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Table 2 Medicinal plant species used by the local communities of River Chenab and its surrounding areas

From: Ethnomedicinal uses of the local flora in Chenab riverine area, Punjab province Pakistan

S.# Plant species and accession number Family Local name Common name Life Habits/ Life formsa Part(s)/mode of utilizationb Application mode Therapeutic uses Quantitative indicesc Previously usedd
FC RFC UR UV RIL FL CFL
1. Justicia adhatoda L. ISNI-RC-86 Acanthaceae Baykr Vasak P S W LE. powder, decoction, juice; FL. decoction; RT. decoction Oral, Gargle Malaria, diabetes, asthma, abortion, toothache 43 0.13 28 0.65 0.91 83.7 75 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦89♦10■1112♦13♦14♦15■16♦17♦18■19♦20♦21♦22♦
2. Trianthema portulacastrum L. ISNI-RC-88 Aizoaceae Itst Horse parslane P H W WP. powder; RT. powder, decoction; LE. extract Oral Anthelmintic, liver infection, asthma, diuretic, jaundice, 27 0.08 11 0.41 0.57 63.0 35 1■2♦3■4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13■14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
3. Achyranthes aspera L. ISNI-RC-01 Amaranthaceae Puth kanda Prickly-Chaff flower P H W WP. decoction, extract; ST. powder; LE. paste, powder; RT. decoction; RT. juice Topical, Oral and as Toothbrush Kidney stone, pneumonia, chest pain, puncture wounds, ulcer, dysmenorrhea, aerodontalgia, asthma 42 0.13 26 0.62 0.89 83.3 73 1♦2■3■45♦6■78♦9♦10■11♦12♦13♦1415♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20■21♦22♦
4. Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R.Br. ex DC. ISNI-RC-128 Amaranthaceae Waglon Alligator weed A/P H W LE. juice, cooked, juice; WP. paste; RT. decoction; ST. decoction Topical, Oral Eye pain, galactagogue, leucorrhea, snake bite, diarrhea 25 0.08 10 0.40 0.53 56.0 29 1♦234♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
5. Amaranthus spinosus L. ISNI-RC-02 Amaranthaceae Gnar Spiny Pigweed A H W LE. cooked, juice, extract; RT. juice, decoction; SD. powder; BA. decoction Gargle, Oral Vermifuge, dyspepsia, diuretic, odontalgia, cataract, constipation 27 0.08 12 0.44 0.57 59.3 33 1♦23♦4■56♦7■89♦10♦11♦12■13♦14♦15♦16■17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
6. Amaranthus viridis L. ISNI-RC-03 Amaranthaceae Ganhar Slender amaranth A H W LE. extract, cooked, juice, paste; SD. powder; RT. decoction Oral and Topical Painful urination, eye pain, constipation, piles, snakebite, cough and asthma 35 0.11 19 0.54 0.74 68.6 50 1♦23♦45♦67■8♦9♦10■1112■13■14■15♦16■17♦1819♦20♦21♦22■
7. Mangifera indica L. ISNI-RC-04 Anacardiaceae Aamb Mango P T C BA. and LE. latex; LE. decoction, paste, infusion; FR. juice; SD. extract Topical, Oral Heel fissures, dysentery, febricity, hypoglycemia, blood pressure, snake bite 29 0.09 14 0.48 0.61 62.1 38 1♦23♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9■10♦11♦12♦1314■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22■
8. Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Hook.f. & Thomson * ISNI-RC-25 Annonaceae Ultha ashok Mast Tree P T C BA. juice, decoction; LE. Paste Topical, Oral Stomachache, body pain, fever, liver tonic 35 0.11 18 0.51 0.74 71.4 52 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
9. Anethum graveolens L. ISNI-RC-82 Apiaceae Sowa Dil A/P H W/C SD. powder; LE. infusion, powder Oral Gastritis, chronic bronchitis, carminative 39 0.12 22 0.56 0.82 74.4 60 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10■11♦12♦13■14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21■22♦
10. Nerium oleander L. ISNI-RC-87 Apocynaceae Kunair Oleander P S W RT. powder; ST.; LE. Juice Oral, Toothbrush and as Eardrops Aborficient, toothache, ear infection 41 0.13 25 0.61 0.87 85.4 73 12♦345♦6■7♦8♦9♦10♦1112♦13♦14♦15■16♦17♦1819■20■21■22♦
11. Pistia stratiotes L.* ISNI-RC-127 Araceae Sabs booti Water lettuce P H W WP. decoction; LE. juice, extract; RT. paste Topical, Oral and as Anal Painful urination, piles, swelling joint, eczema and leprosy, cough and asthma 37 0.12 22 0.59 0.78 73.0 56 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
12. Schefflera arboricola (Hayata) Hayata ex Merr. * ISNI-RC-89 Araliaceae Choti chatri Dwarf schefflera P H C FR.; RT. extract; RT. paste; WP. decoction Topical, Oral Ingestion, blood circulation, cut and wounds, abdominal pain 33 0.10 21 0.64 0.70 69.7 48 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
13. Calotropis procera W.T.Aiton ISNI-RC-05 Asclepiadaceae Akh Milk weed P S W LE. extract, paste, poultice. Latex; ST. and LE. decoction; ST. latex Topical, Oral and as Inhale Cut and wounds, asthma, odontalgia, hepatitis, T.B., malaria, skin burns, lice-infestation 44 0.14 28 0.64 0.93 86.4 79 1■2■3■4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦10■1112■13■1415■16♦1718♦19♦20■21■22■
14. Caralluma edulis Benth. ex Hook.f. ISNI-RC-90 Asclepiadaceae Chonga Caralluma P H W LE. juice, extract; WP. powder Oral Anthelmintic, diuretic, diabetes 31 0.10 17 0.55 0.66 67.7 44 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10■11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
15. Ageratum conyzoides L. ISNI-RC-06 Asteraceae Knar Goat weed A H W LE. paste, juice, extract; FL. decoction; ST. powder; WP. juice; RT. juice Topical, Oral and as Eye drop Jaundice, wounds, febricity, cough, flu, sexual dysfunction,, hair fall, cataract, indigestion 40 0.12 19 0.48 0.85 72.5 60 1♦2■34♦56♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
16. Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. ISNI-RC-91 Asteraceae Chaou Wormwood B H W LE. extract;WP. powder; FL.; SH. Decoction Topical, Oral Hair tonic, antidote, malarial fever, laxative 45 0.14 27 0.60 0.95 84.4 79 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦1011♦1213♦14♦15■16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21■22
