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Table 2 Ethnomedicinal plant species with their uses and application procedure

From: Floristic composition and utilization of ethnomedicinal plant species in home gardens of the Eastern Himalaya

Botanical name Plant form Used for Parts used Procedure Reported cases
Abroma augusta (L.) L. f. Shrub Urine problem New buds, leaf, and root Juice of fresh leaves along with honey is given orally as expectorant. Juice of leaf is inhaled for bleeding nose (sinusitis). Dried powder of entire plant parts is given for bronchitis and cough. Night wetting, jaundice, stomach disorder [23], blood dysentery, diarrhea [83], menstrual disorder [100, 101]
Acorus calamus L. Herb Fever and stomach disorders Leaf, root Juice of root is given orally in stomach disorders, bronchitis, and fever, and its small piece is chewed to clear the throat. Joint pain, evil spirit [27], for removing animal lice [102]
Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa Tree Stomach problem Fruit Fruit and seed is used to treat stomach problem. Stomach disorder, appetizer, dysentery [27, 103]
Ageratum conyzoides (L.) L. Climber Wounds Leaf Leaf juice is given to cure bleeding from cuts and wounds. Plant paste is applied to cure muddy wounds between toes during rainy season. Cuts and wounds [27, 103]
Aloe vera (L.) Correa Herb Skin problem Leaves Leaf pulp is applied on skin burns and other problems. For burnt skin, stomach disorder, body pain, diabeties, general health issues, cold, and cough [27, 81, 103]
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. Tree Cure skin problems Bark Bark paste is smeared of the infected part of the body. Cold and cough, against stomach worms, lactation, snake bite, for ulcers, sores, and tumors [26, 27, 90, 103, 104]
Ananas comosus (L) Kurz Herb Kill stomach worms Leaf Leaf extract is used to kill worms. For stomach worms, against scurvy [24, 26, 27, 103]
Andrographis paniculata (Brum.f.) Wall. ex Nees Herb Liver Whole plant Whole plant or leaf juice extract is used to cure liver problems. Diabetes, liver problem, fever, cough and cold, stomach pain, Malaria [27, 90, 103, 104]
Asparagus racemosus Willd. Herb Diabetes and dysentery Tuber Fleshy root is dried, and its powder is consumed with water to treat diabetes and dysentery Cuts and wounds, urine disorder, swelling, diabetes, dysentery, stomach disorders, improving memory [22, 27, 100, 101, 103]
Averrhoa carambola L. Tree Jaundice and dysentery Fruit Fresh fruit is eaten to treat jaundice, and dry fruit is used to treat dysentery. Jaundice and liver problem [27, 103]
Azadirachta indica A. Juss Tree Fever and skin rashes Leaf Leaf sap is used to treat fever and acidity, and leaf is boiled with water and used as a bath water to treat skin rashes. Allergy, pneumonia, appetite, stomach disorder, skin disorder, intestinal worms, eye problems, malarial fever, blood purification [26, 27, 100, 103, 105]
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettest Herb Indigestion Whole plant Boiled tender leaf is used for indigestion.  
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken Herb Stomach stone Leaf Leaves in soaked water are used and drunk raw to treat stomach stone. Cuts and wounds, for burnt skin, for gall bladder stone, piles, stomach problems [27, 84, 103]
Carica papaya L. Tree Jaundice Fruit Ripen fruit is consumed to treat against jaundice Gastroenteritis, appetizer, digestion, cough, dysentery [23, 24, 27, 100, 101, 103]
Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Herb Diarrhea/dysentery Leaf Leaf paste juice is taken orally for diarrhea/dysentery. Jaundice, typhoid, dysentery, pain, constipation, indigestion, dog bite, appetizer [22, 27, 100, 101, 103]
Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.-Ham) T. Nees & Eberm. Tree Hypertension and diarrhea Leaf and bark Leaf and bark are consumed.  
Cinnamomum verum J.Presl Tree Gastrointestinal problems and diabetes Bark and leaves Raw small piece of bark is chewed to treat gastrointestinal problems and diabetes.  
