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Table 5 Comparison with the previous ethnobotanical studies

From: Ethnobotanical knowledge among the semi-pastoral Gujjar tribe in the high altitude (Adhwari’s) of Churah subdivision, district Chamba, Western Himalaya

Scientific name Uses in the present study Earlier use reports
Acer caesium Wall. ex Brandis Sapindaceae Fodder The wood is used for making agricultural implements, fuelwood, soil binder, fodder [72, 73]
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex, Royle # Ranunculaceae Medicinal It is used to treat a cough, cold, fever, and abdominal pain [22, 53, 55]
Aesculus indica (Wall. ex Cambess.) Hook. Sapindaceae Fodder Fodder, treatment of joint pains, fruits are edible [59, 74, 53, 66]
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle Simaroubaceae Fodder Fodder, reduce body swelling, bark juice mixed with milk to cure dysentery and diarrhoea [75,76,77]
Ajuga integrifolia Buch.-Ham. Lamiaceae Medicinal Roots are used to treat snakebite, malaria, jaundice, mouth ulcers [22, 78]
Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl. Betulaceae Fodder Medicinal, construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, fodder, utensils [78]
Amaranthus paniculatus L. Amaranthaceae Edible Eaten as a vegetable, the seed is edible [79, 55]
Angelica glauca Edgew. # Apiaceae Medicinal, household Snake repellent, root powder used to cure flatulence, dyspepsia, oedema, arthritis [80, 60, 23]
Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott Araceae Edible Tubers are boiled and eaten, aerial parts are eaten as vegetable [80, 60, 23]
* Asparagus adscendens Roxb. Asparagaceae Medicinal Carminative and demulcent [64]
Bauhinia variegata L. Fabaceae Edible Young shoots, leaves, and flowers are eaten as vegetable, used to make pickle [36, 55]
Berberis aristata DC. # Berberidaceae Medicinal Piles, eye infections, fruits edible [81, 23, 82, 55, 66]
Berberis lycium Royle Berberidaceae Edible Whole plant part used to cure eye infections and diabetes, gum problems, kidney problems, fruits edible [23, 53, 66, 83]
Bergenia stracheyi (Hook.f. & Thomson) Engl. Saxifragaceae Medicinal A decoction of the rhizome is taken twice a day while a paste is applied topically on eyelids, used as fuel wood, diuretic [63, 69]
*Betula utilis D.Don # Betulaceae Medicinal, household Bark, leaf, and resin are used in rheumatism, bone fracture, joint pain, swellings, asthma, blood purification, anti-cancerous, roof top and umbrella cover, fodder [84,85,86]
Boenninghausenia albiflora (Hook.) Rchb. ex Meisn., Rutaceae Household Antimicrobial, repel lice, fleas, and other insects [62, 87]
* Brucea javanica (L.) Merr Simaroubaceae Edible Fodder, seed decoction taken orally for diarrhoea, malaria, and chronic diarrhoea [88, 89]
* Caltha palustris L. Ranunculaceae Medicinal Diuretic, urinary infections, inflammation, used to clean the hands, gonorrhoea, kill maggots [68, 69]
Cannabis sativa L. Cannabaceae Edible Joint pains, analgesic, sedative, antispasmodic, roasted seeds are eaten [23, 64, 83, 55]
* Carpinus viminea Wall. ex Lindl. Betulaceae Fodder, household Fodder, the wood is used for making agricultural implements, sports equipment, and construction of houses, used to heal bone fracture [90,91,92]
Cedrus deodara (Roxb. ex D.Don) G.Don Pinaceae Medicinal Bitter, stomachic, anthelmintic, febrifuge, wounds, and cuts [78, 93]
Chenopodium album L. Amaranthaceae Edible Used as vegetable, fodder, laxative, jaundice, and urinary diseases [94, 43, 82, 64, 81, 83]
* Clinopodium vulgare L. Lamiaceae Edible Antibacterial, antitumour, leaves are edible [95]
Commelina benghalensis L. Commelinaceae Edible Used to cure epilepsy, vaginal infection, eaten as vegetable [43, 55, 96]
Corydalis govaniana Wall. Papaveraceae Medicinal Muscular pain, headache, leprosy, and rheumatism [97, 69, 68]
Corylus jacquemontii Decne. Betulaceae Edible, fodder Medicinal, nuts edible, leaves used as fodder [98, 99]