17. Carthamus oxyacantha M.Bieb. ISNI-RC-92 Asteraceae Pholi Wild safflower A H W SD. oil; FL. Oral Jaundice, obesity, ulcer, male infertility, bronchitis, thrombosis 32 0.10 15 0.47 0.68 71.9 48 12♦3♦4♦5♦67♦8♦9♦1011♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
18. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. ISNI-RC-07 Asteraceae Kandaal Creeping thistle P H W LE. Juice; FL.; RT. decoction; ST. Topical, Oral Ringworm, hepatic ulcer, body tonic, cough, asthma 34 0.11 15 0.44 0.72 73.5 52 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦1718♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
19. Conyza bonariensis L. Cornq. ISNI-RC-08 Asteraceae Gider booti Hairy fleabane A/P H W WP. Extract; RT. decoction; LE. Infusion, juice Oral Irregular menstruation, diarrhea, rheumatoid, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, dysentery 38 0.12 19 0.50 0.80 76.3 60 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12■13♦14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19■20■21♦22♦
20. Lepidium didymum L. ISNI-RC-09 Asteraceae Jangli halon Swine cress A/B H W ST. powder; LE. infusion; WP. Juice; SH. extract; FL. decoction Topical, Oral Bone fracture, tumors, rheumatism, blood purifier, nerve tonic, cold, flu and fever 36 0.11 19 0.53 0.76 77.8 58 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
21. Eclipta prostrata L. ISNI-RC-10 Asteraceae Sofed banghara Trailing eclipta plant P H W WP. poultice, powder, decoction; LE. juice/tea, powder; RT. decoction Topical, Oral Blood purifier, malaria, skin burns, hepatic tumor, hair oil 30 0.09 14 0.47 0.63 70.0 44 1♦234♦5♦67■8♦9♦10♦11♦12■13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
22. Launaea procumbens Roxb. Ramayya & Rajagopal ISNI-RC-94 Asteraceae Pili dodhak Creeping launaea P H W LE. paste, extract, juice, decoction; WP. decoction Topical, Oral and as Bath Sexual disorder, skin infection, febricity, blood purification, renal disorder 25 0.08 9 0.36 0.53 52.0 27 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16■17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
23. Parthenium hysterophorus L. ISNI-RC-14 Asteraceae Gandi boti Feverfew A/P H W RT. Juice; FL. powder; WP. decoction, juice; LE. juice, extract Oral Laxative, emmenagogue odontalgia, anthelminthic, hyperglycemia, body tonic 29 0.09 12 0.41 0.61 58.6 35 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦67■8♦9♦10■111213■14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦192021♦22♦
24. Sonchus asper Hill. ISNI-RC-11 Asteraceae Asgandh, Dodak Spiny leaved Sowhistle A H W WP. powder; LE. paste; SH. decoction; RT. and L.E. decoction Topical, Oral Febricity, cough, bronchial asthma, purgative, wounds, indigestion 27 0.08 12 0.44 0.57 55.6 31 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13■14■15■16■17♦1819♦20♦21♦22
25. Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund ISNI-RC-93 Asteraceae Peeli booti Dandilion A H W LE. paste, powder, decoction; RT. decoction Topical, Oral Antidote, diabetes, constipation, liver disorder 28 0.09 11 0.39 0.59 57.1 33 1♦2♦3♦4♦56■7♦89♦1011♦12♦13♦14♦15♦1617♦18■19■20♦21♦22■
26. Xanthium strumarium L. ISNI-RC-13 Asteraceae Chhota Dhatura Cocklebur A H W RT. powder; FR. decoction; LE. powder, decoction Topical, Oral and as Toothbrush Malaria, skin ulcer, spinal trauma, indigestion, small pox, scrofulous tumors, odontalgia 26 0.08 11 0.42 0.55 57.7 31 1♦2♦34♦5♦67■8♦9♦10♦11♦1213♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21■22■
27. Heliotropium strigosum Willd. ISNI-RC-95 Boraginaceae Gorkh paan Hairy heliotrope A/P H W WP. powder, extract; LE. extract Oral Blood purifier, urinary tract infection, liver tonic 31 0.10 16 0.52 0.66 71.0 46 12♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10■11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
28. Trichodesma indicum (L.) Lehm. ISNI-RC-96 Boraginaceae Kulfa Tricodescum A H W LE. decoction, extract, paste Topical, Oral Fever, diarrhea, antidote, rheumatism, diuretic 39 0.12 19 0.49 0.82 71.8 58 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15■16♦17♦18■192021♦22♦
29. Brassica rapa L. ISNI-RC-16 Brassicaceae Sarsoon Field mustard B H C SD. powder; WP. cocked; LE. decoction Topical, Oral Eczema, blood purification, body tonic 33 0.10 16 0.48 0.70 78.8 54 12♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦1314♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
30. Sisymbrium irio L. ISNI-RC-15 Brassicaceae Khoob Kalan London rocket A H W SD. poultice; FR. powder, decoction, infusion; WP. juice Topical, Oral Ophthalmia, indigestion, mumps and measles, skin ulcer, wounds 37 0.12 17 0.46 0.78 78.4 60 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦1011♦1213■14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21■22♦
31. Cannabis sativa L. ISNI-RC-83 Cannabaceae Bhang Marijuana P S W/C LE. paste, extract, infusion; WP. powder; SD. decoction; LE. and SD. juice Inhale,Topical and as Oral Constipation, dysentery sedative, snake bite intoxicant, lice infestation, diuretic, purgative, asthma, 46 0.14 29 0.63 0.97 82.6 79 12♦3♦4♦5♦6■789♦10■11♦12■13■14♦15♦16♦17♦1819♦20♦21■22■
32. Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew ISNI-RC-18 Capparidaceae kerda, kair Caper plant P T W LE. paste; ST. and FL. powder; SH. decoction; BA. powder; SD and FL. decoction; FR.; RT. powder Topical, Oral Male sexual dysfunction, hemolytic anemia, anthelminthic, indigestion, hepatic disorder, boils, sciatic and joint pain 35 0.11 17 0.49 0.74 77.1 56 1♦2♦3♦45♦6♦7■8♦9■10■11■12♦13♦14■15♦16♦17■18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
