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Table 5 Comparison with the previous ethnobotanical studies

From: Ethnobotanical knowledge among the semi-pastoral Gujjar tribe in the high altitude (Adhwari’s) of Churah subdivision, district Chamba, Western Himalaya

Scientific name Uses in the present study Earlier use reports
Acer caesium Wall. ex Brandis
Sapindaceae
Fodder The wood is used for making agricultural implements, fuelwood, soil binder, fodder [72, 73]
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex, Royle # Ranunculaceae Medicinal It is used to treat a cough, cold, fever, and abdominal pain [22, 53, 55]
Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Cambess.) Hook. Sapindaceae Fodder Fodder, treatment of joint pains, fruits are edible [59, 74, 53, 66]
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle Simaroubaceae Fodder Fodder, reduce body swelling, bark juice mixed with milk to cure dysentery and diarrhoea [75,76,77]
Ajuga integrifolia Buch.-Ham.
Lamiaceae
Medicinal Roots are used to treat snakebite, malaria, jaundice, mouth ulcers [22, 78]
Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl.
Betulaceae
Fodder Medicinal, construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, fodder, utensils [78]
Amaranthus paniculatus L.
Amaranthaceae
Edible Eaten as a vegetable, the seed is edible [79, 55]
Angelica glauca Edgew. #
Apiaceae
Medicinal, household Snake repellent, root powder used to cure flatulence, dyspepsia, oedema, arthritis [80, 60, 23]
Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott
Araceae
Edible Tubers are boiled and eaten, aerial parts are eaten as vegetable [80, 60, 23]
* Asparagus adscendens Roxb.
Asparagaceae
Medicinal Carminative and demulcent [64]
Bauhinia variegata L.
Fabaceae
Edible Young shoots, leaves, and flowers are eaten as vegetable, used to make pickle [36, 55]
Berberis aristata DC. #
Berberidaceae
Medicinal Piles, eye infections, fruits edible [81, 23, 82, 55, 66]
Berberis lycium Royle
Berberidaceae
Edible Whole plant part used to cure eye infections and diabetes, gum problems, kidney problems, fruits edible [23, 53, 66, 83]
Bergenia stracheyi (Hook.f. & Thomson) Engl. Saxifragaceae Medicinal A decoction of the rhizome is taken twice a day while a paste is applied topically on eyelids, used as fuel wood, diuretic [63, 69]
*Betula utilis D.Don #
Betulaceae
Medicinal, household Bark, leaf, and resin are used in rheumatism, bone fracture, joint pain, swellings, asthma, blood purification, anti-cancerous, roof top and umbrella cover, fodder [84,85,86]
Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook.) Rchb. ex Meisn., Rutaceae Household Antimicrobial, repel lice, fleas, and other insects [62, 87]
* Brucea javanica (L.) Merr
Simaroubaceae
Edible Fodder, seed decoction taken orally for diarrhoea, malaria, and chronic diarrhoea [88, 89]
* Caltha palustris L.
Ranunculaceae
Medicinal Diuretic, urinary infections, inflammation, used to clean the hands, gonorrhoea, kill maggots [68, 69]
Cannabis sativa L.
Cannabaceae
Edible Joint pains, analgesic, sedative, antispasmodic, roasted seeds are eaten [23, 64, 83, 55]
* Carpinus viminea Wall. ex Lindl.
Betulaceae
Fodder, household Fodder, the wood is used for making agricultural implements, sports equipment, and construction of houses, used to heal bone fracture [90,91,92]
Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D.Don) G.Don Pinaceae Medicinal Bitter, stomachic, anthelmintic, febrifuge, wounds, and cuts [78, 93]
Chenopodium album L.
Amaranthaceae
Edible Used as vegetable, fodder, laxative, jaundice, and urinary diseases [94, 43, 82, 64, 81, 83]
* Clinopodium vulgare L.
Lamiaceae
Edible Antibacterial, antitumour, leaves are edible [95]
Commelina benghalensis L.
Commelinaceae
Edible Used to cure epilepsy, vaginal infection, eaten as vegetable [43, 55, 96]
Corydalis govaniana Wall.
Papaveraceae
Medicinal Muscular pain, headache, leprosy, and rheumatism [97, 69, 68]
Corylus jacquemontii Decne.
