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Table 2 Frequencies (%) of animals cited per groups, by the research participants

From: Wild vertebrates and their representation by urban/rural students in a region of northeast Brazil

Groups Taxa Animala General Urban Rural
Fishes Fish Peixe 144 (66.97) 77 (59.68) 67 (77.90)
Tetraodontiformes Baiacu 1 (0.46) 1 (0.77) 0 (0.00)
Perciformes Atum 1 (0.46) 1 (0.77) 0 (0.00)
Tilápia 3 (1.39) 1 (0.77) 2 (2.32)
Selachimorpha* Tubarão 17 (7.90) 9 (6.97) 8 (9.30)
Gasterosteiformes Cavalo-marinho 1 (0.46) 0 (0.00) 1 (1.16)
Osteoglossiformes Pirarucu 2 (0.93) 2 (1.55) 0 (0.00)
  Piranha 18 (8.37) 15 (11.62) 3 (3.48)
  Traíra 9 (4.18) 7 (5.42) 2 (2.32)
  Curimatã 6 (2.79) 6 (4.65) 0 (0.00)
Characiformes Piaba 1 (0.46) 1 (0.77) 0 (0.00)
Clupeiformes Sardinha 9 (4.18) 7 (5.42) 2 (2.32)
Siluriformes Chupa pedra 1 (0.46) 1 (0.77) 0 (0.00)
Salmoniformes Salmão 1 (0.46) 1 (0.77) 0 (0.00)
Cypriniformes Carpa 1 (0.46) 0 (0.00) 1 (1.16)
Total 10 15 215 (99.93) 129 (99.63) 86 (99.96)
Amphibians Amphibian Anfíbio 1 (0.28) 1 (0.43) 0 (0.00)
Anura Sapo 170 (48.43) 103 (44.58) 67 (55.83)
Cururu 2 (0.56) 0 (0.00) 2 (1.66)
Sapo boi 1 (0.28) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.83)
89 (25.35) 61 (26.40) 28 (23.33)
Perereca 53 (15.09) 38 (16.45) 15 (12.50)
Gia 1 (0.28) 1 (0.43) 0 (0.00)
Caudata Salamandra 34 (9.68) 27 (11.68) 7 (5.83)
Total 03 08 351 (99.95) 231 (99.97) 120 (99.98)
Reptiles Reptlia Réptil 1 (0.07) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.20)
Squamata Cobra 322 (22.67) 173 (18.74) 149 (29.97)
Surucucu 9 (0.63) 8 (0.86) 1 (0.20)
Cascavel 29 (2.04) 24 (2.60) 5 (1.00)
Naja 8 (0.56) 6 (0.65) 2 (0.40)
Coral 22 (1.54) 16 (1.73) 6 (1.20)
Cipó 23 (1.61) 14 (1.51) 9 (1.81)
Jibóia 16 (1.12) 12 (1.30) 4 (0.80)
Corre campo 3 (0.21) 3 (0.32) 0 (0.00)
Cobra do mato 1 (0.07) 1 (0.10) 0 (0.00)
Cobra do sertão 1 (0.07) 1 (0.10) 0 (0.00)
Jararaca 12 (0.84) 10 (1.08) 2 (0.40)
Sucuri 4 (0.28) 4 (0.43) 0 (0.00)
Lagarto 57 (4.01) 38 (4.11) 19 (3.82)
Iguana 6 (0.42) 2 (0.21) 4 (0.80)
Calango 5 (0.35) 0 (0.00) 5 (1.00)
Camaleão 142 (10.00) 84 (9.10) 58 (11.67)
Tejo 101 (7.11) 63 (6.82) 38 (7.64)
Lagartixa 54 (3.80) 24 (2.60) 30 (6.03)
Vibra 1 (0.07) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.20)
Dragão 2 (0.14) 2 (0.21) 0 (0.00)
Dragão komodo 1 (0.07) 1 (0.10) 0 (0.00)
Crocodylia Jacaré 221 (15.56) 160 (17.33) 61 (12.27)
Crocodilo 89 (6.26) 76 (8.23) 13 (2.61)
Saurischia Disossauro 12 (0.84) 10 (1.08) 2 (0.40)
Chelonia/Testudines Quelônio 1 (0.07) 1 (0.10) 0 (0.00)
Cágado 48 (3.38) 36 (3.90) 12 (2.41)
Cágado d’água 1 (0.07) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.20)