33. Stellaria media (L.) vill. ISNI-RC-19 Caryophyllaceae Gandhar Chickweed A H W LE. paste, poultice, extract WP. decoction; SD. Topical, Oral Bone fracture, constipation, itching, wounds, joint pain 30 0.09 14 0.47 0.63 70.0 44 1♦2♦3♦4♦56♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16■17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
34. Ceratophyllum demersum L.* ISNI-RC-129 Ceratophyllaceae Kind-e-Hill Common contail P H W LE. juice, decoction, paste Topical, Oral Gastric ulcer, diarrhea Biliousness, scorpion stings 40 0.12 27 0.68 0.85 87.5 73 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
35. Chenopodium album L. ISNI-RC-20 Chenopodiaceae Bathu Lamb’s quarter A H W/C SH. and FL. juice; WP. cooked; RT. decoction; LE. juice, infusion Oral Purgative, indigestion, hepatic disorder, urodynia, rheumatic pain, anthelminthic 47 0.15 31 0.66 0.99 80.9 79 12■3♦4♦5♦6■78♦9■10■11♦12■13■14■15♦16■17■18♦19♦20♦21■22■
36. Chenopodium ambrosioides L. ISNI-RC-21 Chenopodiaceae Chandan bathwa Sweet pigweed A/P H W SH. and FL. juice; WP. juice; LE. decoction, powder, infusion Topical, Oral High blood pressure, irregular menstruation, piles, odontalgia, laxative, indigestion 32 0.10 15 0.47 0.68 71.9 48 1♦23♦4♦56♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22■
37. Chenopodium murale L. ISNI-RC-22 Chenopodiaceae Karund Australian-spinach A H W SD. powder; ST. and LE. paste; WP. decoction; LE. powder, decoction Topical, Oral and as Snuff Indigestion, backbone pain, cold and cough, sexual dysfunction, anthelminthic 38 0.12 17 0.45 0.80 76.3 60 12♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9■10♦1112■1314■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
38. Bassia indica (Wight) A.J.Scott ISNI-RC-24 Chenopodiaceae Boi Indian bassia A/B H W LE. oil, decoction; FR. Gargle, Oral Heart oil, urodynia, odontalgia, tumors 36 0.11 16 0.44 0.76 77.8 58 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦10♦1112♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
39. Suaeda vermiculata Forssk. ex J.F.Gmel. ISNI-RC-23 Chenopodiaceae Khaari Akali seepweed P S W WP. decoction; ST. ash, decoction; LE. decoction, juice Topical, Oral Urodynia, blood purifier, hepatic tumor, snakebite, kidney and bladder stone, hair oil 34 0.11 17 0.50 0.72 79.4 56 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦1011♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
40. Convolvulus arvensis L. ISNI-RC-25 Convolvulaceae Lehli/Vahri Deer’s Foot A/P H W LE. paste, juice; WP. extract, cooked; RT. Topical, Oral Laxative, blood purifier, joint pain, hair oil, ulcer 29 0.09 9 0.31 0.61 65.5 40 12♦3♦4♦5♦67■8♦9■1011■121314■1516♦1718♦19♦20♦21■22♦
41. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken ISNI-RC-97 Crassulaceae Zakhm-i-hayat Air Plant P H C LE. extract, paste, juice; RT. infusion Topical, Oral Wound healing, dysentery, kidney and pancreatic stone, epilepsy 27 0.08 9 0.33 0.57 63.0 35 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10■11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
42. Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. ISNI-RC-98 Cucurbitaceae Tuma Bitter apple P H W FR.; SD. oil Topical, Oral Laxtive, amenorrhea Stomachaches, hair tonic constipation, jaundice 25 0.08 8 0.32 0.53 60.0 31 1■2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9■10■11♦12♦13■14■15♦16♦17■18♦19♦20♦21■22
43. Cucumis melo L. ISNI-RC-99 Cucurbitaceae Jangli Kharboza Pickling melon A H W FR. decoction; LE. paste; FR. Topical, Oral Dysuria, leucorrhea Eczema, purgative 28 0.09 8 0.29 0.59 64.3 38 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10■11♦12♦1314♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
44. Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. ISNI-RC-100 Cuscutaceae Neeli Taar Giant dodder A H W SD.; WP. decoction, paste; ST. decoction Topical, Oral Urinary disorder, headache, carminative and anodyne, constipation 26 0.08 8 0.31 0.55 61.5 33 12■3♦4♦5♦6■7♦89♦1011♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦1718♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
45. Cyperus rotundus L. ISNI-RC-26 Cyperaceae Daila Nut grass P H W/C RH. paste, powder, decoction; LE. decoction, paste; RT. infusion Topical, Oral Urodynia, anthelminthic, dermatitis, indigestion, lactation, hypersplenism 47 0.15 32 0.68 0.99 80.9 79 1♦23♦4♦5♦6■789♦10■11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
46. Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) A.Juss. ISNI-RC-27 Euphorbiaceae Neeli Booti Giradol A H W ST. juice; LE. extract decoction, juice Eye drop, Oral Indigestion, Throat ache, vomiting, eye redness 39 0.12 25 0.64 0.82 74.4 60 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
47. Croton bonplandianus Baill. ISNI-RC-32 Euphorbiaceae Ban tulsi Herbel piment P H W WP. juice, decoction; RT. powder; LE. juice, decoction, poultice; ST. juice Topical, Oral Bone Fracture, gastric ulcer, hemorrhage, hair tonic, dermatitis, dengue fever, cardiac tonic 31 0.10 21 0.68 0.66 67.7 44 1♦23♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
48. Euphorbia dracunculoides Lam. ISNI-RC-31 Euphorbiaceae Bamburi Dragon spurge A/P H W FR. juice; LE. powder, paste, juice Topical, Oral Lice infestation, head ache, snakebite, skin parasites, epilepsy 35 0.11 23 0.66 0.74 71.4 52 1♦2♦3♦45♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