Clerodendrum infortunatum L. Herb Stomach worm Young buds Paste of young shoot is taken orally.  
Cocus nucifera L. Tree Stomach problems and weight loss Fruit water Water present in coconut fruit is used in curing stomach problem and weight loss. Weight loss, hair vitalizer, chicken pox scar [27, 76, 103]
Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. Herb Inflammation Rhizome Fresh rhizome paste is used against inflammation.  
Curcuma longa L. Herb Antiseptic Rhizome Rhizome paste is applied as antiseptic. Rhizome and salt are taken to treat cough and cold. Cuts and wounds, stomach disorder, lactation of animals, cough and cold, fever, bone fracture, blood purifier, snake bite [22, 27, 100, 103]
Cuscuta europaea L. Climber Jaundice or liver problem Whole plant Whole plant juice is used to treat jaundice. Jaundice [27, 103]
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Herb Cut/wounds Leaf Young crush leaf paste is used to apply on cut wounds Cuts and wounds, bleeding, vomiting, indigestion, piles, asthma [22,23,24, 27, 100, 101, 103]
Datura metel L. Herb Pain reliever Leaf, flower and fruit Few dried or fresh seeds are taken as pain reliever. Cuts and wounds, diarrhea, tooth pain, asthmatic, cold and cough, anti-rabies [22, 37, 100, 101, 103]
Equisetum arvense L. Herb Bone disease Whole plant Paste of leaf and root are applied on fracture directly to reduce bone disease.  
Euphorbia hirta L. Herb Piles Whole plant Tender plant parts are crushed and consumed daily with milk to get relief against piles.  
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. Shrub Burning sensation, fatigue, skin diseases, and blood dysentery Root, flower buds Root extract is used to treat cough and fever. Flower bud is used to treat blood dysentery. Leaf paste is used to treat burning sensation, fatigue, and skin diseases. Tonsillitis, dandruff, hair loss, burning sensation, fatigue, fever [25, 27, 103]
Hygrophila schulli (Hamilt.) M.R. & S.M. Almeida Herb Anemia Leaf, tender stem Leaves and young stems are boiled and taken daily to cure anemia.  
Jatropha curcas L. Shrub Tooth ache Branch Young branch is used as tooth brush to reduce pain. Diarrhea, headache, cuts and wounds, digestion, gum problems [22, 27, 83, 84, 103]
Justicia Adhatoda L. Herb Bronchitis, cold, and cough Leaf Leaf juice is used to treat chronic bronchitis, cough, and cold. Cough and cold, paralysis, allergy, cuts and wounds, piles, leprosy and diabetes, chronic bronchitis [25, 27, 86, 103]
Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. Herb Headache, cut, and wounds Leaf Crushed leaves are placed on cuts with the extract for healing. It is applied on forehead for treating headache. Cancer, antiseptic, headache, cuts and wounds [27, 103]
Lannea coromandelica (Houtt.) Merr. Tree Piles and wounds Gum Gum is applied directly on piles and wounds.  
Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link. Herb Stomach disorder, swelling, and stop bleeding Leaf Leaf juice is used to cure stomach disorder; hand-crushed leaves are inhaled to cure headache; leaf paste is applied to stop cut bleeding. Stomach disorder, swelling, headache, body pain, cuts and wounds, tooth pain, bleeding [27, 103]
Mentha arvensis L. Herb Flatulence, diarrhea, and nausea Leaves Bruised leaves are applied to get relief from headache, and leaf extract juice is administered orally against vomiting, nausea, flatulence, and diarrhea.  
Mimosa pudica L. Herb Orchitis and depurative Leaf and bark Decotation of leaf and bark is used to control orchitis and used as depurative. Eye problem, orchitis and depurative, infertility, tooth ache [22, 27, 83, 103]
Moringa oleifera Lam. Tree Blood pressure and gastroenteritis Leaf and fruits Tender leaf juice and cooked fruits are taken to balance blood pressure. Blood pressure, gastroenteritis, cold and cough, body pain, cut and wound, leucoderma, liver disorder, urine problems [27, 100, 101, 104]
Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. Shrub Fever and diarrhea Leaf, bark, and root Leaf juice is consumed to control black fever and diarrhea. Gastroenteristis, black fever and diarrhea, diabetes mellitus [22, 27, 83, 103, 104]
Ocimum gratissimum L. Herb Fever, cough and cold, headache, nausea, diarrhea, dysentery, and skin diseases Leaves, flower Decoction of plant is given to treat fever, cough, cold, headache, nausea, diarrhea, dysentery, and skin diseases.  