Jabuti 69 (4.85) 40 (4.33) 29 (5.83)
Tartaruga 159 (11.19) 114 (12.35) 45 (9.05)
Total 05 30 1420 (99.91) 923 (99.89) 497 (99.91)
Aves Birds Aves 108 (18.71) 61 (25.41) 47 (13.94)
Sphenisciformes Pinguim 3 (0.51) 2 (0.83) 1 (0.29)
Piciformes Tucano 14 (2.42) 9 (3.75) 5 (1.48)
Pica-pau 2 (0.34) 2 (0.86) 0 (0.00)
Passeriformes Golado*** 5 (0.86) 1 (0.41) 4 (1.18)
Concriz*** 3 (0.51) 0 (0.00) 3 (0.89)
Azulão*** 7 (1.21) 3 (1.25) 4 (1.18)
Pardal 6 (1.03) 1 (0.41) 5 (1.48)
Sabiá 1 (0.17) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.29)
Lavandeira 1 (0.17) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.29)
Maria fita*** 1 (0.17) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.29)
Galo campina*** 9 (1.55) 5 (2.08) 4 (1.18)
Andorinha 1 (0.17) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.29)
Tico-tico 1 (0.17) 1 (0.41) 0 (0.00)
Papa capim 1 (0.17) 1 (0.41) 0 (0.00)
Canário terra*** 1 (0.17) 1 (0.41) 0 (0.00)
Bigode*** 1 (0.17) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.29)
Lagarteiro 1 (0.17) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.29)
Corvo 1 (0.17) 1 (0.41) 0 (0.00)
Cardial 1 (0.17) 1 (0.41) 0 (0.00)
Apodiformes Beija-flor 1 (0.17) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.29)
Psittaciformes Papagaio 23 (3.98) 13 (5.41) 10 (2.96)
Arara 25 (4.33) 18 (7.50) 7 (2.07)
Arara azul 5 (0.86) 5 (2.08) 0 (0.00)
Periquito*** 11 (1.90) 6 (2.50) 5 (1.48)
Maroca*** 1 (0.17) 1 (0.41) 0 (0.00)
Calopsita*** 1 (0.17) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.29)
Struthioniformes Ema 14 (2.42) 1 (0.41) 13 (3.85)
Avestruz 16 (2.77) 7 (2.91) 9 (2.67)
Ciconiiformes Teteu 2 (0.34) 0 (0.00) 2 (0.59)
Falconiformes Gavião 16 (2.77) 6 (2.50) 10 (2.96)
Carcará 5 (0.86) 0 (0.00) 5 (1.48)
Falcão 6 (1.03) 2 (0.83) 4 (1.18)
Accipitriformes Águia 8 (1.38) 3 (1.25) 5 (1.48)
Urubu 16 (2.77) 5 (2.08) 11 (3.26)
Columbiformes Arribaçã 7 (1.21) 0 (0.00) 7 (2.07)
Rolinha 16 (2.77) 1 (0.41) 15 (4.45)
Asa branca 1 (0.17) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.29)
Pombo*** 2 (0.34) 0 (0.00) 2 (0.59)
Tinamiformes Lambu 2 (0.34) 0 (0.00) 2 (0.59)
Pelecaniformes Garça 6 (1.03) 6 (2.50) 0 (0.00)
Apterygiformes Kiwi 1 (0.17) 1 (0.41) 0 (0.00)
Cariamiformes Seriema 4 (0.69) 0 (0.00) 4 (1.18)
Strigiformes Coruja 6 (1.03) 5 (2.08) 1 (0.29)
Anseriformes Pato*** 35 (6.06) 13 (5.41) 22 (6.52)
Ganso*** 3 (0.51) 0 (0.00) 3 (0.89)
Galliformes Guiné*** 7 (1.21) 1(0.41) 6 (1.78)
Peru*** 12 (2.07) 2 (0.83) 10 (2.96)
Galo/Galinha*** 153 (26.51) 53(22.08) 100 (29.67)
Pavão*** 4 (0.69) 2 (0.83) 2 (0.59)
Total 18 50 577 (99.73) 240 (99.89) 337 (99.79)
Mammalia Carnivorous Leão 355 (11.17) 204 (13.71) 151 (8.93)