49. Euphorbia helioscopia L. ISNI-RC-28 Euphorbiaceae Chhatri Dodak Sun euphorbia A H W WP. powder, latex, juice; SH.; RT.; SD. Topical, Oral and as Eye drop Anthelminthic, athlete’s foot, eye sores, asthma, constipation, cholera 39 0.12 23 0.59 0.82 74.4 60 1♦2♦3♦45♦6♦7■8♦9■10■1112■13■14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19■20■21♦22♦
50. Euphorbia pilulifera L. ISNI-RC-29 Euphorbiaceae Aam dodak, Doddak Asthma weed A H W WP. juice, latex, decoction; SD.and FL. powder; LE. juice Topical, Oral and as Eye drop Cough, bronchial asthma, indigestion, diarrhea, eye pain, skin burns, cut and wounds 33 0.10 22 0.67 0.70 66.7 46 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦1213♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
51. Euphorbia prostrate Aiton. ISNI-RC-30 Euphorbiaceae Doodi Buti Creeping spurge P H W LE. infusion, latex, decoction; WP. extract Topical, Oral Dysentery, hepatic ulcer, eczema, blood purifier, hyperglycemia, bladder stone, diarrhea 37 0.12 22 0.59 0.78 67.6 52 1♦23♦45♦67■89■10■11♦12♦13■14■15♦16♦17♦18■19♦20♦21♦22♦
52. Acacia modesta Wall. ISNI-RC-42 Fabaceae Phulai Amritsar gum P T W ST. extract, gum; ST. and LE. latex; LE. extract; BA. ash, powder Topical, Oral and as Toothbrush Aerodontalgia, flatulence, tonic, body tonic, joint pain, bronchitis 32 0.10 21 0.66 0.68 65.6 44 12♦3♦4♦5♦6■7■8♦9■10■11■12♦13■14♦15■16♦1718♦19♦20♦21■22♦
53. Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile ISNI-RC-41 Fabaceae Kikar Babul acacia P T W FL. powder; LE. decoction, paste; BA. powder, ash, decoction; ST. gum; Oral, Anal and as Toothbrush Hyperglycemia, indigestion, dysentery, backbone and joints pain, odontalgia, piles, jaundice 45 0.14 31 0.69 0.95 82.2 77 123♦4♦5♦6■78♦9■10■11■1213■14♦1516♦17■18■19♦20♦21♦22♦
54. Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. ISNI-RC-104 Fabaceae Sharin Lebbeck tree P T W FL.; SD.; ST. (Branches); FR. Decoction Oral Sexual disorders, impotency tonic, diuretic, blood purifier, asthma 34 0.11 22 0.65 0.72 67.6 48 1♦2♦34♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10♦111213♦14♦15♦16♦17■18♦19■20■21♦22♦
55. Alhagi maurorum Medik. ISNI-RC-58 Fabaceae Jawansa Camel thorn P S W BA. decoction, powder; BA. ash; LE. decoction, paste; FL. powder; ST. gum Oral, Toothbrush and as Anal Hyperglycemia, indigestion, dysentery, backbone and joints pain, odontalgia, piles, jaundice 38 0.12 25 0.66 0.80 76.3 60 12♦3♦4♦5♦678♦9■1011♦12♦13♦14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21■22♦
56. Cassia fistula L. ISNI-RC-105 Fabaceae Amaltas Golden shower P T W SD. powder; FL. powder; RT. extract; LE. poultice Topical, Oral Gastric, diarrhea, hyperglycemia, pustule 46 0.14 29 0.63 0.97 87.0 83 1♦23■4♦5♦6♦789♦10♦11♦12■13■14♦1516♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22■
57. Dalbergia sissoo DC. ISNI-RC-57 Fabaceae Tali Indian rose wood P T W WP. decoction; RT. decoction; LE. decoction; FR. powder; RT. infusion; SD. powder Topical, Oral Bladder and kidney stone, laxative, piles, bronchial asthma, cough, rheumatism, skin burn, blood purifier 43 0.13 28 0.65 0.91 81.4 73 12♦34♦5♦678♦9■10111213■14■1516♦17■18♦19■20■21♦22♦
58. Indigofera linifolia (L.f.) Retz. ISNI-RC-107 Fabaceae Gorakh pan Common Indigo A H W WP. decoction; LE. extract; RT. paste; SD. Topical, Oral Skin eruption, emollient, swelling joints, tonic 36 0.11 21 0.58 0.76 69.4 52 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦67♦8♦9♦10♦11♦1213♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
59. Melilotus indicus (L.) All. ISNI-RC-108 Fabaceae Sinjahi Sweet clover A H W LE. paste; WP. powder Oral Emollient, diarrhea swellings, bowl complaints, carminative, digestive, skin rash 20 0.06 6 0.30 0.42 40.0 17 1♦2♦3♦4♦5■6♦7♦8♦9■10♦11♦12■13♦14■15♦16■17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
60. Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre ISNI-RC-56 Fabaceae Such chain Pongam oiltree P T C LE. powder; FL. powder; BA. decoction; RT. juice, SD. oil; ST. Topical, Oral Tooth pain, rheumatic pain, anthelminthic, flatulence, hyperglycemia, wounds and skin ulcer 30 0.09 12 0.40 0.63 60.0 38 1♦23♦4♦5♦6■7■8♦9♦10■11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
61. Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce ISNI-RC-43 Fabaceae Jhand Prosopis P S W/C FR. powder, paste; ST. decoction; BA. powder; FL. powder; LE. paste, juice Topical, Oral and as Eye drop Bladder stone, skin boils, scorpion sting, eye infection, leucorrhoea, dysentery, hepatic ulcer 28 0.09 9 0.32 0.59 57.1 33 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9■1011♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
62. Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. ISNI-RC-40 Fabaceae Mosquet pod Honey mesquite P T W BA. powder; LE. poultice, juice; FL. infusion; WP. decoction; ST. Toothbrush, Topical and as Oral Bladder stones, tooth pain, breast tumor, bronchial asthma, galactagogue, boils 26 0.08 9 0.35 0.55 53.8 29 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21■2♦
63. Trifolium resupinatum L. ISNI-RC-55 Fabaceae Loosin Reversed clover A H W FL. powder; WP. infusion, decoction Gargle, Oral Throat ache, cough, skin ulcer, sedative, liver tonic, indigestion 22 0.07 9 0.41 0.47 45.5 21 1♦2♦3♦4♦56♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
64. Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley ISNI-RC-101 Fumariaceae Papra Indian fumitory A H W WP. decoction; FL. decoction; FR. Juice; LE. Infusion, tea Oral Malaria, constipation, cancer, flu, blood purifier 24 0.07 9 0.38 0.51 50.0 25 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10■111213♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19■20■21■22■
