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Table 1 List of the ethnomedicinal plant species used by the Pangkhua community of the Rangamati district, Bangladesh

From: Qualitative and quantitative ethnobotanical study of the Pangkhua community in Bilaichari Upazilla, Rangamati District, Bangladesh

Scientific name, voucher number, family and conservation status Bangla name Pangkhua name Habit Parts used Number of citations per ailment category Usage information FC UR Allied literature
Acorus calamus L. (bot-t1015), Acoraceae, least concern Bach Thit H Rz Anthelmintic (5), gastritis (7) A decoction of the rhizome is taken at a dose of one cupful daily for 7 days to treat gastritis, and as an anthelmintic. 12 2 1▲23▲4▲56▲7♣8▲9▲10▲101112♣13141516▲1718▲19202122▲23242526▲2728293031323334135▲3637383940414243
Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (bot-t1044), Rutaceae Bel Highshu T Fr Digestive (3), asthma (1) Juice of the fruit is taken (as much as possible) for 7 days as a digestive. A decoction of green fruits along with the bark of Terminalia arjuna is taken at a dose of one teaspoonful twice daily to treat asthma. 4 2 1▲2345♣6▲7▲8▲910♣11▲121314▲15♣16171819▲20▲2122♣23242526272829♣303113233♣34353637♣383940▲41▲42♣43
Albizia myriophylla Benth (bot-t10108), Fabaceae Titulya koroi Unknown T L Asthma (8), leucorrhoea (4) Leaf juice, along with honey and other (unknown) ingredients is ktaken at a dose of one cupful daily to treat asthma. A paste of the leaves is smeared around the vaginal area to treat leucorrhoea. 12 2 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. (bot-t1032), Xanthorrhoeaceae Ghritkumari Cladora H L Burns (12) Juice of the leaves is applied to burns. 12 1 123♣4♣567▲89101112131415▲16171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Alpinia conchigera Griff. (bot-t1085), Zingiberaceae   Aidul H Rz Diarrhea (5), dysentery (6) A decoction of the rhizome is taken orally for 5 to 7 days at a dose of one cupful three times daily for the treatment of diarrhea. The same dose is given for 3 to 4 days in dysentery. 11 2 12345678910▲111213141516171819202122▲232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) Burtt (bot-t1084), Zingiberaceae Jangliada Bawnkawr H Rz Cough and colds (10) A decoction of the rhizome with honey is taken at a dose of one teaspoonful three times daily for 3 days. 10 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Alternanthera pungens Kunth (bot-t10109), Amaranthaceae Kakishak Unknown H WP Kidney problems (8) A decoction of the plant is taken for kidney problems. 8 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Alysicarpus monilifer (L.) DC. (bot-t10101), Fabaceae Alisimon Unknown H WP Fever (4), jaundice (3), diabetes (4) Boiled plants are taken directly: as much as possible is consumed to treat fever; the juice of the plant along with other (unknown) ingredients is given for the treatment of jaundice. A decoction of the plant is taken to treat diabetes. 11 3 12♣345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Amaranthus spinosus L. (bot-t1049), Amaranthaceae Kantanotey Unknown H L Eczema (26), dysuria (6) Leaf juice along with sugar or molasses is applied to eczema. A decoction of leaves is taken in dysuria. 32 2 1234▲5♣6♣7▲8▲9101112131415▲16▲171819202122▲23242526▲27▲28▲29303132▲3334353637383940414243
Amberboa moschata(L.) DC (bot-t10104), Asteraceae Jam Unknown H R Cancer (1), menstrual problems (3), ulcers (2) The root is directly eaten for menstrual problems. A decoction of the root is given at a dose of one cupful twice daily for the treatment of cancer and ulcers. 6 3 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Ammannia multiflora Roxb (bot-t10110), Lythraceae, least concern Niamul Unknown H WP Burns (3), backache (1) A paste of the plant is applied to burns, and the same formulation, along with mustard oil, is applied to treat backache. 4 2 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson. (bot-t1086), Araceae, least concern Olkachu Ranilawngbal H Tb Diarrhea (20) The juice extracted from the tuber is given for the treatment of diarrhea. 20 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Anacardium occidentale L. (bot-t1087), Anacardiaceae Kajubakam Guestunut T B Dysentery (13), diarrhea (9) A bark decoction is taken in cases of dysentery and diarrhea. 22 2 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. (bot-t1016), Bromeliaceae Anaras Lathy H L, Fr Anthelmintic (14) One teaspoonful of juice from the leaves and fruit is taken once daily for 3 days as an anthelmintic. 14 1 1234▲567▲89▲10▲1112131415♣16171819▲202122♣23242526♣272829303132333435363738▲3940▲414243