Betulaceae
Edible, fodder Medicinal, nuts edible, leaves used as fodder [98, 99]
Cotoneaster spp.
Rosaceae
Fodder Fodder, walking sticks, baskets, fuel [100, 101]
Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soó # Orchidaceae Medicinal Given to person suffering from weakness [22]
*Daphne papyracea Wall. ex G. Don Thymelaeaceae Medicinal To cure bone disorders, intestinal complaints, ripen fruits edible, bark used for making paper [72, 101, 54, 102]
Desmodium elegans DC.
Fabaceae
Fodder Fodder, leaf paste applied on cuts and wounds to avoid infection to stimulate healing, the bark is used to clean teeth [103, 38]
Diplazium maximum (D. Don) C. Chr. Athyriaceae Medicinal, edible Muscular pain, young shoots are eaten as a vegetable [23, 36, 66, 102]
Dysphania botrys (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Amaranthaceae Edible Popular flavouring for a soup of meat, cheese, and barley [104, 105]
Elaeagnus parvifolia Wall. ex Royle Elaeagnaceae Edible Fruits edible, medicinal [78, 54]
* Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz
Orchidaceae
Household Used to treat insanity, gouts, headache, and stomach ache [106]
Fagopyrum esculentum Moench
Polygonaceae
Edible Stomach ulcer, tumour, jaundice, vegetable [63, 66]
Ficus spp.
Moraceae
Fodder Fodder, purgative, antiseptic [107, 78]
Fragaria indica Andrews
Rosaceae
Edible Fruits are edible [99]
Fragaria nubicola (Lindl. ex Hook.f.) Lacaita Rosaceae Edible Fruits are edible [82, 55]
Fragaria vesca L.
Rosaceae
Edible Fruits are edible [52]
Gagea lutea (L.) Ker Gawl.
Liliaceae
Edible Dried tubers used as spice [108]
Impatiens spp.
Balsaminaceae
Fodder Fodder, the colour obtained is used as nail paint [100, 78]
Jasminum humile L.
Oleaceae
Medicinal Powdered roots used as anthelmintic, diuretic, skin diseases, headache, mouth rash, ringworm [109, 77, 110]
Juglans regia L.
Juglandaceae
Edible, household Fruit edible, fuel, timber, fruit tonic taken for back pain [103, 94, 89, 53]
Jurinea macrocephala DC. #
Asteraceae
Household Roots are used during religious ceremonies for incense, root decoction is given once per day to treat cold and cough [111]
Malva neglecta Wallr.
Malvaceae
Edible A cough, cold, malaria, kidney disorders and cooked as a vegetable [23, 69, 112]
* Morchella esculenta (L.: Fr.) Pers. Morchellaceae Edible, medicinal Cooked and eaten, protect the stomach, nourish the lungs, and strengthen immunity [65, 66, 67]
Neolitsea pallens (D. Don) Momiy. & H. Hara
Lauraceae
Fodder Fodder, juice of fruits is used to treat scabies and eczema, seeds oil is used as an antidote [103, 44, 113]
* Onosma hispida Wall. ex G. Don Boraginaceae Medicinal Fever, pain relief, wounds, infectious diseases, hair colour [114, 115]
* Oxalis corniculata L.
Oxalidaceae
Medicinal Blood purifier, appetiser, cure piles, diarrhoea, toothache, cough cure scorpion stings and skin diseases, aerial part is eaten as a vegetable [116,117,118, 55, 119, 43, 64, 120]
Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill
Polygonaceae
Edible, medicinal Used to make chutney, digestive and purgative [66]
* Persicaria amplexicaulis (D.Don) Ronse Decr., Polygonaceae Edible Used to treat skin diseases, jaundice, dysentery, leucorrhoea, fever, headache, indigestion, stomach pain, and blood purifier, effective in flu, fever, and joints [121,122,123,124, 53]
Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre Polygonaceae Edible Eaten as vegetable, dye plant [119, 52]
Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.
Phytolaccaceae
Edible Used to treat acne, eaten as a vegetable, root decoction is taken for cervical erosion, digestibility ulcer, liver ascites, constipation, diuresis [23, 94, 89]
Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle #
Plantaginaceae
Medicinal Fever, jaundice, improve appetite and skin infection [125, 22, 23]
* Pleurospermum brunonis Benth. ex C.B. Clarke
Apiaceae
Medicinal, household Whole plant used to cure jaundice, fever, insect repellent, incense [62, 63]
* Polygonum aviculare L.
