, MAS-357, MAS-468 9, 11, 12, 16, 33  
221 Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. Shafus, Shaphus Leaf (K), leaf, seed (S) Powder, decoction, direct Kargha, Skardu 0.308333 0.162338 12 75 MAS-321, MAS-506 12, 13, 39  
222 Solanaceae Solanum nigrum L. Gabeeli, Gabilo, Drumbashokhlo Whole plant (N,Gh), leaf, fruit (K), fruit, seed (H), fruit (A) Direct, decoction (K), powder (Gh) Astore, Ghizer, Gojal, Kargha, Nagar 0.243333 0.125426 20 190 MAS-005, MAS-053, MAS-252, MAS-343 13, 14, 16, 17, 37  
223 Hyoscyamus niger L. Landungstwa Seed Paste, poultice, decoction Astore, Kargha, Skardu 0.25 0.15873 3 19 MAS-027, MAS-269, MAS-439 13, 53  
224 Datura stramonium L. Daturo, Datura Seed (H), flower, fruit, seed, leaf (Gh, K) Decoction, ash (K), paste (K) Ghizer, Hunza, Kargha 0.266667 0.105286 13 138 MAS-071, MAS-159, MAS-280 9, 14, 16, 33, 37, 53  
225 Capsicum annuum L. Marooch Fruit Direct Hunza, Nagar 0.2375 0.065613 5 101 MAS-187, MAS-370 9  
226 Tamaricaceae Myricaria squamosa Desv. Targ Leaf, flower Powder Gojal 0.175 0.178571 5 28 MAS-097 17  
227 Thymelaeaceae Daphne mucronata Royle Nirko Leaf, fruit, wood Paste, poultice Jalalabad 0.275 0.088889 4 45 MAS-193 15  
228 Urticaceae Urtica dioica L. Khaeshing Whole plant (S, K), leaf, root (Gh) Direct, decoction, paste (S) Ghizer, Kargha, Skardu 0.236111 0.132675 12 149 MAS-087, MAS-293, MAS-475 13, 37, 53  
229 Violaceae Viola serpens Wall. ex Ging. Skora mindoq, Lillo Flower (S), whole plant (Gh, H) Decoction Ghizer, Hunza, Skardu 0.258333 0.124008 6 58 MAS-077, MAS-165, MAS-470 9, 16, 33, 38  
230 Zingiberacaceae Curcuma longa L. Halichi Stem Powder Hunza, Nagar 0.275 0.088933 4 45 MAS-188, MAS-371 32  
231 Zygophyllaceae Tribulus terrestris L. Kokoloq, Kokoring, Huk ga kurice Whole plant (Gh, K, A), seed (S), fruit (H) Paste, decoction Astore, Ghizer, Hunza, Kargha, Skardu 0.23 0.142857 9 63 MAS-008, MAS-056, MAS-255, MAS-420 9, 13, 33, 37, 38, 39