Antidesma velutinosum Blume (bot-t10111), Phyllanthaceae Pashmi salishiabuka Nandul T Fr Menstrual disorders (4), fever (2) A decoction of the fruit (about 3 teaspoonfuls three times daily for 7 days) is prescribed to cure menstrual problems and high fever. 6 2 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Areca catechu L. (bot-t1035), Arecaceae Supari Panthong T Fr Carminative (12) Fruits are taken as a carminative. 12 1 1▲234▲567▲8▲910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Argyreia splendens (Hornem.) Sweet (bot-t10112), Convolvulaceae Chottorupatola Ramsingkholong C L Ulcers (6) One cupful of the leaf decoction is taken twice daily before meals for 15 days to treat ulcers. 6 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (bot-t1083), Moraceae Kathal Luwe T L Skin disease (16) A paste of the young leaves is applied to the affected areas of skin. 16 1 1234567▲8910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (bot-t1079), Meliaceae Neem Neem T L, B Scabies (11), malaria (8) Boiled leaves and bark are used in a bath for the treatment of scabies. A decoction of the leaves is taken in malaria. 19 2 12▲3♣4♣5♣6▲7♣89♣10♣11♣12♣13♣14♣15♣16▲17▲181920♣21♣2223242526♣272829▲30313233▲3435363738♣39404142♣43
Azolla pinnata R. Br. (bot-t1097), Salviniaceae, least concern Jalpai Anuran Herb WP Skin disease (3), diarrhea (6), pneumonia (3) A paste of the plant is rubbed on the affected area in skin diseases. A decoction of the plant is taken with honey to treat diarrhea and pneumonia. 12 3 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Baliospermum solanifolium (Burm.) Suresh (bot-t1080), Euphorbiaceae Danti Ankhu US L Scabies (20) Boiled leaves are used in a bath for the treatment of scabies. 20 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Bauhinia acuminata L. (bot-t1033), Caesalpiniaceae Kanchan Senpui T R Burns (22) A decoction of the root is boiled with coconut oil and applied to burns. 22 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Bauhinia scandens L. (bot-t10113), Fabaceae Gundagilla Dimonong T R, L Respiratory problems (4), rheumatic pain (5) A decoction of the preparedroot is given to treat respiratory problems. The juice of the leaves is taken at a dose of one teaspoonful daily for 7 days for relief of rheumatic pain. 9 2 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Bidens pilosa L. (bot-t10114), Asteraceae Bidenlosa Sakbal H WP Cough and colds (11) A decoction prepared from the plant is taken to treat coughs and colds. 11 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637▲383940414243
Biophytum sensitivum (L.) DC. (bot-t1096), Oxalidaceae Bannaringa Arikbel H L Wounds and cuts (24) A paste of the leaves is applied to wounds and cuts to stop bleeding. 24 2 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC. (bot-t1052), Asteraceae Nagor chandal Pangkhaper H L Conjunctivitis (29) two to three drops of fresh leaf juice is dropped into the eyes in chronic eye disease. 29 1 12345678910▲11121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738▲3940414243
Blumea lacera (Burm.f.) DC. (bot-t1017), Asteraceae Kukursunga Vaiankasa H L Anthelmintic (9), cough (3) Two teaspoonfuls of leaf juice are taken three times a day for 10 days as an anthelmintic and to treat cough. 12 2 123▲456▲78910▲111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Bombax ceiba L. (bot-t1058), Bombacaceae Shimul Ompang T R Gonorrhea (12) Two to three teaspoonfuls of root juice are taken twice a day to treat gonorrhea. 12 1 1234▲567891011▲12♣131415▲1617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738▲3940▲414243
Breonia chinensis (Lam.) Capuron (bot-t1088), Rubiaceae, least concern Kadam Zacibgoar T B Diarrhea (7) A decoction of bark with honey and salt is taken orally at a dose of one cupful twice daily for 7 days. 7 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Buddleja asiatica Lour. (bot-t1084), Buddlejaceae Budbhota Langtel US R Skin disease (6), pneumonia (5) An infusion of the root is applied in skin disease. A decoction of the root is taken to treat pneumonia. 11 2 12345678910▲11▲1213141516171819202122▲232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. (bot-t1025), Fabaceae Palas Tuangtoapar T B, Sd Anthelmintic (4), dysentery (10), urinary infections (4), cough (3) Juices prepared from bark and seed are used as an anthelmintic and to treat dysentery. In addition, a decoction of the bark is taken to treat urinary infections and cough. 21 4 1▲23456▲7▲89▲1011121314151617181920♣2122▲2324252627♣2829▲30313233♣34353637383940414243
Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. (bot-t1055), Fabaceae Arhar Koklang S L, Sd Gastritis (23), jaundice (11) One cupful of leaf extract is taken twice a day for 5 days before meals in gastritis. Cooked seeds are taken directly to treat jaundice. 34 2 1234▲567♣89▲1011121314151617♣181920♣2122♣232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Callicarpa tomentosa (L.) L. (bot-t1094), Lamiaceae Makanchi Lankia T St Diarrhea (14) A decoction of the stem is taken at a dose of one cupful twice daily for 7 days. 14 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand. Ait.f. (bot-t1069), Asclepiadaceae Akanda Napal S L Rheumatic pain (24) Leaves are applied to the affected area twice a day for 3 days for the treatment of rheumatic pain. 24 1 1♣234♣56♣7▲8▲9▲10♣111213♣14▲151617181920♣2122♣2324♣2526♣2728293031323334353637383940414243
Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. (bot-t1026), Asclepiadaceae Akanda Napal S F, L Asthma (9), snake bite (5) Flower extracts are used in asthma. A decoction of leaves is used to treat snake bite. 14 2 12345678910▲1112131415▲16171819202122▲23242526272829303132333435♣3637383940414243
Canna indica L. (bot-t1018), Cannaceae Kataboti Bawnkawr H Rz Anthelmintic (10), asthma (12) Two teaspoonfuls of the rhizome extract are taken once daily for 5 days early in the morning before meals, as an anthelmintic and to treat asthma. 22 2 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Carica papaya L. (bot-t1045), Caricaceae Pepe Colra H Fr Digestive and dysentery (11) Ripe fruits are eaten directly as a digestive. Boiled green fruits are taken with leaves of Centella asiatica to treat dysentery. 11 2 1▲234♣5♣67▲89♣101112131415161718121920212223242526▲2728293031323334353637383940414243
Cassia fistula L. (bot-t1065), Caesalpiniaceae Sonalu Enkhang T Fr Jaundice (8), dysentery (12) An extract of the fruit is taken at a dose of one cupful three times daily to treat jaundiced patients. The bark juice is used for the treatment of dysentery in cattle. 20 2 1234▲5▲67♣8▲910♣111213141516♣1718♣19▲20♣21222324▲25262728♣29▲30313233▲3435♣363738▲394041▲42♣43
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (bot-t1053), Apiaceae, least concern Thunkuni Changchi khiat H WP Conjunctivitis (4), dysentery (10), impotence (4), asthma (4) 2–3 drops of plant juice are dropped twice daily into the eyes to treat conjunctivitis. The whole plant is eaten (as much as possible) as a vegetable to treat dysentery and impotence. A decoction of the whole plant, along with honey, is taken to treat asthma. 22 4 1♣2▲34♣5♣6♣7♣8♣9▲10♣11▲12♣1314♣15▲1617♣181920♣2122♣23242526♣27▲28♣293031♣32▲33▲343536♣37▲383940♣4142▲43♣
Cheilocostus speciosus (J.Koenig) C.D.Specht (bot-t1048), Costaceae Keu Terpimungkhorol H L, St Earache (8) The juice of leaves and stems is taken at a dose of one teaspoonful three times daily for 3 days to treat ear pain. 8 1 123▲45678910▲111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham.) T.Nees & Eberm. (bot-t1095), Lauraceae Tejpata Matuinana T L Cough and cold (12) A leaf decoction is taken orally to treat coughs and colds. 12 2 12345▲6▲789▲10111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Cissus repens Lam. (bot-t1046), Vitaceae Marmaria pata Puipal C R Dog bites (12) A paste of the root is applied to dog bites. 12 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Citrus aurantifolia (Christm). Swingle (bot-t1059), Rutaceae Lebu Charmum S Fr, L Headache (9), Malaria (3) The fruit juice is taken to treat malaria. The leaf paste is rubbed to the forehead in patients with headache. 14 2 1234▲567891011121314151617181920▲212223242526▲2728293031323334353637383940414243
Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. (bot-t1090), Rutaceae Jambura Sherthur T Fr Fever (17), cough (5) For treatment of fever and cough, fruits are directly eaten with a trace amount of salt and red chili. 22 2 1234▲567891011111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. (bot-t1024), Verbenaceae Bhat Kuidim S L Anthelmintic (8), cough (7), dysentery (7) A leaf extract is taken as an anthelmintic; the leaf juice is taken at a dose of two teaspoons three times daily for 7 days to treat cough and dysentery. 22 3 1234♣5♣6▲7▲89101112♣1314▲15▲1617▲1819▲2021▲22♣23242526▲2728♣2930313233343536▲3738394041♣42♣43▲
Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze (bot-t1096), Lamiaceae Bamunhatti Senkuidem S L Cough and asthma (13) A decoction prepared from the leaves is given to treat cough and asthma. 13 2 123♣4♣56▲78910▲111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt (bot-t1070), Cucurbitaceae Telakucha Thiback C L Joint pain (33) Baked leaves are applied in joint pain. 33 1 1234▲567▲891011121314♣15▲16171819▲20▲2122232425▲26▲2728▲2930313233343536373839404142▲43
Cocos nucifera L. (bot-t1037), Arecaceae Narkel Lukluk H Fr Carminative (8), digestive (6), fever (2) Green coconut water is taken as a carminative and digestive, and is also taken during fever. 16 3 1234♣5▲67▲891011▲121314▲15▲16171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Commelina diffusa Burm.f. (bot-t1029), Commelinaceae, least concern Monayna Kanshira Dongjal H St Boil in the ear canal (4) An extract prepared from tender stems is applied to the ear for the treatment of boils. 4 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Coriandrum sativum L. (bot-t1071), Apiaceae Dhaniya Changroi H Fr Stomachache (32) Dry fruits are eaten with betel leaf to obtain relief from stomachache. 32 1 1▲234567♣8910▲11▲121314▲1516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.) S. Moore (bot-t1090), Asteraceae Duubbecrepi Baiunkasa H WP Stomach pain (33) The plant extract is taken as a remedy for stomach pain. 33 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Crateva unilocularisBuch.-Ham (bot-t10115), Capparaceae Ekkosha barun Ushsak T L Urinary disorders (4), high blood pressure (2) An extract of the leaves is taken three times a day for a week for the treatment of urinary problems and high blood pressure. 6 2 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031♣323334353637383940414243.