Cotoneaster spp. Rosaceae Fodder Fodder, walking sticks, baskets, fuel [100, 101]
Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soó # Orchidaceae Medicinal Given to person suffering from weakness [22]
*Daphne papyracea Wall. ex G. Don Thymelaeaceae Medicinal To cure bone disorders, intestinal complaints, ripen fruits edible, bark used for making paper [72, 101, 54, 102]
Desmodium elegans DC. Fabaceae Fodder Fodder, leaf paste applied on cuts and wounds to avoid infection to stimulate healing, the bark is used to clean teeth [103, 38]
Diplazium maximum (D. Don) C. Chr. Athyriaceae Medicinal, edible Muscular pain, young shoots are eaten as a vegetable [23, 36, 66, 102]
Dysphania botrys (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Amaranthaceae Edible Popular flavouring for a soup of meat, cheese, and barley [104, 105]
Elaeagnus parvifolia Wall. ex Royle Elaeagnaceae Edible Fruits edible, medicinal [78, 54]
* Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz Orchidaceae Household Used to treat insanity, gouts, headache, and stomach ache [106]
Fagopyrum esculentum Moench Polygonaceae Edible Stomach ulcer, tumour, jaundice, vegetable [63, 66]
Ficus spp. Moraceae Fodder Fodder, purgative, antiseptic [107, 78]
Fragaria indica Andrews Rosaceae Edible Fruits are edible [99]
Fragaria nubicola (Lindl. ex Hook.f.) Lacaita Rosaceae Edible Fruits are edible [82, 55]
Fragaria vesca L. Rosaceae Edible Fruits are edible [52]
Gagea lutea (L.) Ker Gawl. Liliaceae Edible Dried tubers used as spice [108]
Impatiens spp. Balsaminaceae Fodder Fodder, the colour obtained is used as nail paint [100, 78]
Jasminum humile L. Oleaceae Medicinal Powdered roots used as anthelmintic, diuretic, skin diseases, headache, mouth rash, ringworm [109, 77, 110]
Juglans regia L. Juglandaceae Edible, household Fruit edible, fuel, timber, fruit tonic taken for back pain [103, 94, 89, 53]
Jurinea macrocephala DC. # Asteraceae Household Roots are used during religious ceremonies for incense, root decoction is given once per day to treat cold and cough [111]
Malva neglecta Wallr. Malvaceae Edible A cough, cold, malaria, kidney disorders and cooked as a vegetable [23, 69, 112]
* Morchella esculenta (L.: Fr.) Pers. Morchellaceae Edible, medicinal Cooked and eaten, protect the stomach, nourish the lungs, and strengthen immunity [65, 66, 67]
Neolitsea pallens (D. Don) Momiy. & H. Hara Lauraceae Fodder Fodder, juice of fruits is used to treat scabies and eczema, seeds oil is used as an antidote [103, 44, 113]
* Onosma hispida Wall. ex G. Don Boraginaceae Medicinal Fever, pain relief, wounds, infectious diseases, hair colour [114, 115]
* Oxalis corniculata L. Oxalidaceae Medicinal Blood purifier, appetiser, cure piles, diarrhoea, toothache, cough cure scorpion stings and skin diseases, aerial part is eaten as a vegetable [116,117,118, 55, 119, 43, 64, 120]
Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill Polygonaceae Edible, medicinal Used to make chutney, digestive and purgative [66]
* Persicaria amplexicaulis (D.Don) Ronse Decr., Polygonaceae Edible Used to treat skin diseases, jaundice, dysentery, leucorrhoea, fever, headache, indigestion, stomach pain, and blood purifier, effective in flu, fever, and joints [121,122,123,124, 53]
Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre Polygonaceae Edible Eaten as vegetable, dye plant [119, 52]
Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. Phytolaccaceae Edible Used to treat acne, eaten as a vegetable, root decoction is taken for cervical erosion, digestibility ulcer, liver ascites, constipation, diuresis [23, 94, 89]
Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle # Plantaginaceae Medicinal Fever, jaundice, improve appetite and skin infection [125, 22, 23]
* Pleurospermum brunonis Benth. ex C.B. Clarke Apiaceae Medicinal, household Whole plant used to cure jaundice, fever, insect repellent, incense [62, 63]