  Onça pintada 12 (0.37) 9 (0.60) 3 (0.17)
  Onça 179 (5.63) 96 (6.45) 83 (4.91)
  Gato*** 269 (8.46) 126 (8.47) 143 (8.46)
  Cachorro*** 320 (10.07) 158 (10.62) 162 (9.58)
  Tigre 140 (4.40) 90 (6.05) 50 (2.95)
  Raposa 63 (1.98) 20 (1.34) 43 (2.54)
  Leopardo 41 (1.29) 27 (1.81) 14 (0.82)
  Lobo 27 (0.84) 9 (0.60) 18 (1.06)
  Gato do mato 25 (0.78) 10 (0.67) 15 (0.88)
  Furão 1 (0.03) 1 (0.06) 0 (0.00)
  Foca 3 (0.09) 1 (0.06) 2 (0.11)
  Guepardo 12 (0.37) 8 (0.53) 4 (0.23)
  Pantera 4 (0.12) 3 (0.20) 1 (0.05)
  Urso 36 (1.13) 16 (1.07) 20 (1.18)
  Guará 2 (0.06) 0 (0.00) 2 (0.11)
  Guaxite 6 (0.18) 2 (0.13) 4 (0.23)
  Jaguatirica 7 (0.22) 1 (0.06) 6 (0.35)
  Suricato 1 (0.03) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.05)
  Puma 3 (0.09) 2 (0.13) 1 (0.05)
  Lontra 2 (0.06) 0 (0.00) 2 (0.11)
  Lince 3 (0.09) 0 (0.00) 3 (0.17)
  Coiote 1(0.03) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.05)
  Ariranha 1(0.03) 1 (0.06) 0 (0.00)
  Chacau 1(0.03) 1 (0.06) 0 (0.00)
  Jaguar 3(0.09) 0 (0.00) 3 (0.17)
  Morsa 1(0.03) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.05)
  Hiena 25 (0.78) 17 (1.14) 8 (0.47)
  Texugo do mel 1(0.03) 1 (0.06) 0 (0.00)
Primate Humano 1(0.03) 1 (0.06) 0 (0.00)
  Chipanzé 2 (0.06) 1 (0.06) 1 (0.05)
  Macaco 158 (4.97) 63 (4.23) 95 (5.62)
  Gorila 12 (0.37) 1 (0.06) 11 (0.65)
  Saguim 10 (0.31) 5 (0.33) 5 (0.29)
  Mico-leão-dourad 7 (0.22) 5 (0.33) 2 (0.11)
  Lêmore 1(0.03) 1 (0.06) 0 (0.00)
Cingulata Tatu 37 (1.16) 17 (1.14) 20 (1.18)
Peba 6 (0.16) 2 (0.13) 4 (0.23)
Proboscidea Elefante 116 (3.65) 64 (4.30) 52 (3.07)
Mamute 4 (0.12) 3 (0.20) 1 (0.05)
Artiodactyls Girafa 112 (3.52) 74 (4.97) 38 (2.24)
  Hipopótamo 39 (1.22) 23 (1.54) 16 (0.94)
  Boi/Vaca*** 221 (6.95) 78 (5.24) 143 (8.46)
  Porco*** 63 (1.98) 20 (1.34) 43 (2.54)
  Bode/cabra*** 58 (1.82) 14 (0.94) 44 (2.60)
  Ovelha*** 45 (1.41) 5 (0.33) 40 (2.36)
  Carneiro*** 8 (0.25) 2 (0.13) 6 (0.35)
  Camelo 13 (0.40) 4 (0.26) 9 (0.53)
  Javali 18 (0.56) 14 (0.94) 4 (0.23)
  Búfalo 22 (0.69) 12 (0.80) 10 (0.59)
  Cervo 1(0.03) 1 (0.06) 0 (0.00)
  Lhama 5 (0.15) 5 (0.33) 0 (0.00)
  Gazela 1(0.03) 1 (0.06) 0 (0.00)
  Gnu 1(0.03) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.05)
  Alce 2(0.06) 0 (0.00) 2 (0.11)
Didelphidae Gambá 7 (0.22) 4 (0.26) 3 (0.17)
Perissodactyla Zebra 86 (2.70) 34 (2.28) 52 (3.07)
  Cavalo/Égua*** 202 (6.35) 70 (4.70) 132 (7.81)
  Burro mulo*** 6 (0.18) 3 (0.20) 3 (0.17)
  Burro/jumento*** 62 (1.95) 13 (0.97) 49 (2.89)
  Rinoceronte 17 (0.53) 12 (0.80) 5 (0.29)
  Anta 13 (0.40) 8 (0.53) 5 (0.29)
  Cavalo silvestre 1(0.03) 1 (0.06) 0 (0.00)
  Burro selvagem 1(0.03) 0 (0.00) 1 (0.05)