65. Najas graminea Delile* ISNI-RC-12 Hydrocharitaceae Naiad Ricefield Waternymph A H W WP.; LE. paste Topical Goiter and boils, anticancer 29 0.09 16 0.55 0.61 55.2 33 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
66. Vallisneria spiralis L.* ISNI-RC-122 Hydrocharitaceae Sawala tape grass P H W WP.; LE. paste Topical, Oral Leucorrhea, rheumatism 27 0.08 16 0.59 0.57 51.9 29 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
67. Lemna minor L.* ISNI-RC-17 Lemnaceae Cheetri Duck weed A H W LE. poultice; WP. decoction, powder Topical, Oral Skin rashes, antipyretic, diuretic 23 0.07 9 0.39 0.49 47.8 23 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
68. Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet. ISNI-RC-102 Malvaceae Pelae Indian mallow A/B H W LE. paste, decoction; SD.; WP. powder Topical, Oral Syphilis, laxative, piles, bronchial asthma 40 0.12 26 0.65 0.85 82.5 69 1♦2■34♦5♦67♦8♦9♦1011♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
69. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. ISNI-RC-37 Malvaceae Gurhal Rose mallow P S C RT. powder; LE. tea, juice, paste; FL. juice, powder; FL. Topical, Oral Sexual dysfunction, leucorrhoea, asthma, skin ulcer, cardiac pain, carminative, diarrhea 41 0.13 25 0.61 0.87 80.5 69 1♦23♦4♦5♦67■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13■14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
70. Malva parviflora L. ISNI-RC-34 Malvaceae Sonchal Cheese-weed A H W SH. and SD. decoction; SH.; LE. decoction, extract, poultice Topical, Oral Constipation, abortifacient, sore throat, cough, febricity, scorpion bite 25 0.08 7 0.28 0.53 44.0 23 12♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10■1112♦1314♦15♦16■17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
71. Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke ISNI-RC-35 Malvaceae Dhamni Buti False mallow A H W WP. powder; LE. poultice, decoction, paste Topical, Oral Skin sores, eczema, wounds, diarrhea, asthma 40 0.12 23 0.58 0.85 42.5 35 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12■1314♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19■20■21♦22♦
72. Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. ISNI-RC-36 Malvaceae Max mallow Sleeping hibiscus P S C LE. juice, decoction; FL. infusion, decoction Topical, Oral Throat ache, diarrhea, febricity, Skin eruption 30 0.09 17 0.57 0.63 40.0 25 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■89♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
73. Marsilea minuta L.* ISNI-RC-103 Marsiliaceae Chopatti Water clover P F W LE. juice, decoction; FL. infusion, decoction Topical, Oral Throat ache, diarrhea, febricity, lice-infestation 38 0.12 21 0.55 0.80 76.3 60 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
74. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. ISNI-RC-39 Meliaceae Neem Neem P T W/C LE. decoction, infusion, paste; SD. oil; ST; BA. decoction; LE. paste Oral, Toothbrush and as Topical Hyperglycemia, malarial fever, Blood purifier, vermifuge, headache, small pox, aerodontalgia, hepatic ulcer, rheumatic pain 82 0.26 61 0.74 1.00 100.0 100 1■2■34♦5♦6♦789♦10♦11♦1213■14♦15♦16♦17■18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
75. Melia azedarach L. ISNI-RC-38 Meliaceae Dhraikh Chinaberry P T W/C ST. decoction; BA. powder; LE. juice, decoction, paste, infusion, extract Topical, Oral and as Bath Malaria, itching, wound healing, urinary stones, hypertension, hyperglycemia, blood purification 32 0.10 18 0.56 0.68 75.0 50 1♦23♦4♦5♦6789♦10■11■12■13■14♦15■16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22■
76. Ficus benghalensis L. ISNI-RC-106 Moraceae Bohr Banyan tree P T W ST. latex; LE. decoction Oral Premature ejaculation, syphilis and gonorrhea, male sexual power 73 0.23 53 0.73 1.00 95.9 96 1■23♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦1011♦1213■14♦15♦16♦1718♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
77. Ficus benjamina L. ISNI-RC-44 Moraceae Kabar Weeping Fig P T W ST. decoction; BA. and LE. cocked; LE. decoction; FR.; WP. powder Topical, Oral Stomachache, skin ulcers, flatulence, rheumatic pain, blood purification 36 0.11 19 0.53 0.76 66.7 50 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦15
78. Ficus racemosa L. ISNI-RC-45 Moraceae Gular Cluster tree P T W/C ST. latex; FR.; BA. decoction, powder; LE. juice Topical, Oral and as Anal Diarrhea, adiposity, flatulence, piles, ulcer and boils 34 0.11 16 0.47 0.72 64.7 46 1♦2■3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
79. Ficus religiosa L. ISNI-RC-46 Moraceae Pipal Sacred Fig P T W RT. extract; ST. powder; FR. powder; LE. infusion, paste, decoction Topical, Oral Body tonic, bronchial asthma, heart blockage, leucorrhea, ulcer, hypoglycemia 31 0.10 15 0.48 0.66 67.7 44 1♦23♦4♦5♦6♦78♦910♦11♦12■1314■15♦16♦1718♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
80. Ficus virens Aiton ISNI-RC-47 Moraceae Palakh White Fig P T W ST. latex; BA. infusion; FR. powder Oral Hyperglycemia, ulcer, breast tumor 39 0.12 20 0.51 0.82 74.4 60 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
81. Morus alba L. ISNI-RC-48 Moraceae Shahtoot White mulberry P T C LE. and BA. decoction; WP. decoction; ST. latex; LE. juice; FR. juice, decoction Topical, Oral Cough, constipation, hepatic ulcer, tonsils, snake bite, hypoglycemia 74 0.23 54 0.73 1.00 94.6 95 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9■10■11♦12■13■14■15■16♦1718■19♦20♦21■22■
82. Morus nigra L. ISNI-RC-49 Moraceae Kala toot Black mulberry P T C RT. Powder; LE. infusion, decoction; FR. juice, decoction; WP. decoction Gargle, Oral Sore throat, cough, asthma, flu, aerodontalgia, hypoglycemia, constipation, vermifuge, carminative 75 0.23 52 0.69 1.00 97.3 97 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦67■8♦9♦10■1112♦13■14♦15■16♦17♦18■19♦20♦21♦22■
83. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. ISNI-RC-51 Myrtaceae Safaida River red-gum P T W LE. oil, extract, juice, decoction Gargle, Oral Sinusitis, sore throat, cold, cough, febrifuge, flu 37 0.12 18 0.49 0.78 73.0 56 1■2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10■11♦12♦1314♦15♦16♦17■18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
84. Psidium guajava L. ISNI-RC-50 Myrtaceae Amrud Guava P S C FL. decoction; LE. extract, decoction, infusion; FR. Gargle, Oral Diarrhea, hyperglycemia, urodynia, carminative, cough, vermifuge, aerodontalgia, febricity, flu 33 0.10 15 0.45 0.70 69.7 48 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■89♦10■11♦12♦13■14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
85. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.* ISNI-RC-118 Nelumbonaceae Sacred lotus Kanwal P H W RT. paste; FL. Juice; LE. paste; RH. paste Oral, Topical Piles, diarrhea, headache, ring worm, cardio-tonic 35 0.11 18 0.51 0.74 71.4 52 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
86. Boerhavia diffusa L. ISNI-RC-52 Nyctaginaceae Itsit Horse-purslane A/P H W RT. powder, decoction; LE. paste; WP. infusion Topical, Oral Dysmenorrhea, cough, snake bite, bronchial asthma, kidney failure, flu 21 0.07 6 0.29 0.44 38.1 17 12♦3■4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
87. Nymphaea lotus L.* ISNI-RC-119 Nymphaeaceae Kamiyan Lotus P H W LE. and BA. decoction; WP. powder; RT. Oral Malarial fever, diuretic, enteritis 29 0.09 13 0.45 0.61 51.7 31 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
88. Jasminum officinale L. ISNI-RC-53 Oleaceae Malti Poet’s jasmine P S C LE. extract; FL. decoction; WP. extract; ST. extract, juice Topical, Oral Febricity, cough, anthelmintic, scabies, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, heart burn 47 0.15 28 0.60 0.99 85.1 83 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15■16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
89. Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. ISNI-RC-54 Oleaceae Motia Arabian jasmine P S C RT. decoction; LE. paste, juice, decoction, extract; FL. juice Topical, Oral Conjunctivitis, wound and cuts, emmenagogue, febricity, breast cancer, ulcer, insomnia 45 0.14 26 0.58 0.95 86.7 81 1♦2■3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
90. Oxalis corniculata L. ISNI-RC-33 Oxalidaceae Khatti Buti Clover sorrel P H W RT. decoction; WP. powder, decoction; LE. paste, cooked Topical, Oral and as Eye drop Diarrhea and dysentery, hepatitis C, wounds, eye inflammation, vermifuge, sexual dysfunction 21 0.07 9 0.43 0.44 42.9 19 1♦2♦34♦56789♦10■11♦1213■1415■161718■19♦20♦21♦22
91. Argemone mexicana L. ISNI-RC-109 Papaveraceae Stianasi Mexican poppy P H W FL. powder; LE. extract Topical, Oral Sexual problems, premature ejaculation, spermatoria, emollient, purgative 44 0.14 24 0.55 0.93 86.4 79 1♦2♦34♦56■7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
92. Avena sativa L. ISNI-RC-110 Poaceae Jungli jai Common oat A G W WP. powder; LE. infusion Oral Nerve tonic, antispasmodic, diuretic 25 0.08 9 0.36 0.53 48.0 25 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9■10♦11♦1213■14■15♦16♦1718♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
93. Cenchrus pennisetiformis Hoschst. & Steud. ISNI-RC-60 Poaceae Cheetah gha White buffel grass A/P G W ST. juice; FR. decoction; LE. infusion, juice, extract Topical, Oral Eczema, cough, T.B., asthma, skin irritation, epilepsy, piles 27 0.08 11 0.41 0.57 51.9 29 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
94. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. ISNI-RC-61 Poaceae Khanbal gha Bermuda grass P G W RT. infusion; WP. juice, paste, decoction; RH. Decoction, oil Topical, Oral and as Eardrops Stomachache, bladder stones, eye inflammation, high blood pressure, itching, earache 23 0.07 11 0.48 0.49 47.8 23 1♦23♦4♦5♦67■89■101112■1314♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
95. Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. ISNI-RC-62 Poaceae Madhana gha Crow’s foot grass A G W WP. paste; RT.; SD. Topical, Oral Uterine prolapse, kidney stones, indigestion, ulcer and wounds 30 0.09 14 0.47 0.63 46.7 29 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
96. Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf ISNI-RC-63 Poaceae Murgha gha Ringed dichanthium P G W ST. and LE. decoction; ST. powder; LE. juice, infusion, paste; Topical, Oral Abortifacient, diarrhea, indigestion, piles, antispasmodic, scabies 22 0.07 7 0.32 0.47 40.9 19 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9■10♦11♦12♦13♦1415♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
97. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. ISNI-RC-64 Poaceae Madhani Goose grass A G W LE. juice; RT. powder; RH. extract; WP. decoction, tea, infusion Topical, Oral Febricity, dysentery, irregular menstruation, hyperglycemia, hair tonic, food poisoning 26 0.08 10 0.38 0.55 42.3 23 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦1213♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦15
98. Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch. ISNI-RC-65 Poaceae Dabh gha Cogon grass P G W RT. decoction; RH. decoction; LE. paste; SH. and LE. paste Topical, Oral Body tonic, hypertension, wounds and cuts, urodynia, febricity 24 0.07 9 0.38 0.51 50.0 25 1♦2♦34♦5♦6♦7■89♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
