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Table 5 Comparison with the previous ethnobotanical studies

From: Ethnobotanical knowledge among the semi-pastoral Gujjar tribe in the high altitude (Adhwari’s) of Churah subdivision, district Chamba, Western Himalaya

Scientific name Uses in the present study Earlier use reports
Acer caesium Wall. ex Brandis
Fodder The wood is used for making agricultural implements, fuelwood, soil binder, fodder [72, 73]
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex, Royle # Ranunculaceae Medicinal It is used to treat a cough, cold, fever, and abdominal pain [22, 53, 55]
Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Cambess.) Hook. Sapindaceae Fodder Fodder, treatment of joint pains, fruits are edible [59, 74, 53, 66]
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle Simaroubaceae Fodder Fodder, reduce body swelling, bark juice mixed with milk to cure dysentery and diarrhoea [75,76,77]
Ajuga integrifolia Buch.-Ham.
Medicinal Roots are used to treat snakebite, malaria, jaundice, mouth ulcers [22, 78]
Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl.
Fodder Medicinal, construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, fodder, utensils [78]
Amaranthus paniculatus L.
Edible Eaten as a vegetable, the seed is edible [79, 55]
Angelica glauca Edgew. #
Medicinal, household Snake repellent, root powder used to cure flatulence, dyspepsia, oedema, arthritis [80, 60, 23]
Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott
Edible Tubers are boiled and eaten, aerial parts are eaten as vegetable [80, 60, 23]
* Asparagus adscendens Roxb.
Medicinal Carminative and demulcent [64]
Bauhinia variegata L.
Edible Young shoots, leaves, and flowers are eaten as vegetable, used to make pickle [36, 55]
Berberis aristata DC. #
Medicinal Piles, eye infections, fruits edible [81, 23, 82, 55, 66]
Berberis lycium Royle
Edible Whole plant part used to cure eye infections and diabetes, gum problems, kidney problems, fruits edible [23, 53, 66, 83]
Bergenia stracheyi (Hook.f. & Thomson) Engl. Saxifragaceae Medicinal A decoction of the rhizome is taken twice a day while a paste is applied topically on eyelids, used as fuel wood, diuretic [63, 69]
*Betula utilis D.Don #
Medicinal, household Bark, leaf, and resin are used in rheumatism, bone fracture, joint pain, swellings, asthma, blood purification, anti-cancerous, roof top and umbrella cover, fodder [84,85,86]
Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook.) Rchb. ex Meisn., Rutaceae Household Antimicrobial, repel lice, fleas, and other insects [62, 87]
* Brucea javanica (L.) Merr
Edible Fodder, seed decoction taken orally for diarrhoea, malaria, and chronic diarrhoea [88, 89]
* Caltha palustris L.
Medicinal Diuretic, urinary infections, inflammation, used to clean the hands, gonorrhoea, kill maggots [68, 69]
Cannabis sativa L.
Edible Joint pains, analgesic, sedative, antispasmodic, roasted seeds are eaten [23, 64, 83, 55]
* Carpinus viminea Wall. ex Lindl.
Fodder, household Fodder, the wood is used for making agricultural implements, sports equipment, and construction of houses, used to heal bone fracture [90,91,92]
Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D.Don) G.Don Pinaceae Medicinal Bitter, stomachic, anthelmintic, febrifuge, wounds, and cuts [78, 93]
Chenopodium album L.
Edible Used as vegetable, fodder, laxative, jaundice, and urinary diseases [94, 43, 82, 64, 81, 83]
* Clinopodium vulgare L.
Edible Antibacterial, antitumour, leaves are edible [95]
Commelina benghalensis L.
Edible Used to cure epilepsy, vaginal infection, eaten as vegetable [43, 55, 96]
Corydalis govaniana Wall.
Medicinal Muscular pain, headache, leprosy, and rheumatism [97, 69, 68]
Corylus jacquemontii Decne.