Lagomorpha Lebre*** 1(0.03) 1 (0.06) 0 (0.00)
Coelho*** 34 (1.07) 11 (0.73) 23 (1.36)
Rodentia Rato 65 (2.04) 28 (1.88) 37 (2.18)
  Porco d India*** 1 (0.03) 1 (0.06) 0 (0.00)
  Hamster*** 2 (0.06) 1 (0.06) 1 (0.05)
  Capivara 20 (0.62) 13 (0.97) 7 (0.41)
  Preá 11 (0.34) 1 (0.06) 10 (0.59)
  Cotia 3 (0.09) 1 (0.06) 2 (0.11)
  Paca 2 (0.06) 2 (0.13) 0 (0.00)
  Esquilo 6 (0.18) 4 (0.26) 2 (0.11)
  Porco espinho 10 (0.31) 3 (0.20) 7 (0.41)
Cetartiodactyla Veado 36 (1.13) 19 (1.27) 17 (1.00)
Cetacea Baleia 19 (0.59) 11 (0.73) 8 (0.47)
Golfinho 2 (0.06) 1 (0.06) 1 (0.05)
Boto 1 (0.03) 1 (0.06) 0 (0.00)
Orca 1 (0.03) 1 (0.06) 0 (0.00)
Diprotodontia Canguru 8 (0.25) 6 (0.40) 2 (0.11)
Coala 1 (0.03) 1 (0.06) 0 (0.00)
Chiroptera Morcego 11 (0.34) 3 (0.20) 8 (0.47)
Didelphimorphia Tacaca 5 (0.15) 0 (0.00) 5 (0.29)
Timbu 8 (0.25) 2 (0.13) 6 (0.35)
Pilosa Tamanduá 18 (0.56) 7 (0.47) 11 (0.65)
Preguiça 10 (0.31) 5 (0.33) 5 (0.29)
Total 15 87 3177 (99.61) 1487 (99.76) 1690 (99.57)
Invertebrates Life stages**** Larva 1 (0.68) 0 (0.00) 1 (1.03)
Haplotaxida Minhoca 31 (21.08) 13 (26.00) 18 (18.55)
Araneae Aranha 8 (5.44) 3 (6.00) 5 (5.15)
Caranguejeira 1 (0.68) 0 (0.00) 1 (1.03)
Decapoda Carangueijo 1 (0.68) 1 (2.00) 0 (0.00)
Camarão 2 (1.36) 1 (2.00) 1 (1.03)
Insecta* Inseto 2 (1.36) 2 (4.00) 0 (0.00)
Lepidoptera Lagarta 12 (8.16) 3 (6.00) 9 (9.27)
Borboleta 11 (7.48) 4 (8.00) 7 (7.21)
Mollusca** Molusco 1 (0.68) 1 (2.00) 0 (0.00)
Scorpiones Escorpião 1 (0.68) 1 (2.00) 0 (0.00)
Diptera Mosquito 2 (1.36) 0 (0.00) 2 (2.06)
Mosca 6 (4.08) 1 (2.00) 5 (5.15)
Muriçoca 2 (1.36) 0 (0.00) 2 (2.06)
Hymenoptera Formiga 10 (6.80) 3 (6.00) 7 (7.21)
Abelha 3 (2.04) 1 (2.00) 2 (2.06)
Maribondo 3 (2.04) 0 (0.00) 3 (3.09)
Ascaridida Lombriga 1 (0.68) 0 (0.00) 1 (1.03)
Pulmonata Lesma 3 (2.04) 0 (0.00) 3 (3.09)
Caramujo 1 (0.68) 0 (0.00) 1 (1.03)
Coleoptera Besouro 5 (3.40) 2 (4.00) 3 (3.09)
Cnidaria** Água-viva 3 (2.04) 0 (0.00) 3 (3.09)
Pólipo 1 (0.68) 0 (0.00) 1 (1.03)
Siphonaptera Pulga 1 (0.68) 0 (0.00) 1 (1.03)
Blattodea Barata 9 (6.12) 1 (2.00) 8 (8.24)
Porífera** Esponja 2 (1.36) 1 (2.00) 1 (1.03)
Scolopendromorpha Centopéia 1 (0.68) 0 (0.00) 1 (1.03)
Orthoptera Grilo 3 (2.04) 0 (0.00) 3 (3.09)
Gafanhoto 4 (2.72) 1 (2.00) 3 (3.09)
Phasmatodea Mané mago 1 (0.68) 0 (0.00) 1 (1.03)
Octopoda Polvo 1 (0.68) 0 (0.00) 1 (1.03)
Hemiptera Barbeiro 1 (0.68) 0 (0.00) 1 (1.03)
Diplopoda Piolho de cobra 2 (1.36) 1 (2.00) 1 (1.03)
Crustacea* Crustáceo 1 (0.68) 0 (0.00) 1 (1.03)
Total 24 34 137 (99.96) 40 (100.00) 97 (99.92)
  1. aWe consider the animal denomination by the local vernacular name cited by the interviewers; *Class, **Phylum, ***Locally domestic, and ****Others