99. Panicum antidotale Retz. ISNI-RC-123 Poaceae Sonali Giant panic A G W ST. decoction; LE. juice, infusion Topical, Oral Respiratory tract infection, appetite, gonorrhea, skin diseases 28 0.09 13 0.46 0.59 46.4 27 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10■11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
100. Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud. ISNI-RC-120 Poaceae Nur Common reed P G W RT. paste; WP. decoction Topical, Oral broken bones, rheumatic pain, diaphoretic 41 0.13 25 0.61 0.87 48.8 42 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦1213♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
101. Saccharum spontaneum L.* ISNI-RC-124 Poaceae Kahn Wild cane P G W RT. decoction; WP. powder; LE. paste Topical, Oral Skin eruption, fever, body pain, vermifuge, wounds 35 0.11 19 0.54 0.74 71.4 52 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
102. Setaria glauca (L.) P.Beauv. ISNI-RC-66 Poaceae Bajra Yellow foxtail A/P G W SD.; LE. infusion, juice; ST. decoction Topical Wound healing, dermatitis, ring worm, tonic, hair tonic 31 0.10 17 0.55 0.66 77.4 50 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
103. Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. ISNI-RC-67 Poaceae Baru Johnson grass P G W ST. juice; SD. powder; RT. decoction Topical, Oral Stomachache, emollient, boils, cough 33 0.10 19 0.58 0.70 69.7 48 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
104. Triticum aestivum L. ISNI-RC-59 Poaceae Kanak Wheat A G C SH. decoction; SD. decoction, paste, powder; RT. decoction Topical, Oral Colon cancer, wound healing, anemia, asthma, late puberty, hyperglycemia 37 0.12 21 0.57 0.78 59.5 46 12♦3♦4♦5♦6♦789♦10♦11♦12■13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
105. Polygonum plebeium R. Br. ISNI-RC-68 Polygonaceae Hind rani Small knotweed A H W RT. decoction, LE. extract; SH. decoction; WP. powder, paste Topical, Oral Eczema, galactagogue, pneumonia, liver-tonic, heartburn, regular bowl 70 0.22 50 0.71 1.00 91.4 91 1♦2♦34♦5♦67■8♦9♦1011♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
106. Rumex dentatus L. ISNI-RC-69 Polygonaceae Jangli palak Toothed dock A H W WP. decoction; LE. and RH. poultice; RT. powder, decoction Topical, Oral Eczema, wounds and cuts, constipation, body tonic 35 0.11 21 0.60 0.74 74.3 54 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14■15■16■17♦18♦19■20■21♦22■
107. Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. ISNI-RC-111 Pontederiaceae Dasi Kulfa Water-hyacinth A H W LE. infusion, paste; ST. powder Topical, Oral Piles, constipation, cold, flu, respiratory diseases, vermifuge, antiseptic 32 0.10 18 0.56 0.68 68.8 46 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦67♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
108. Portulaca quadrifida L. ISNI-RC-112 Portulacaceae Kulfa Common purslane A H W WP. powder, LE. infusion Oral Jaundice, liver and spleen problems 44 0.14 26 0.59 0.93 81.8 75 1♦2♦34♦5♦67♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦1617♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
109. Anagallis arvensis L. ISNI-RC-70 Primulaceae Bilibooti Scarlet pimpernel A H W ST. powder; LE. and FL. decoction; WP. juice, paste Topical, Oral Skin ulcer, leprosy, hepatitis C, epilepsy 36 0.11 20 0.56 0.76 63.9 48 1♦2♦34♦5♦6♦7■8♦910♦11♦12■13♦1415♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
110. Ranunculus laetus wall. ex Hook. f. & J.W. Thomson* ISNI-RC-113 Ranunculaceae Sarsoon booti Celery-leaved buttercup A H W LE. paste; FL. extract; SD.; RT. extract Topical, Oral Skin infection, conjunctivitis, body tonic, antirheumatic 38 0.12 20 0.53 0.80 73.7 58 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
111. Ranunculus sceleratus L. ISNI-RC-71 Ranunculaceae Gul-e-ashrafi Blister buttercup A/B H W WP. infusion, juice, decoction; RT. paste; SD. Topical, Oral Febricity, body tonic, asthma, muscle hamstring, urinary incontinence, anthelmintic 34 0.11 18 0.53 0.72 58.8 42 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
112. Oligomeris linifolia (Vahl ex Hornmen) J.F. Macbr.* ISNI-RC-114 Resedaceae Shootk Lineleaf oligomeris A H W SD.; WP. infusion, juice; LE. tea Oral Diarrhea, jaundice, throat pain and cough, menstrual problems 30 0.09 16 0.53 0.63 53.3 33 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
113. Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. f.) Wight and Arn. ISNI-RC-73 Rhamnaceae baer Jujube P S W LE. paste, decoction; BA. decoction; FR. powder Topical, Oral Body tonic, hyperglycemia, constipation, scabies, sore throat and cold 28 0.09 13 0.46 0.59 50.0 29 1♦2♦3■4♦5♦67■8♦9♦10■11■12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18■192021■22♦
114. Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. ISNI-RC-72 Rhamnaceae bairi Chinese apple P T W BA. and LE. decoction; BA. powder; LE. decoction, extract, juice; RT. decoction Topical, Oral, Bath and as Gargle Chicken pox, ulcers, diarrhea, asthma, toothache, jaundice 40 0.12 24 0.60 0.85 40.0 33 1♦234♦5♦6♦7■89♦10♦11121314♦15♦16♦17■18♦19♦20♦2122♦
115. Murraya koenigii (L.) spreng. ISNI-RC-74 Rutaceae Kari patta Curry leaf P T C LE. decoction, juice, infusion, paste; BA. powder; SD. Topical, Oral Hyperglycemia, skin eruption, diarrhea, rheumatic pain, eye inflammation, hair oil 38 0.12 21 0.55 0.80 65.8 52 1♦23■4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦1213♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
116. Salvadora oleoides Decne. ISNI-RC-115 Salvadoraceae Pelo Toothbrush tree P S W ST (Branches); FR. Oral, Toothbrush Tonic, stomachache, toothache 34 0.11 16 0.47 0.72 61.8 44 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9■10■11♦12♦13♦14■15♦16♦17■18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