Crotalaria pallida Aiton (bot-t1060), Fabaceae Jhanjuni Rockac pabel H R Indigestion (13) A root extract is taken at a dose of one cupful daily for 15 days to treat indigestion. 13 1 1234567891011▲121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041▲4243
Cucurbita maxima Duchesne (bot-t1034), Cucurbitaceae Mistikumra Mypore Herb L, F, Fr, Sd Burns and boils (22) The fruit pulp is useful in burns and boils. The young leaves, flowers and fruits are cooked as vegetables. Fried seeds are eaten. Fruits are boiled to make smashed (bharta). The fruit skin is also cooked as a vegetable. 22 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425♣262728293031323334353637383940414243
Curcuma caesia Roxb. (bot-t1092), Zingiberaceae Kalahalood Aailiedum H Rz Fever (5), Tumor (1), snake bite (1) A rhizome decoction is used orally, at a dose of one teaspoonful twice daily with cow’s milk to treat fever. A paste of the rhizome is used to treat tumor and snake bite. 7 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Curcuma longa L. (bot-t1050), Zingiberaceae Halud Chang H Rz, F Eczema (11), dysentery (12), coughs, cold and fever (19), laxative (3) The rhizome is cooked and taken to treat dysentery. Flowers are used as additives in curries. A paste of the rhizome is used for the treatment of eczema; juice of the rhizome is taken (one teaspoon three times a day for 7 days) to cure cough, colds and fever and is also taken as a laxative. 45 6 1234♣5▲67♣8♣9▲10▲111213▲1415♣1617181920▲212223242526▲27282930313233▲3435363738▲3940▲4142♣43▲
Curcuma zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe (bot-t1091), Zingiberaceae Sothi Aaiangpor H Rz, F Diarrhea (8), coughs (2) A decoction of the rhizome is given in diarrhea. Flowers are directly eaten with rice to treat coughs. 10 2 12345678910▲111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Cyperus rotundus L. (bot-t1089), Cyperaceae, least concern Mutha Belring H WP Diarrhea and dysentery (20) A decoction prepared from the whole plant mixed with rice-washed water is taken at a dose of one cupful three times daily until cure, in cases of diarrhea and dysentery. 20 2 1▲234♣567▲8910▲1112131415161718192021222324252627282930▲31323334▲3536▲373839404142▲43
Derris indica (Lamk.) Bennet. (bot-t1031), Fabaceae Pitagola Thainongpai T Sd Bronchitis (4), whooping cough (8), anthelmintic (11) The powdered seed is applied in bronchitis and whooping cough. The seed oil is taken as an anthelmintic. 23 3 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Dioscorea bulbifera L. (bot-t1019), Dioscoreaceae Metealu Ram bara C Tb Anthelmintic (21) Boiled tubers are taken as an anthelmintic. 21 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031♣3233343536▲3738394041▲4243
Dioscorea hispida Dennst. (bot-t1047), Dioscoreaceae Loma alu Chaiaibu C L Dog bites (9), fever (14) A paste prepared from the leaves is used to treat dog bites and fever. 23 1 1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829▲3031323334353637383940414243
Drimia indica (Roxb.) Jessop (bot-t10107), Asparagaceae Ban piaj Sommulung H Bb Cough (5), asthma (9) A decoction of the bulb is taken at a dose of about 100 ml per day for 10 days in asthma. A paste of the bulb is taken with honey to treat cough. 14 2 1234♣5678910▲111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume (bot-t1088), Elaeocarpaceae Jalpai Anuran T Fr,Sd Skin disease (4), rheumatism (3), cough (6) dysentery and diarrhea (10) The fruit is taken to treat dysentery and diarrhea. The seed oil is used to lessen inflammation due to rheumatism. The seed oil is also used to treat various skin diseases. In addition, the warm seed oil is used to massage the chest of children to treat cough. 23 5 1234♣5678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Entada rheedii Spreng. (bot-t1072), Mimosaceae Gilla Pai H R, Sd Joint pain (9), diarrhea (13) A seed paste is used to treat joint pain. A root extract is taken at a dose of two spoonfuls three times daily for 10 days to cure diarrhea. 22 2 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Erigeron sublyratus Roxb. ex DC (bot-t1098), Asteraceae Binajeron unknown H L Abdominal pain (1), diarrhea, (2), cancer (2) A decoction of leaves is taken, at a dose of about 30 ml twice daily for 3 days, for abdominal pain and cancer. Juice of the leaves is taken to treat diarrhea. 5 3 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Ficus hispida L.f. (bot-t1066), Moraceae Dumur Themaset T Fr Jaundice (8), fever (8), tumor (7) Fruits are cooked with other (unknown) ingredients and consumed as vegetables, taking as much as possible for 1 month to treat jaundice and fever. A paste of the fruits is smeared to treat tumors. 23 1 12345678910▲11121314151617181920▲21222324252627▲282930313233343536▲3738▲394041▲4243