Edible, fodder Medicinal, nuts edible, leaves used as fodder [98, 99]
Cotoneaster spp.
Fodder Fodder, walking sticks, baskets, fuel [100, 101]
Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soó # Orchidaceae Medicinal Given to person suffering from weakness [22]
*Daphne papyracea Wall. ex G. Don Thymelaeaceae Medicinal To cure bone disorders, intestinal complaints, ripen fruits edible, bark used for making paper [72, 101, 54, 102]
Desmodium elegans DC.
Fodder Fodder, leaf paste applied on cuts and wounds to avoid infection to stimulate healing, the bark is used to clean teeth [103, 38]
Diplazium maximum (D. Don) C. Chr. Athyriaceae Medicinal, edible Muscular pain, young shoots are eaten as a vegetable [23, 36, 66, 102]
Dysphania botrys (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Amaranthaceae Edible Popular flavouring for a soup of meat, cheese, and barley [104, 105]
Elaeagnus parvifolia Wall. ex Royle Elaeagnaceae Edible Fruits edible, medicinal [78, 54]
* Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz
Household Used to treat insanity, gouts, headache, and stomach ache [106]
Fagopyrum esculentum Moench
Edible Stomach ulcer, tumour, jaundice, vegetable [63, 66]
Ficus spp.
Fodder Fodder, purgative, antiseptic [107, 78]
Fragaria indica Andrews
Edible Fruits are edible [99]
Fragaria nubicola (Lindl. ex Hook.f.) Lacaita Rosaceae Edible Fruits are edible [82, 55]
Fragaria vesca L.
Edible Fruits are edible [52]
Gagea lutea (L.) Ker Gawl.
Edible Dried tubers used as spice [108]
Impatiens spp.
Fodder Fodder, the colour obtained is used as nail paint [100, 78]
Jasminum humile L.
Medicinal Powdered roots used as anthelmintic, diuretic, skin diseases, headache, mouth rash, ringworm [109, 77, 110]
Juglans regia L.
Edible, household Fruit edible, fuel, timber, fruit tonic taken for back pain [103, 94, 89, 53]
Jurinea macrocephala DC. #
Household Roots are used during religious ceremonies for incense, root decoction is given once per day to treat cold and cough [111]
Malva neglecta Wallr.
Edible A cough, cold, malaria, kidney disorders and cooked as a vegetable [23, 69, 112]
* Morchella esculenta (L.: Fr.) Pers. Morchellaceae Edible, medicinal Cooked and eaten, protect the stomach, nourish the lungs, and strengthen immunity [65, 66, 67]
Neolitsea pallens (D. Don) Momiy. & H. Hara
Fodder Fodder, juice of fruits is used to treat scabies and eczema, seeds oil is used as an antidote [103, 44, 113]
* Onosma hispida Wall. ex G. Don Boraginaceae Medicinal Fever, pain relief, wounds, infectious diseases, hair colour [114, 115]
* Oxalis corniculata L.
Medicinal Blood purifier, appetiser, cure piles, diarrhoea, toothache, cough cure scorpion stings and skin diseases, aerial part is eaten as a vegetable [116,117,118, 55, 119, 43, 64, 120]
Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill
Edible, medicinal Used to make chutney, digestive and purgative [66]
* Persicaria amplexicaulis (D.Don) Ronse Decr., Polygonaceae Edible Used to treat skin diseases, jaundice, dysentery, leucorrhoea, fever, headache, indigestion, stomach pain, and blood purifier, effective in flu, fever, and joints [121,122,123,124, 53]
Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre Polygonaceae Edible Eaten as vegetable, dye plant [119, 52]
Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.
Edible Used to treat acne, eaten as a vegetable, root decoction is taken for cervical erosion, digestibility ulcer, liver ascites, constipation, diuresis [23, 94, 89]
Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle #
Medicinal Fever, jaundice, improve appetite and skin infection [125, 22, 23]
* Pleurospermum brunonis Benth. ex C.B. Clarke
Medicinal, household Whole plant used to cure jaundice, fever, insect repellent, incense [62, 63]
* Polygonum aviculare L.
