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Table 6 Comparative ethnobotanical uses of selected species among the Pangkhua and wider Bangladesh

From: Qualitative and quantitative ethnobotanical study of the Pangkhua community in Bilaichari Upazilla, Rangamati District, Bangladesh

Scientific name Documented secondary metabolites in phytochemical studies Ethnomedicinal application(s) among the Pangkhuaa Previous ethnomedicinal report in Bangladesh
Acorus calamus β-asarone [70] Anthelmintic, gastritis Asthma [39, 52]; menstrual problem and bowel pain [13]; asthma and wounds [55]; eczema [35]; gastritis, vomiting and splenomegaly [34]; hair problem [10]; cough [71]; constipation, edema, and indigestion [72]; indigestion [7]
Aegle marmelos Taxol [73]; 2-isopropenyl-4-methyl-1-oxa-cyclopenta[b]anthracene-5,10-dione and (+)-4-(2′-hydroxy-3′-methylbut-3′-enyloxy)-8H-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-h]chromen-8-one, imperatorin, β-sitosterol, plumbagin, 1-methyl-2-(3′-methyl-but-2′-enyloxy)-anthraquinone, β-sitosterol glucoside, stigmasterol, vanillin and salicin [74]; anhydromarmeline (1), aegelinosides A and B [75] Digestive, asthma Constipation, peptic ulcer and respiratory disorder [8]; dysentery and indigestion [13]; dysentery and diarrhea [9]; sedative [11]; abscess, fever, dysentery and indigestion [51]; dysentery [12]; itches [50]; insomnia [35]; vomiting [34]; stomachache and blood dysentery [71]; diarrhea, dysentery, constipation, peptic ulcer and respiratory disorder [72]; digestive, dysentery and diarrhea [7]
Aloe vera Dihydrocoumarin derivatives, compounds 1 and 2 [76]; p –coumaric acid, ascorbic acid, pyrocatechol and cinnamic acid [77]; Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate [78] Burns Piles, menstrual disease and sex problems [51]; skin disease [34]; burn and skin disease [10, 78]
Areca catechu Fernenol (fern-9(11)-en-3α-ol), arundoin (fern-9(11)-en-3α-ol ME), stigmasterol and β-sitosterol [79]; NPF-86IA, NPF-86IB, NPF-86IIA, and NPF-86IIB [80] Carminative Diarrhea [34]; [71]
Azadirachta indica Limonoids 3-deacetyl-3-cinnamoylazadirachtin, 1-tigloyl-3-acetyl-11-methoxyazadirachtinin, azadirachtin, 22,23-dihydro-23β-methoxyazadirachtin and 3-tigloylazadirachtol [81] Scabies, malaria Diabetes [44]; allergy, eczema, skin disease and diabetes [8]; scabies and itches [53]; diabetes [39]; cold and cough [13]; eczema [9]; worm, chicken pox, eczema, itches and helminthiasis [51]; allergy [40]; blood poisoning, itches and eczema [49]; Itches and ringworm [82]; toothache, skin disease and insecticide [12]; itches [55]; itches [50]; chicken pox and measles [35]; chicken pox, high blood pressure, gastritis, flatulence, jaundice, vomiting and malaria [34]; skin disease [10]; pain, wound healing, small pox, eczema, skin disease, fever and cough [72]; insecticide, diabetes, fever, skin diseases, piles and malaria [7]
Calotropis gigantea Lupeol [83]; isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucopyranoside and taraxasteryl acetate, isorhamnetin-3-O-[2-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-6-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside [84] Rheumatic pain Rheumatism [13]; Elephantiasis, emollient, pain, boils and abscess [54]; rheumatism [12]; wounds, paralysis and erectile dysfunction [55]; pain [50]; pain [35]; gout, toothache, rheumatic pain and catarrh [34]; rheumatism [71]; constipation, fever and stomach disorder [72]; cough, asthma and rheumatism [7]
Calotropis procera 5-Hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone-4′-O-β-glucopyranoside, 2β,19-epoxy-3β,14β-dihydroxy-19-methoxy-5α-card-20(22)-enolide and β-anhydroepidigitoxigenin-3β-O-glucopyranoside, along with two known compounds, uzarigenine and β-anhydroepidigitoxigenin [85]; calotroprocerol A, calotroproceryl acetate A, calotroprocerone A and calotroproceryl acetate B [86] Asthma, snake bite Rheumatism [13]; piles [51]; diabetes [7]
Cassia fistula Catechin [87]; 1, 8- dihydroxyanthraquinone-3-carboxylic acid [88] Jaundice, dysentery Helminthiasis, cough and nervous weakness [8]; constipation [39]; skin disease and jaundice [13]; fever [11]; coughs, helminthiasis, diabetes, irregular urination, edema, and constipation [54]; tonsillitis, constipation and rheumatic pain [89]; constipation [52]; constipation [12]; diarrhea, dysentery and piles [34]; diarrhea [71]; dysentery and constipation [7]
Centella asiatica Asiaticoside G, five triterpenoids, asiaticoside, asiaticoside F, asiatic acid, quadranoside IV, and 2α,3β,6β-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl] ester, and four flavonoids, kaempferol, quercetin, astragalin, and isoquercetin [90] Conjunctivitis, dysentery, impotence, asthma Diabetes [44]; dysentery, wounds, burns, and skin lesion [8]; dysentery [13]; syphilis and ulcer [9]; dysentery, eczema and headache [51]; dysentery [40]; dysentery and diarrhea [89]; stomach pain and flatulency [82]; spermatorrhea [56]; dysentery and fever [12]; dysentery and intestinal dysfunction [55]; dysentery [50]; vomiting, dysentery, diarrhea and dehydration [35]; fever, pyorrhea, impotence, gastritis and jaundice [34]; pain and dysentery [71]; hypertension, wounds, burns and skin lesion [72]; fever, loss of smell and taste, carbuncles and dysentery [7]; conjunctivitis [91]