117. Veronica polita Fr. ISNI-RC-75 Scrophulariaceae Veroni Greyfield speedwell A H W ST. and LE. cooked; LE. tea, juice; ST. and LE. decoction Oral Stomachache, blood purifier, nerve-tonic, cough 42 0.13 4 0.10 0.89 45.2 40 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦78♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
118. Misopates orontium (L.) Raf.* ISNI-RC-116 Scrophulariaceae Kutta Phool Snapdragon A H W WP. extract; LE. poultice, Juice Topical, Oral and as Eye drop Contusions, tumors and ulcers, eye inflammation 24 0.07 13 0.54 0.51 45.8 23 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
119. Datura innoxia Mill. ISNI-RC-79 Solanaceae Datura Thorn apple P S W WP. powder; SD. paste; LE. decoction, extract; FR.; ST. infusion; RT. decoction Oral, Inhale and as Topical Rabies, piles, cough, asthma, lice-infestation, premature ejaculation, purgative, narcotic and sedative 29 0.09 15 0.52 0.61 55.2 33 1♦2♦345♦67■8♦9♦10♦11■12♦1314♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
120. Solanum nigrum L. ISNI-RC-76 Solanaceae Mako Night shade A H W LE. powder, cocked, decoction; LE. extract; LE. and FL. juice; RT. pate; WP. Decoction Topical, Oral and as Eye drop Breast cancer, diarrhea, febricity, ulcer, chicken pox, hyperglycemia, piles, cardiac pain, sore eyes, cuts and wounds 85 0.26 69 0.81 1.00 100.0 100 1♦2345♦6789■10■11♦12♦13■14■15■16■17■18■19♦20♦21♦22■
121. Solanum surattense Burm.f. ISNI-RC-77 Solanaceae Kundiari Thorny nightshade P H W WP. cooked, decoction; FR. paste; RT. decoction; LE. and FR. decoction Oral, Topical Kidney stones, febricity, heel cracks, anthelmintic, asthma, wound healing, liver tonic, rheumatic arthritis 90 0.28 74 0.82 1.00 94.4 94 12345♦67■89■10■1112♦13♦14■15■16♦171819♦20♦21♦22
122. Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. ISNI-RC-78 Solanaceae Asgandh Winter cherry P H W LE. paste, decoction, powder; WP. powder; FR.; FL. powder; RT. powder Oral, Topical and as Snuff Malarial fever, stomachache, night mare, hyperglycemia, asthma, irregular menstruation, breast cancer, wounds 95 0.30 80 0.84 1.00 100.0 100 1■2♦3♦4■5♦6■7■8♦9■10■11■12■13■14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
123. Pterospermum acerifolium (L.) Willd ISNI-RC-80 Starculiaceae Kanakchanpa Maple-leaved Bayur tree P T W/C FL. paste, infusion, decoction; BA. powder Topical, Oral Piles, vermifuge, impotency, body tonic, swellings 25 0.08 12 0.48 0.53 40.0 21 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
124. Tamarix aphylla (L.) H.Karst. ISNI-RC-81 Tamaricaceae Athel tamarisk Rukh P T W LE. poultice, paste, decoction; BA. ash Topical, Oral Febricity, wound and boils eye infection, cough and cold 34 0.11 17 0.50 0.72 67.6 48 12♦3♦4♦5♦6♦78♦9■10■11♦12♦13♦14■15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
125. Tamarix dioica Roxb. ex Roth ISNI-RC-117 Tamaricaceae Rukh Tamarisk P S W BA. powder; LE. Oral Pile, tonic, cough, diarrhea, antiseptic, spleen disorder and liver problems 32 0.10 15 0.47 0.68 68.8 46 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6■7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17■18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
126. Trapa bispinosa Roxb.* ISNI-RC-126 Trapaceae Singhara Water chestnut A H W/C FR.; SD. powder, paste Oral Diarrhea and dysentery, dysuria, body energizer, menstrual disorder 37 0.12 19 0.51 0.78 73.0 56 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦11♦12♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
127. Typha angustata Bory & Chaub. ISNI-RC-121 Typhaceae Kundar Long Cattails P H W RH. paste; FL. Oral Diarrhea and dysentery, mumps and measles, gonorrhea 33 0.10 18 0.55 0.70 69.7 48 1♦2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7♦8♦9♦10♦1112♦13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
128. Lantana camara L. ISNI-RC-84 Verbenaceae Lantana Lantana P S W RT. extract; FL. extract; LE. juice, decoction, paste Topical, Oral Ringworm, headache, aerodontalgia, malarial fever, rheumatoid arthritis, cuts and wounds, injuries, cough, cold, 43 0.13 25 0.58 0.91 81.4 73 1♦2♦3♦4♦56♦7■8♦9■10♦11♦12■13♦14♦15♦16♦17♦18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
129. Tribulus terrestris L. ISNI-RC-85 Zygophyllaceae Gukhro Puncture vine A/B H W FR. powder, decoction; LE. paste; WP. powder, decoction Topical, Oral Dysentery and diarrhea, urodynia, irregular menstruation, wounds, dyspepsia 61 0.19 41 0.67 1.00 90.2 90 1■2♦3♦4♦5♦6♦7■8♦9■10■11♦12♦13■14♦1516♦17■18♦19♦20♦21♦22♦
  1. aLife habits/life forms: C cultivated, W wild, G grass, S shrubs, H herbs, T trees, P perennial, B biennial, A annual
  2. bPlant parts: RH rhizome, BA bark, FL flower, SD seed, WP whole plant, SH shoot, ST stem, RT root, FR fruit, LE leaf
  3. cQuantitative indices: FC frequency of citation, RFC relative frequency of citation, UR use report, UV use value, RIL relative importance level, FL fidelity level, CFL corrected fidelity level
  4. *Plants species which are newly reported in this study
  5. (■) = Plant with similar use(s); () = plant with dissimilar use (s); (♦) = plant not reported in previous study
  6. Previously used: (1) Ullah et al. [62]; (2) Mollik et al. [79]; (3) Verma et al. [80]; (4) Rahman et al. [72]; (5) Chaitanya et al. [73]; (6) Mahmood et al. [15]; (7) Umair et al. [13]; (8) Luitel et al. [74]; (9) Ahmed et al. [75]; (10) Malik et al. [76]; (11) Murad et al. [46]; (12) Zahoor et al. [61]; (13) Rehman et al. [77]; (14) Ahmed et al. [78]; (15) Ahmed et al. [81]; (16) Abbasi et al. [82]; (17) Mussarat et al. [83]; (18) Rashid et al. [84]; (19) Amjad et al. [43]; (20) Shaheen et al. [85]; (21) Aziz et al. [86]; (22) Hussain et al. [87]