Edible, medicinal Eaten as a vegetable, treat dysentery and diarrhoea [119, 43]
* Primula floribunda Wall.
Household Used to treat headache, rheumatism, flowers are believed to have supernatural power to ward off devils and people knowing witchcraft, flowers increase the beauty of hair of ladies [70, 71]
Prunus armeniaca L.
Edible Heal constipation in cattle, fruits are edible [53, 66]
* Prunus cornuta (Wall. ex Royle) Steud.
Edible, medicinal Used to cure anaemia, fruits are edible [23, 66]
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch
Edible Fruits are edible [66]
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn
Fodder, household Tender fronds used as vegetables, green fronds as fodder, good soil binder, used to cure diabetes, abdominal oedema [126, 23]
Quercus semecarpifolia Sm.
Fodder Fodder, timber, construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, medicinal [78, 127]
Ranunculus spp.
Fodder Fodder plant, counter irritant swelling in testes, fever, stomach worms [78, 127]
Rheum australe D. Don
Household, medicinal Cleaning tooth, given to animals lost their appetite, asthma, fever, pneumonia, vegetable [22, 63]
Rhododendron arboreum Sm.
Edible Used as local brew, used to make chutney [128, 66]
* Rhododendron campanulatum D.Don, Ericaceae Medicinal Leaves are mixed with tobacco and used as snuff to cure a cold [68]
Rosa macrophylla Lindl.
Medicinal Used in cold and cough, flowers are edible, fruits are edible, stomach ache [23, 82]
Rubus ellipticus Sm.
Edible Fruits are eaten to cure indigestion [23]
Rubus niveus Thunb.
Edible Fruits are edible [94, 36]
* Rumex hastatus D. Don
Medicinal, household Used to cure foot disease in cattle, used to cure jaundice, leaves eaten as a vegetable [23, 43, 82]
* Sarcococca saligna (D. Don) Müll. Arg.
Household Timber, fodder, fuel, and leaves in the ceiling of a roof of houses as a waterproof medium [129, 130]
Selinum vaginatum C.B. Clarke
Household Used in making brew and incense making [62, 66]
Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S.Ying #
Medicinal Cancer curing, bloating and appetite loss in cattle, fruit is edible [23, 53, 94, 52]
* Solanum nigrum L.
Edible, medicinal Vegetable, headache, fruits edible [119, 55, 53]
Sorbaria tomentosa (Lindl.) Rehder
Medicinal The flowers are grinded in milk and the resulted paste is applied to burns and wounds, fruits smoked in the treatment of asthma [38, 39, 131]
Spiraea canescens D.Don.
Household Basket making [69, 103]
Stellaria media (L.) Vill.
Edible Leaf paste applied to cure joint pains and swellings, seed powder is given to children with milk to cure skin infection and allergy and leaf paste is applied to heal wounds caused by burning or frost, eaten as a vegetable [132, 43, 133]
Taxus wallichiana Zucc. #
Edible Refreshing tea, cancer curing, and thatching roofs [22, 23]
* Trillium govanianum Wall. ex D.Don
Medicinal Used to cure dysentery, reproductive disorder [125, 103, 23]
Urtica dioca L.
Edible, medicinal Used to treat skin diseases, soup making, eaten as a vegetable [23, 82, 36]
Valeriana jatamansi Jones
Household Roots used to cure a stomachache, valerian root has been used for a century as a relaxing and sleep promoting plant [59, 23].
Verbascum thapsus L.
Medicinal Indigestion in cattle [55]
Viburnum mullaha Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don Adoxaceae Edible Used to cure a cold and cough, fruits eaten [23, 53]
  1. *Plants with new or lesser known ethnobotanical uses reported in the present study
  2. # Threatened wild plants of Himachal Pradesh, India [134]