Ocimum sanctum L. Herb Cold and cough Leaf Leaves are used to treat cough and cold. Cough and cold, neck pain, cancer, gastroenteritis, asthma, urinary disorder [22, 25, 27, 103]
Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz Tree Stomach pain Fruits, seed, and bark Paste of hydrated fruit or seed or bark is applied for stomach pain and chest pain and is used as appetizer and against jaundice. Jaundice, cuts and wounds, body pain, liver problems, stomach pain, chest pain, appetizer, asthma [22, 25,26,27, 84, 103, 104]
Phyllanthus emblica L. Tree Stomach problem/gastritis Fruit Dry paste or fruits are used to chew or eat orally for stomach relief. Hair loss, stomach pain, liver problem [23, 26, 27, 103]
Piper betle L. Climber Gastrointestinal problems, cold, and cough Leaves and root Fresh leaf is chewed with beetle nut to cure gastrointestinal problems, and dry root is chewed whole day to cure throat-related problems.  
Piper nigrum L. Climber Asthmatic problems, cold, cough and rheumatism Seed Seeds are boiled with sugar and salt and consumed three to four times a day to control asthmatic problems, cold, cough, and rheumatism. Cough and cold, asthma, constipation, indigestion, throat infection
Punica granatum L. Tree Increase blood Fruit Fresh fruits are eaten to increase blood. Nose bleeding, diarrhea, fever, indigestion [27, 100, 101, 103, 104]
Rauvolfia serpentine (L.) Benth. ex Kurz. Herb Fever Root Leaf juice is used as a remedy for the removal of opacities of cornea. Root paste is applied on cuts, wounds, or boils. Root infusion is given orally for intestinal disorders. Paralysis, diabetes, fever, cuts and wounds, pneumonia, jaundice, stomach worm, dysentery, reliving hypertension and blood pressure, intestinal disorder [22, 25, 27, 84, 103, 104]
Streblus asper Lour. Tree Toothache Bark, latex and root Tender stem is used as toothbrush to cure toothache.  
Terminalia arjuna Roxb. ex DC) Wight & Arn. Tree Cardiac trouble Bark Bark decoction is taken in empty stomach to treat cardiac trouble. Asthma, heart problem, diabetes, stomach disorder, appetizer, skin disease, leucoderma, indigestion, chest pain, tuberculosis, cardic trouble [22, 25, 27, 86, 103, 104]
Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. Tree Dyspepsia (indigestion) Fruit Dried fruit is used to treat dyspepsia and as cooling agent. Cough and cold, stomach disorder, indigestion, gastroenteritis, skin diseases, leucoderma, cooling agent, [13, 20, 22, 23, 27, 103]
Terminalia chebula Retz. Tree Stomach problem Fruit Fruit is used against stomach disorder. Appetizer, cough and cold, gastroenteritis, jaundice, pneumonia, liver problems, indigestion, urinary disorder, tonsillitis, fever [23, 25, 27, 100, 102, 103, 105]
Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merr. Climber Rheumatism and jaundice Bark Bark is soaked overnight in water and is consumed in the morning against rheumatism and jaundice. Stomach pain, diabetes, rheumatism and jaundice, urination, piles bleeding, appetite, diarrhea [22, 27, 100, 101, 103, 104]
Vitex negundo L. Shrub Whitening of hair Leaf Leaves prevent whitening of hair. Fever, gout, diarrhea, cardic disorder, headache, bone fracture, body swelling [22, 27, 83, 90, 103]
Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Herb Digestive, stimulant, and cold and cough Rhizome Rhizome is used as digestive stimulant.  
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Tree Vomiting Fruits and seed Fruits and seeds are consumed with salt to control vomiting.