Ficus religiosa L. (bot-t1085), Moraceae Pan bat Robang T L Skin disease (14) Leaves are used to treat skin diseases. 14 1 1234567891011121314151617181920212223♣24252627282930313233♣343536▲37♣383940414243
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (bot-t1036), Apiaceae Mouri Deinak H Sd Carminative (19) A paste prepared from the seeds is taken as a carminative. 19 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Gardenia coronaria Buch.-Ham. (bot-t1076), Rubiaceae Bankamal Molaihang T L Rheumatic pain (7) An extract of the leaves is used for the treatment of rheumatic pain. 07 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. (bot-t1086), Molluginaceae Gima Bacchain H L Skin disease (17) Leaf juice is taken at a dose of two teaspoonfuls twice daily for 7 days to treat skin diseases. 17 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Gomphrena globosa L. (bot-t1099), Amaranthaceae Botamphul Meilingper H Rz Diarrhea (19) A decoction of the rhizome is used to treat diarrhea. 19 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Grewia nervosa (Lour.) Panigrahi (bot-t1062), Malvaceae Assorgular Hasalcong S L Jaundice (23) A decoction of the leaves is mixed with other (unknown) substances and honey, and is taken at a dose of one cupful daily to treat jaundice. 23 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Helianthus annuus L. (bot-t1068), Asteraceae Surjamuki Namheiper H L, Sd Malaria (9), coughs and colds (24) An extract of leaves is taken at a dose of one teaspoonful three times daily after meals for 2 months to treat malaria. A paste of the seeds is used to treat coughs and colds. 33 3 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (bot-t1073), Malvaceae Jaba Sendopui T F Piles (15), leucorrhoea (7) A paste of the flowers is used in piles. A decoction of the flowers is taken at a dose of one cupful twice daily until cure of leucorrhoea is observed. 22 2 123▲45▲67▲8♣910▲111213141516171819▲20▲2122232425262▲7282930313233♣34353637383940▲4142▲43
Hygrophila difformis (l.f.) Blume (bot-t10117), Acanthaceae, least concern Filamish Unknown H WP To increase sexual desire (4) A decoction of the plant is taken to increase sexual desire. 4 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. (bot-t1093), Lamiaceae Tokma Biparthu H Sd, L Tumor (6), constipation (9) A soft drink prepared from the seeds is taken, consuming as much as possible to treat constipation. The leaf juice is taken at a dose of two teaspoonfuls daily for 10 days for the treatment of tumors. 15 2 12345▲6▲789▲10▲11▲1213▲141516▲17181920▲21222324▲2526▲2728293031323334353637383940414243
Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeusch. (bot-t10100), Poaceae Ulu Lieloang H R Fever and cough (6) A decoction of the root with honey is taken at a dose of one teaspoonful twice daily for 3 days, to cure fevers and cough. 6 2 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. (bot-t1082), Convolvulaceae Bhuikumra Ratrui H Tb Sexual disabilities (18) Tubers are used for the treatment of sexual disabilities. 18 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Jasminum sambac (L.) Aiton (bot-t1087), Oleaceae Beli Thenerper S F Skin disease (20), asthma (14) A paste prepared from the flowers is applied in skin disease. A decoction of flowers with mustard oil is taken in asthma. 34 2 123456♣789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142▲43