Polygonaceae
Edible, medicinal Eaten as a vegetable, treat dysentery and diarrhoea [119, 43]
* Primula floribunda Wall.
Primulaceae
Household Used to treat headache, rheumatism, flowers are believed to have supernatural power to ward off devils and people knowing witchcraft, flowers increase the beauty of hair of ladies [70, 71]
Prunus armeniaca L.
Rosaceae
Edible Heal constipation in cattle, fruits are edible [53, 66]
* Prunus cornuta (Wall. ex Royle) Steud.
Rosaceae
Edible, medicinal Used to cure anaemia, fruits are edible [23, 66]
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch
Rosaceae
Edible Fruits are edible [66]
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn
Dennstaedtiaceae
Fodder, household Tender fronds used as vegetables, green fronds as fodder, good soil binder, used to cure diabetes, abdominal oedema [126, 23]
Quercus semecarpifolia Sm.
Fagaceae
Fodder Fodder, timber, construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, medicinal [78, 127]
Ranunculus spp.
Ranunculaceae
Fodder Fodder plant, counter irritant swelling in testes, fever, stomach worms [78, 127]
Rheum australe D. Don
Polygonaceae
Household, medicinal Cleaning tooth, given to animals lost their appetite, asthma, fever, pneumonia, vegetable [22, 63]
Rhododendron arboreum Sm.
Ericaceae
Edible Used as local brew, used to make chutney [128, 66]
* Rhododendron campanulatum D.Don, Ericaceae Medicinal Leaves are mixed with tobacco and used as snuff to cure a cold [68]
Rosa macrophylla Lindl.
Rosaceae
Medicinal Used in cold and cough, flowers are edible, fruits are edible, stomach ache [23, 82]
Rubus ellipticus Sm.
Rosaceae
Edible Fruits are eaten to cure indigestion [23]
Rubus niveus Thunb.
Rosaceae
Edible Fruits are edible [94, 36]
* Rumex hastatus D. Don
Polygonaceae
Medicinal, household Used to cure foot disease in cattle, used to cure jaundice, leaves eaten as a vegetable [23, 43, 82]
* Sarcococca saligna (D. Don) Müll. Arg.
Buxaceae
Household Timber, fodder, fuel, and leaves in the ceiling of a roof of houses as a waterproof medium [129, 130]
Selinum vaginatum C.B. Clarke
Apiaceae
Household Used in making brew and incense making [62, 66]
Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S.Ying #
Berberidaceae
Medicinal Cancer curing, bloating and appetite loss in cattle, fruit is edible [23, 53, 94, 52]
* Solanum nigrum L.
Solanaceae
Edible, medicinal Vegetable, headache, fruits edible [119, 55, 53]
Sorbaria tomentosa (Lindl.) Rehder
Rosaceae
Medicinal The flowers are grinded in milk and the resulted paste is applied to burns and wounds, fruits smoked in the treatment of asthma [38, 39, 131]
Spiraea canescens D.Don.
Rosaceae
Household Basket making [69, 103]
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.
Caryophyllaceae
Edible Leaf paste applied to cure joint pains and swellings, seed powder is given to children with milk to cure skin infection and allergy and leaf paste is applied to heal wounds caused by burning or frost, eaten as a vegetable [132, 43, 133]
Taxus wallichiana Zucc. #
Taxaceae
Edible Refreshing tea, cancer curing, and thatching roofs [22, 23]
* Trillium govanianum Wall. ex D.Don
Melanthiaceae
Medicinal Used to cure dysentery, reproductive disorder [125, 103, 23]
Urtica dioca L.
Urticaceae
Edible, medicinal Used to treat skin diseases, soup making, eaten as a vegetable [23, 82, 36]
Valeriana jatamansi Jones
Caprifoliaceae
Household Roots used to cure a stomachache, valerian root has been used for a century as a relaxing and sleep promoting plant [59, 23].
Verbascum thapsus L.
Scrophulariaceae
Medicinal Indigestion in cattle [55]
Viburnum mullaha Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don Adoxaceae Edible Used to cure a cold and cough, fruits eaten [23, 53]
  1. *Plants with new or lesser known ethnobotanical uses reported in the present study
  2. # Threatened wild plants of Himachal Pradesh, India [134]