* Polygonum aviculare L. Polygonaceae Edible, medicinal Eaten as a vegetable, treat dysentery and diarrhoea [119, 43]
* Primula floribunda Wall. Primulaceae Household Used to treat headache, rheumatism, flowers are believed to have supernatural power to ward off devils and people knowing witchcraft, flowers increase the beauty of hair of ladies [70, 71]
Prunus armeniaca L. Rosaceae Edible Heal constipation in cattle, fruits are edible [53, 66]
* Prunus cornuta (Wall. ex Royle) Steud. Rosaceae Edible, medicinal Used to cure anaemia, fruits are edible [23, 66]
Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Rosaceae Edible Fruits are edible [66]
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Dennstaedtiaceae Fodder, household Tender fronds used as vegetables, green fronds as fodder, good soil binder, used to cure diabetes, abdominal oedema [126, 23]
Quercus semecarpifolia Sm. Fagaceae Fodder Fodder, timber, construction, furniture, fencing, roofing, fuel wood, medicinal [78, 127]
Ranunculus spp. Ranunculaceae Fodder Fodder plant, counter irritant swelling in testes, fever, stomach worms [78, 127]
Rheum australe D. Don Polygonaceae Household, medicinal Cleaning tooth, given to animals lost their appetite, asthma, fever, pneumonia, vegetable [22, 63]
Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Ericaceae Edible Used as local brew, used to make chutney [128, 66]
* Rhododendron campanulatum D.Don, Ericaceae Medicinal Leaves are mixed with tobacco and used as snuff to cure a cold [68]
Rosa macrophylla Lindl. Rosaceae Medicinal Used in cold and cough, flowers are edible, fruits are edible, stomach ache [23, 82]
Rubus ellipticus Sm. Rosaceae Edible Fruits are eaten to cure indigestion [23]
Rubus niveus Thunb. Rosaceae Edible Fruits are edible [94, 36]
* Rumex hastatus D. Don Polygonaceae Medicinal, household Used to cure foot disease in cattle, used to cure jaundice, leaves eaten as a vegetable [23, 43, 82]
* Sarcococca saligna (D. Don) Müll. Arg. Buxaceae Household Timber, fodder, fuel, and leaves in the ceiling of a roof of houses as a waterproof medium [129, 130]
Selinum vaginatum C.B. Clarke Apiaceae Household Used in making brew and incense making [62, 66]
Sinopodophyllum hexandrum (Royle) T.S.Ying # Berberidaceae Medicinal Cancer curing, bloating and appetite loss in cattle, fruit is edible [23, 53, 94, 52]
* Solanum nigrum L. Solanaceae Edible, medicinal Vegetable, headache, fruits edible [119, 55, 53]
Sorbaria tomentosa (Lindl.) Rehder Rosaceae Medicinal The flowers are grinded in milk and the resulted paste is applied to burns and wounds, fruits smoked in the treatment of asthma [38, 39, 131]
Spiraea canescens D.Don. Rosaceae Household Basket making [69, 103]
Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Caryophyllaceae Edible Leaf paste applied to cure joint pains and swellings, seed powder is given to children with milk to cure skin infection and allergy and leaf paste is applied to heal wounds caused by burning or frost, eaten as a vegetable [132, 43, 133]
Taxus wallichiana Zucc. # Taxaceae Edible Refreshing tea, cancer curing, and thatching roofs [22, 23]
* Trillium govanianum Wall. ex D.Don Melanthiaceae Medicinal Used to cure dysentery, reproductive disorder [125, 103, 23]
Urtica dioca L. Urticaceae Edible, medicinal Used to treat skin diseases, soup making, eaten as a vegetable [23, 82, 36]
Valeriana jatamansi Jones Caprifoliaceae Household Roots used to cure a stomachache, valerian root has been used for a century as a relaxing and sleep promoting plant [59, 23].
Verbascum thapsus L. Scrophulariaceae Medicinal Indigestion in cattle [55]
Viburnum mullaha Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don Adoxaceae Edible Used to cure a cold and cough, fruits eaten [23, 53]
  1. *Plants with new or lesser known ethnobotanical uses reported in the present study
  2. # Threatened wild plants of Himachal Pradesh, India [134]