Jasminum scandens (Retz.) Vahl (bot-t1038) Ban jui Chilokong S L Conjunctivitis (12) Two to three drops of the leaf extract are dropped into the eyes for the treatment of conjunctivitis. 12 1 1234567891011▲1213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Justicia adhatoda L. (bot-t1028), Acanthaceae Basak Tumpang S L Bronchitis (6), high blood pressure (10) The leaf extract is taken at a dose of three teaspoonfuls once daily for 5 days, to treat bronchitis and high blood pressure. 16 2 123▲4♣5▲6▲7▲8910▲11♣1213141516▲17▲1819▲20▲21222324▲2526▲27282930313233♣34▲35363738394041▲42▲43▲
Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet (bot-t1051), Fabaceae Shim Barui C L Eczema (19), ringworm (14) A paste of the leaves is applied to the affected areas of eczematous skin. The same formulation along with honey is also applied to ringworm. 33 2 1234♣5678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Lasia spinosa (L.) Thwaites (bot-t1074), Araceae, least concern Kantakachu Manitri H L Piles (19), bone fractures (4) An extract of the leaves is taken at a dose of one cupful daily for 15 days to treat piles. A paste of the leaves is used to treat fractures of bone. 23 2 123♣45678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Mikania micrantha Kunth (bot-t1041), Asteraceae Toopainna lata Belnum H L Cuts and wounds (5), dysentery (5), gastric ulcers (4), dyspepsia (3), hemorrhage (1) The leaves are used in dysentery and gastric ulcers. A decoction of the leaves is considered useful in dyspepsia. Crushed fresh leaves are applied to cuts and wounds to stop hemorrhages. 18 6 123456▲7891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738♣3940♣414243
Mimosa pudica L. (bot-t1075), Mimosaceae, least concern Lajjabati Beljak U S R Piles (8), dysentery (4) An extract prepared from the root is taken twice a day for 1 month to treat piles and dysentery. 12 2 1♣2▲34▲5▲6▲7▲89♣10▲1112131415▲1617▲1819▲20♣21▲ 22♣23242526▲27282930▲313233♣3435363738▲39♣40♣414243♣
Miscanthus fuscus (Roxb.) Benth (bot-t10118), Poaceae Fusca Champuither H R Cancer (4), cough (7) A decoction of the root, along with unknown ingredients, is taken at a dose of one cupful twice daily to treat cancer. An extract of the root is directly taken to treat cough. 11 2 123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142▲43
Momordica charantia L. (bot-t1022), Cucurbitaceae Kakrol Vurluk H Fr Anthelmintic (7), dysentery (10), fever (6), jaundice (6), pneumonia (3) The fruit is taken as a curry, which is useful in dysentery, fever and jaundice. The leaves are used as an anthelmintic. The young leaves are eaten as leafy vegetables to treat jaundice and pneumonia. 32 5 12♣3▲4567▲89101112131415▲1617181920▲2122232425♣26272829303132333435363738♣39404142♣43▲
Nicotiana tabacum L. (bot-t1091), Solanaceae Tamak Bilao H L Toothache (14), stimulant (20) A powder prepared from the dry leaves is applied to the affected area as a remedy for toothache and also used as stimulant. 34 1 12345678910▲1112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233▲34353637383940414243
Ocimum basilicum L. (bot-t1043), Lamiaceae Babui Tulsi Voiperfu H L Bronchitis (5), diarrhea and dysentery (18) The leaves are used in curries as an additive for aroma. This species is planted in home gardens for its pleasant smell and also as an ornamental. The leaves are used for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and bronchitis. 22 3 1♣23▲45678910111213141516▲1718▲1920▲21▲22232425262728▲2930313233tpins3435363738394041▲4243
Ocimum sanctum L. (bot-t1039), Lamiaceae Tulsi Voiperfu H L Cough and colds (15) A paste prepared from the leaves is used to treat coughs and colds. 15 2 12345678♣9♣101112131415♣1617♣181920♣2122♣2324252627♣282930313233343536373839404142▲43▲
Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso (bot-t1020), Convolvulaceae Dudh kalmi Kainem C R Anthelmintic (10) The root extract is taken as an anthelmintic. 10 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Oryza sativa L. (bot-t1067), Poaceae Dhan Chang H Sd Malaria (11), abdominal pain (12) A beer prepared from rice is taken to prevent malaria. In addition, the aqueous liquor from steeping rice in water overnight is taken to treat abdominal pain. 23 2 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers (bot-t1093), Hydrocharitaceae, least concern Panicola Unknown H WP Eye disease (7), tuberculosis (5), tumor (6) Whole plants are wrapped in banana leaves and heated for 10  min. An extract of the prepared plant is poured (2–3 drops) into the eyes, to treat eye disease. A decoction of the whole plant is taken (as much as possible) to treat tuberculosis. A paste of the plant, along with leaves of Paederia foetida, is smeared on tumors. 18 3 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Phyllanthus emblica L. (bot-t1054), Euphorbiaceae Amloki Choalu T Fr Gastritis (5), high blood pressure (4) Fruits are eaten to treat gastritis and high blood pressure. 9 2 12▲34♣56♣7♣8▲9101112♣131415♣16▲17♣1819▲20♣21222324▲2526▲27282930313233343536▲37♣3839404142▲43
