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Table 1 Observed number of individuals, local name, species origin, and morphology of demarcation tree species along the Hijikawa River

From: Tracing chronological shifts in farmland demarcation trees in southwestern Japan: implications from species distribution patterns, folk nomenclature, and multiple usage

Species Observed number of individuals (% of total) Local name (responses/total answers) Species origin Morphology
Chaenomeles speciosa 159 (38.3) Boke* (24/29), iga boke (3/29), bara boke (1/29), boke noki (1/29) A D, T
Euonymus japonicus 136 (32.8) Boke (8/28), DN (7/28), masaki* (4/28), mayumi (3/28), F (3/28), kōshin bana (1/28), mame shiba (1/28), aoki (1/28) N E
Salix pierotii 38 (9.2) Yanagi (5/5) N D
Salix chaenomeloides 19 (4.6) Yanagi (1/2), DN (1/2) N D
Celtis sinensis 12 (2.9) Enoki* (1/1) N D
Salix koriyanagi 9 (2.2) Yanagi (2/2) A D
Deutzia crenata 8 (1.9) Boke (1/3), utsugi* (1/3), DN (1/3) N D
Morus sp. 7 (1.7) Kuwa (2/3), kuwa noki (1/3) A or N D
Camellia sinensis 6 (1.4)   A E
Gardenia jasminoides 4 (1.0) Kuchinashi* (3/4), boke (1/4) N E
Illicium anisatum 3 (0.7)   N E
Camellia japonica 2 (0.5)   N E
Mallotus japonicus 1 (0.2)   N D
Ulmus parvifolia 1 (0.2)   N D
Ginkgo biloba 1 (0.2)   A D
Ficus erecta 1 (0.2)   N D
Photinia glabra 1 (0.2)   N E
Osmanthus fragrans 1 (0.2) Kimmokusei* (1/1) A E
Pinus thunbergii 1 (0.2)   N E
Amygdalus persica 1 (0.2)   A D
Hibiscus syriacus 1 (0.2) Boke (2/2) A D
Nandina domestica 1 (0.2)   N E
Salix gracilistyla 1 (0.2)   N D
Spiraea thunbergii 1 (0.2)   A D
  1. Asterisks indicate the standard Japanese name of the plant species. DN indicates that the informant did not know the plant name. F indicates that the informant forgot the plant name
  2. A alien species, N native species, D deciduous, E evergreen, T thorny