Curcuma longa Curcuminoids [92] (Revathy 2011), curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, ar-turmerone and curlone [93] Eczema, dysentery, coughs, cold, fever, laxative Diarrhea and flatulence [8]; joint pain and blood purifier [13] blood disease [9]; abscess and eczema [51]; bone fracture and helminthiasis [57]; pain [49]; itches and ringworm [82]; skin disease [12]; bone fracture and sex stimulant [55]; cough and eczema [34, 71]; diarrhea and flatulence [72]; scabies, malaria, chicken pox and blood purifier [7]; dysentery [94]
Justicia adhatoda Vasicoline, vasicolinone, vasicinone, vasicine, adhatodine, and anisotine [95] Bronchitis, high blood pressure Intestinal disorder, pneumonia, cough, scabies and skin disease [8]; coughs [39]; cough, cold, asthma and chest pain [9]; helminthiasis, diarrhea and constipation [11]; malaria, cough and cold [54]; cold and cough [40]; cough [49]; skin infections [82]; cough [12, 34, 50, 55, 71]; skin cancer, cough and pain [35]; cough and fever [10]; cough, pneumonia and asthma [72]; asthma and cough [7]; bronchitis [96]
Ocimum sanctum [16-Hydroxy-4,4,10,13-tetramethyl17-(4-methyl-pentyl)-hexadecahydro-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one [97] Cough and colds Diabetes [44]; fever, cold and cough [13]; cough and cold [54]; cough and fever [51]; cold and cough [40]; rheumatic pain [56]; cough and pneumonia [12]
Phyllanthus emblica Gallic acid, methyl gallate, corilagin, furosin, and geraniin [98] Gastritis, high blood pressure Diabetes [44]; allergy and gastritis [8]; anemia [39]; dysentery, anemia and pain [13]; insomnia [9]; aphrodisiac, energizer and fever [54]; burning sensation, vomiting, cough, indigestion and jaundice [51]; fever and malaria [40]; bleeding from gums, loss of appetite and headache [82]; paralysis [56]; stimulant [15]; diuretic, tonic, laxative and gastritis [12]; intestinal dysfunction and blood purifier [55]; abdominal gas and fever [35]; urinary tract infection and hysteria [71]; edema, constipation and gonorrhea [72]
Saraca asoca Lyoniside, nudiposide, 5-methoxy-9-β-xylopyranosyl-(−)-isolariciresinol, icariside E3, schizandriside, (−)-epicatechin, epiafzelechin-(4β→8)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 [99] Diarrhea, leucorrhoea Irregular menstruation [12]; ulcer, piles, dyspepsia, dysentery and stomachache [72]
Senna alata Kaempferol and kaempferol 3-O-gentiobioside [100]; 3,5,7,4-tetrahydroxy flavone [101] Ringworm and eczema Skin disease and scabies [8]; skin disorder and eczema [39]; skin disease [13]; eczema [9]; ringworm and eczema [11]; ringworm, eczema, itch, scabies and skin disease [54]; eczema [7, 35, 51, 71, 82]; skin infection [52]; skin disease [12]
Solanum torvum Chlorogenone and neochlorogenone [102]; solanolide 6-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-quinovopyranoside], solanolide 6-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-quinovopyranoside], yamogenin 3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside] and neochlorogenin 3-O-[β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-d-glucopyranoside] [103] Gastritis, fever Urinary problems, sores and fever [13]; gastritis and toothache [7]
Tamarindus indica Proanthcyanidins, procyanidins [104]; furfural, palmitic acid, oleic acid and phenylacetaldehyde [105] Cough, dysentery and diarrhea Diabetes [44]; sinusitis and chronic cold [8]; urinary problem, cold and fever [13]; burning sensation and heart disease [51]; chicken pox, boils, rheumatism and laxative [12]; respiratory difficulties and bone fracture [50]; conjunctivitis, pain and excessive menstruation [34]; constipation and jaundice [72]; constipation, loss of appetite, diarrhea, chronic fever and dysentery [106]
Terminalia chebula Chebulagic acid [107]; gallic acid, punicalagin, isoterchebulin, 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose, chebulagic acid and chebulinic acid [108] Gastritis, pain during menstruation, asthma, bronchitis Diabetes [44]; constipation and vomiting [8]; purgative and cardiac disease [13]; aphrodisiac, energizer, fever and body ache [54]; constipation, indigestion, rheumatism and urinary disease [51]; fever and malaria [40]; toothache, body pain and skin diseases [49]; bleeding from gums and loss of appetite, headache [82]; stimulant [15]; constipation [12]; indigestion, vomiting, constipation and intestinal dysfunction [55]; loss of appetite [50]; sore throat and cough [35]; cough [34]; constipation, ulcer, and edema [72]; gastritis [109]; asthma, heart disease, eye disease, itches and night blindness [91]
Zingiber officinale cis- and trans-6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, 12-shogaol and syn- and anti-methyl-6-shogaol, methyl-8-shogaol, methyl-10-shogaol [110] Food additive, stimulant, abdominal problems, laxative, dyspepsia, dysentery and vomiting, coughs, bronchitis, asthma and tuberculosis Cough, stomachache and gastritis [8]; stomachache [13]; allergy [9]; fever and bronchitis [51]; abdominal pain [12]; depression and itches [50]; sore throat and cough [35]; indigestion and cough [34]; cough, stomachache, gastritis and vomiting [72]; flatulence, gastritis, carminative, abdominal pain, coughs and colds [7]; edema, asthma, chest diseases, and vomiting [111]
  1. New uses of these plants documented among the Pangkhua are highlighted in bold