Piper betel L. (bot-t1061), Piperaceae Pan Panthongna C L Indigestion (2), colic (1), diarrhea (2), headache (2), masticatory substance (1), stimulant (1) Leaves are used for the treatment of indigestion, colic, diarrhea and headache. Leaves are also used as a masticatory substance and stimulant. 9 6 1234567▲89▲1011▲12131415161718192021222324252627▲28293031323334353637383940414243
Portulaca oleracea L. (bot-t1092), Portulacaceae Nune Bakchen H Sd Toothache (8), asthma (12) The fried seed paste is used for toothache and asthma. 20 2 1▲2345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334♣353637383940414243
Psidium guajava L. (bot-t1042), Myrtaceae Peyara Kainem T B, Fr Diarrhea and dysentery (22) Green and ripe fruits are eaten to cure diarrhea. A decoction of the bark is used in dysentery. 22 2 1♣2345♣67♣8♣910♣11▲12♣131415♣16171819202122♣23242526▲27282930313233▲343536373839404142♣43
Saraca asoca (Roxb.) Willd. (bot-t10102), Fabaceae, vulnerable Asok Licung T B Diarrhea (6), leucorrhoea (4) A decoction prepared from the bark, along with leaves of Centella asiatica, is taken orally at a dose of one cupful twice daily for 7 days to treat leucorrhoea. Juice of the bark is taken in diarrhea. 10 2 1234567▲89▲1011121314151617181920▲21222324252627282930313233♣34353637383940414243
Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (bot-t1078), Caesalpiniaceae Dadmordan Pailang S L Ringworm and eczema (16) The leaf juice is taken to treat ringworm, while young leaves are used to treat eczema. 16 2 123456♣7♣8♣910♣11♣12♣131415♣16♣1718♣19♣20♣2122♣232425262728293031323334353637♣383940♣41♣42♣43
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (bot-t1063), Caesalpiniaceae Baro Kalkasunda Kalbeia U S L Jaundice (10), malaria (16) The juice of the leaves is taken once daily for 3 days, along with beet salt, to treat jaundice and malaria. 26 2 1234▲56789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930▲313233▲34353637383940414243
Sesbania sesban (L.)Merr. (bot-t1021), Fabaceae Dhaincha Sendopui T L Anthelmintic (6), colds (5) The juice of the fresh leaves is used as an anthelmintic and to treat colds. 11 2 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Smilax ovalifolia Roxb.ex D.Don (bot-t1094), Smilacaceae Kumarilata Voishisong C St, L Ulcer (11) An extract of leaves and stems is mixed with black pepper and taken three times daily to treat ulcers. 11 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Solanum torvum Sw. (bot-t1056), Solanaceae Titbagun Anchangti S Fr Gastritis (16), fever (5) Unripe fruits are cooked as vegetables and are taken for the treatment of gastritis and fever. 21 2 1234567♣8♣910♣111213141516171819202122♣23242526▲27282930313233343536▲37▲383940♣414243
Spilanthes acmella (L.) L. (bot-t1081), Asteraceae Marhatitiga Ankasa H WP Scabies (10), colic (7) A paste prepared from the whole plant is used to treat scabies and colic. 17 1 123456▲78910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Spondias pinnata (L.f.) Kurz (bot-t1077), Anacardiaceae Amra Thaipial T Fr Rheumatism (10), sore throat (5) Fruits are eaten. The unripe fruit is useful for rheumatism and sore throat. 15 2 123456▲789▲101112131415161718192021222324▲252627282930313233343536▲373839404142▲43
Sterculia villosa Roxb. (bot-t1095), Malvaceae Udal Guiza T L Urinary problems (22) Leaf juice is taken early in the morning for relief of urinary problems. 22 1 123▲4567891011▲1213141516▲17▲1819202122▲23242526272829303132333435363738▲394041▲4243
Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (bot-t1023), Myrtaceae Jam Inmui T B, Fr Anthelmintic (10), blood dysentery (12) Bark is used as an anthelmintic and for blood dysentery. Ripe fruits are eaten as an anthelmintic. 22 2 12♣345♣6789▲101112♣13141516171819▲202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Syzygium fruticosum DC. (bot-t10103), Myrtaceae   Inmui T L Blood dysentery (13) A paste of the leaves is given at a dose of one teaspoonful three times daily to treat blood dysentery. 13 1 1234♣567891011121314151617181920♣2122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Tagetes erecta L. (bot-t1040), Asteraceae Genda Darken H L Haemostatic (9) The leaf paste is applied to fresh cuts to stop bleeding. 9 1 123▲4♣567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738♣3940414243
Tamarindus indica L. (bot-t10105), Fabaceae Tatul Thenthela kung T Fr Cough (7), dysentery and diarrhea (27) A fruit decoction is used orally to treat diarrhea, dysentery and cough. 34 3 12▲34▲5▲67▲89▲101112♣1314▲15▲1617181920▲2122♣2324252627282930▲3132333435363738♣3940414243
Tectona grandis L.f. (bot-t1030), Lamiaceae Segun Sagunkung T St, B Eczema (10), ringworm (14), diarrhea (10) An oily product from stem chips is used in eczema and ringworm. The bark is considered useful in ringworm and diarrhea. 34 3 1234567▲8910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. (bot-t1064), Fabaceae Bannil Bairi H L, Sd Jaundice (11), scabies (3), eczema (10), skin diseases (8), tuberculosis (2), The leaves are used in the treatment of jaundice and tuberculosis. The seed oil is used to treat scabies, eczema and other skin diseases. 34 5 12345678910111213141516171819202122♣232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Terminalia chebula Retz. (bot-t1057), Combretaceae Haritaki Sikabu T Fr Gastritis (5), pain during menstruation (2), asthma (3), bronchitis (2) Ripened green fruits are taken for the treatment of gastritis. A decoction of fruits with honey is taken at a dose of one teaspoonful three times daily in asthma and bronchitis. A paste of the fruit is smeared around the vaginal area to give relief from pain during menstruation. 12 4 12▲34♣5▲6▲7▲8▲910111213♣14▲15▲1617181920▲2122▲23▲24▲2526▲27282930313233▲34353637♣38▲3940▲4142♣43
Trevesia palmata (Roxb.ex Lindl.) Vis. (bot-t1089), Araliaceae Argoja Munia vanghem T R, Fr Snakebite (15) A paste prepared from the root and fruits is applied to snakebite. 15 1 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637▲3839▲40▲414243
Urena lobata L. (bot-t10106), Malvaceae Jangli ghagra Coptrit S F Cough (20), fever (12) Juice of the flowers, with mustard oil, is taken to treat cough and fever. 32 2 12345678910▲111213141516171819▲202122▲232425262728293031▲32▲3334353637▲38▲394041♣4243▲
Urginea indica Kunth (bot-t1027), Liliaceae Ban piaj Sommulung H Bb Asthma (6), dysentery (15) The bulb extract is used for the treatment of asthma and dysentery. 21 2 12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243
Zingiber officinale Roscoe (bot-t1014), Zingiberaceae Ada Aaithing H Rz, L Food additive (1), stimulant (1), abdominal problems (1), laxative (1), dyspepsia (1), dysentery and vomiting (3), coughs, bronchitis, asthma and tuberculosis (5) The rhizome is used as a spice, while leaves are used as an additive, stimulant, for abdominal problems and as a laxative. An infusion of the rhizome is used in dyspepsia, cough, bronchitis, asthma, dysentery, vomiting and tuberculosis. 13 11 1234♣5♣6♣789♣10♣1112♣1314▲15♣1617181920♣2122♣232425262728293031323334353637♣3839404142♣43
  1. Legend: C climber, H herb, S shrub, T tree, US under shrub, B bark, Fr fruit, Bb bulb, F flower, L leaves, Sd seed, St stem, Rz rhizome, R root, Tb tuber, WP whole plant, FI frequency of informants, FC frequency of citation, UR use report
  2. similar use, dissimilar use, use not reported
  3. 1 = [27]; 2 = [44]; 3 = [10]; 4 = [36]; 5 = [8]; 6 = [35]; 7 = [34]; 8 = [3];9 = [42]; 10 = [7]; 11 = [9]; 12 = [8]; 13 [49]; 14 = [50]; 15 = [51]; 16 = [39]; 17 = [40]; 18 = [52]; 19 = [11]; 20 = [12]; 21 = [53]; 22 = [13]; 23 = [15]; 24 = [54]; 25 = [47]; 26 = [55]; 27 = [56]; 28 = [57]; 29 = [58]; 30 = [59]; 31 = [41]; 32 = [43]; 33 = [45]; 34 = [60]; 35 = [61]; 36 = [62]; 37 = [63]; 38 = [64]; 39 = [65]; 40 = [66]; 41 = [67]; 42 = [68]; 43 = [69]